8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY,
PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.

 

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.

 

As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.

 

In the auxiliary role, the verb to HAVE works for the framework. We mark it green. As a content verb, it can tell about ownership. We mark it mauve then, as all content verbs.

*****

Madame Règle speaks excellent American English. Her friendship with Jill Smith started over a website forum discussing philosophy and linguistics.

 

They agreed that Latin had had {TO} influence over English and French thought, although the languages belonged to diverse language groups.

 

*****

 

This is one of the reasons for some French reference in our grammar voyage. Latin has affected {TO} both English and French languages.

 

On the other hand, English and French have {ON} very dissimilar shapes. English is a Germanic language, and French belongs with the Romance language group. Some American insignia have {ON} Latin mottos.

 

We could hear or read sometimes that American English is an international language. There are no international languages really. Esperanto does not have {ON} many features of a natural language.

 

We can say that American English is a lingua franca, that is, a tongue spoken worldwide.

 

By origin of the phrase, we can associate a lingua franca with free speech. In Latin, the adjective “francus” also meant someone exempt from service, someone at liberty.

 

The Roman Empire rule over the present-day territory of France collapsed early, and ancient Romans knew the local people as Franks, READ IN WIKIPEDIA.

 

America and France have had {TO} historic ties. The French were American allies in the WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. The Statue of Liberty is a memorial to American independence and alliance with the French.

 

PICTURE: STATUE OF LIBERTY

 

There are many Statues of Liberty. The most famous statues are those in New York and Paris. A French sculptor, FRÉDÉRIC BARTHOLDI, designed the Statue.

 

Bartholdi patented it as Liberty Enlightening the World (La Liberté éclairant le monde, in French). The American statue stands on the Liberty Island, in New York Harbor.

 

PICTURE: LIBERTY ISLAND

*****

 

Madame Règle has {ON} a small book of poetry with her today. She has finished {TO} the book about Descartes. At home, she has {ON} a big volume about influences between French and English thinkers.

 

She has been reading {AT} two book series, poetry or philosophical commentary, one at a time, all this week.

 

Latimer Sauf is not surprised at her reading habit. The special edition of Larousse Gastronomique he got from her last Christmas has {ON} an elevated and celebrated place in his restaurant main hall.

 

The guests have turned {TO} many of the pages so far. He has had {TO} another copy to read at home. He has been studying {AT} it to detail. He has {ON} extra Larousse dishes on his menu.

*****

Let us focus on the grammatical time and cognitive variable.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE been reading; {AT}

 

PRESENT
He HAS been reading; {AT}

 

PAST
He HAD been reading. {AT}

 

We can compare the beginning of our language journey, the Fields of Time (CHAPTER 1).

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO HAVE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

How does the Perfect Progressive change for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE? It is the verb to have to change.

 

The verb to have changes the same as in our Fields of Time, for our cognitive variable {ON}, the Simple Aspect.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE a book; {ON}

 

PRESENT
He HAS a book; {ON}

 

PAST
He HAD a book. {ON}

 

Let us compare the cognitive variable {IN}. In the content role, the verb to have can also tell about eating. Madame Règle likes the extra Larousse dishes by Monsieur Sauf.

 

FUTURE
Tomorrow at this hour, Madame Règle
WILL BE having her extra Larousse and reading a book; {IN}

 

PRESENT
Madame Règle
IS having her extra Larousse and reading a book now; {IN}

 

PAST
When Jill walked into the restaurant yesterday, Madame Règle
WAS having her extra Larousse and reading a book.{IN}

 

Let us compare the variable {ON}. Here are our Fields of Time, again.

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

FUTURE
She WILL BE at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PRESENT
She IS at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PAST
She WAS at the restaurant. {ON}

 

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change for the grammatical time. It changes the same in our Fields of Time, the same as for our variable {ON}.

 

Let us compare all Aspects. The elements that adapt for the grammatical time are underlined.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FIRST ELEMENT

 

We can view the value {ON} as a basis for other Aspects.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM A LEARNER, I HAVE A GRAMMAR BOOK

 

We also can focus on the value {ON} and view other Aspects as syntactic expansion.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM -- I HAVE -- I HAVE BEEN LEARNING

 

Please mind that finding a basic value does not impose any particular order to use the values, especially if we come to the resolve that our {ON, IN, TO} and {AT} can be our learned cognitive variables.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us turn to American English as it is really. We do not intend to invent a new language.

This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
(NBC Today Sun as in the CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH, COCA.)

TEXT EXTENT: THIS IS A DREAM
SYMBOLICS: SYNTACTIC EXPANSE

The Simple Aspect can tell what we have {ON} our cognitive map. What we perceive does not have to take up an entire extent.

 

Even if we regard an entire cognitive extent, it does not have to imply that we are preoccupied. Another way round, we live on planet Earth, and none of us could preoccupy it.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

TEXT EXTENT: I AM LOVING IT

The Progressive Aspect, the value {IN}, can help mark a matter as different from the regular and basic {ON}.

 

To compare space, we may feel as IN an area, rather than ON a regular cognitive map, for matters we perceive as irregular or EMPHATIC.

 

The Progressive can help delineate in time, on something out of the ordinary, as a dream come true: dreams coming true are not anything regular.

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In this view, we can have the value {AT} for the most divergent from the regular, basic {ON}.
PICTURE: ASPECT SYNTACTIC EXPANSION

 

Could we have a natural feeling to return to the basic variable, after we “go away”? The following example looks spontaneous and shows our matter well.

 

{AT} I’ve been loving it. But {ON} I want to keep doing different things.
(People magazine as in COCA.)

TEXT EXTENTS: HAVE BEEN LOVING -- WANT TO DO

Some classic grammars might not agree to have verbs as “to love” or “to hate” in the Progressive at all. However, if to let anybody PRESCRIBE what language should be like, we might have to recur to MIDDLE ENGLISH.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

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American English is a live language, and live languages also change. Thinking about free speech, let us consider a cognitive difference, for the two forms:
“I hate you”,
or
“I am hating you”.

 

We can compare human perception on physical space.
TEXT EXTENT: I AM HATING YOU

“I am hating you” is {IN} an area only.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HATE YOU

“I hate you” is {ON} the entire extent.

 

Our grammar is correct when it properly renders how we feel and think.

 

To speak American freely, we should choose independently if we say that we are hating or loving something, or that we hate or love it.

 

This can be our earthling proper egoism: we have our inner grammars work for our minds, rather than adapt our minds to rules that cannot be universal, anyway.

 

The variable {ON} can be our earthling and basic variable. Who knows, maybe the ancient Latin rules, from which classic grammars derive, emerged owing to human variables, only they were not called variables then, hence the “stative use of verbs”?

 

Naturally, classicist or generativist, we do not have to be always gravely serious about everything we say.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

VARIABLES OR OPTIONS?

We may come across presentations of language as features.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FEATURES, A CHART

 

An Aspect both Perfect and Progressive would be the Perfect Progressive. An Aspect neither Perfect nor Progressive would be the Simple.

 

Some approaches might attempt a picture for language as made of options. However, our brains are live structures and have simultaneous processes.

 

When we use the Present Simple, our paths for the Perfect Progressive for example do not become “switched off”. If we use the Progressive, we do not exclude a possibility for the same thing to happen also in a manner we describe in the Simple:

“I‘m loving you”,

would not mean

“I don’t love you”.

 

Planet Earth is our natural habitat. When we people think what there is {ON} a geographical map, we do not exclude possibilities for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} places.

 

Humans are likely to learn languages {ON} a planet for an indeterminate future. Even astronauts learn {ON} Earth.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Associating language, thinking, feeling, and generally space is natural. What would feelings, thoughts, or works be — without room?

 

Finally, our variable {ON} does not correspond with an option as OFF. We do not turn our brains off, also when we go to sleep.

 

We can conclude that Aspects are not options. Options can be mutually exclusive. To take one option, we would have to exclude other choices. Variables work together, also simultaneously.

 

Feel welcome to practice.

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS
BUTTON, 8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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6.5. THE TARGET TIME AND FRAME

Berry target, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

With goals, purposes and targets, the matter is to have what we want, where we want it, and when we want it, like a bowl of berries in the picture above.

 

For language skill, we need to practice linguistic targets.

 

Exercise 37. We have our time frames for our guidance. We choose between the Simple and the Perfect, in the PAST.

 

Please put the verb in the form for the grammatical PAST and give the arrow cue along with the mapping value. In language, we can seek inspiration with words. Let it be a simple chair this time.

 

Example: His parents (surrender) his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan (suggest) playing the musical chairs, Art (throw) in three right hand gloves. One of them (belong) to Ms. Duncan.

 

If we feel we could be better off writing entire answers, we can do so without looking to others. Writing belongs with human fine motor behavior. It is important in integrating language skills.

 

Answer: His parents surrendered his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan suggested playing the musical chairs, Art threw in three right hand gloves. One of them belonged to Ms. Duncan.

 

We can only think about the logical cues and mapping values, as in MIND PRACTICE 1.2.
Answer: {ON}
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. Despite his early predilection for challenge, he (get) himself a chairborne job. His chair (have) an advantage, however. He (design) └┘ it for use by one person exactly

 

2. Originally, he never (expect) of a woman to fill a chair. He (change) his mind when he (perceive), at about 26, that the strategy almost (reduce) └┘ him to his local club armchair, for dialogue.

 

3. He (marry) Jin in summer. They (spend) their countryside honeymoon mostly bringing the chairs from the garden. His friend Jalen (persuade) him to go on a vacation, in a better weather. They (choose) Amtrak to journey. Art and Jin first (meet) in a parlor car. Face to face with their notebooks, they (realize) they were actually chatting with each other over the Unlimited (!)

 

4. He soon (begin) developing his son-in-law attitude. Eva, his mother-in-law, (love) to say nobody should let predecessors set the measure for the chair. Art (have) a reservation. His job (be) └┘ by principle like trying to keep someone on the edge of the seat with soft overboiled noodles. Jalen Seges (agree) that office routines (take) some time.

 

5. Art (know) that contending Eva’s arguments (be) suggestive of trying verbally to captivate a moving rock. Incontrovertibility (belong) with the Seges family ethos. A Yale graduate married to a Harvard grad, Ms. Seges (be) └┘ a woman of resolve, throughout her life. She (talk) table and chairs right when junior (begin) preschool. Her grandchildren would go to best schools, to fill their grandparents’ walnut bobbin chairs.

 

*****

 

Art is thinking about a new job. Routines of predetermined beginning and end are not his nature. With language work, we also can learn to negotiate: we contend the arguments and not the people, for that.

Could we look up the Amtrak Unlimited, Yale, and Harvard over the Internet? Can we comprehend words like “incontrovertibility”, if our dictionary does not have them? There are sample hints down this page.

 

Exercise 38. Please tell the time frames and map values (ON, IN, or TO), along with the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE). We have the arrow cues with every task, if we need them.

 

Example: Her father 1. (be) a nibmeister. She 2. (have) a clear taste for good quality since she 3. (be) a little girl.

CUES
PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES

 

Again, we can think about the frames and variables, minds first or only.
Answer:
(1) was, {ON} PAST;
(2) └┘ has had, {TO} PRESENT;
(3) was, {ON} PAST.

 

A. When she was in her early teens, she 4. (make) a miniature book. It 5. (be) three inches square.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 4-5

 

B. She 6. (keep) the book for her thinktionary. She still 7. (happen) to add words to it, though she 8. (make) many more such books.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 6,7,8

 

C. A young girl, she 9. (put) her miniature book in her jacket pocket and 10. (go) to sit by the river. Whenever a word 11. (come) to her mind, she 12. (write) it in with her miniature fountain pen.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 9-12

 

D. Her handwriting 13. (change) a little, since then. By and large, she 14. (adjust) her letters to the size of her notebook. One day, she 15. (engross) her future husband’s name in her thinktionary. His name 16. (remain) the only word to take a page entire, out of the alphabetical order.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 13-16

 

E. Chantelle 17. (have) a collection of pens. Her favored inkwells 18. (be) glass, silver, and pewter. Her first book 19. (tell) about a girl’s language of the heart.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 17-19

 

*****

 

Form (16) also might be “his name remains”: there are no universal rules to govern contexts, and we are free to decide on our own, dependent on our cognitive mapping.

 

Miniature books belong with arts. Their scopes may be the same as of standard volumes. They are smaller because they are miniaturized. Chantelle’s miniature book is one of the biggest sizes ― it is three inches square.

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S THINKTIONARY

 

The “thinktionary” is a coined word. We can compare it with the word “dictionary”. Everyone can have own thinktionaries. Have we met Chantelle already?

 

HINTS FROM THE KEY

 

We do not have to use Past Perfect forms whenever anything happened earlier or preceded something else. We would need millions of past tense forms to speak about Old English, thinking only about the days and years since those times.

 

Amtrak Unlimited is a forum for Amtrak passengers.

 

Harvard and Yale are two very prominent and competitive American universities.

*****

How do we interpret words as incontrovertibility?
Here is how we can interpret information about words. We do not need to memorize it.

 

Just browsing and reading dictionaries, we might get even surprised with how much we remember and “intuitively” use.

 

We can interpret incontrovertibility by the word build.

 

The American Heritage online will show the word in•con•tro•vert•ible and explain that the verb to con•tro•vert may mean “to raise arguments against; voice opposition to”.

 

We look up the parts in– and –ibility. The particle in– may negate. The particle –ibility can work with a noun and connote “an ability, inclination, or suitability”.

 

However, the particle in– may also mean “having the function of”. We can look up words such as “inbound” or “incant”. Inflammable materials or substances can be highly flammable.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

The verb “to controvert” derives from the noun controversy. The noun consists of the particles contro– and versus.

 

Contro– or contra– can connote “against, opposite, contrasting”. The particle in– does not work in the sense “into” or “within” with the particle con–.

 

The American Heritage dictionary can tell that incontrovertibility relates to the adjective incontrovertible, meaning “impossible to dispute, unquestionable”.

 

In•con•tro•vert•i•ble•ness is another, probable form.

 

We can guess that Art Veltall’s mother-in-law may be a person difficult — but not impossible — to persuade or influence. His wife Jin is some personality, too.

EMOTICON: SMILE

READ HOW TO USE THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY

 

Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS
BUTTON: CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

6.4. MORE GRAMMAR AND WORD PRACTICE

Boutique d’bonheur, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

It is natural to wish someone good luck, with tests and exams. Grammar exercises can “buy” us some luck. They do not have to be difficult, for that. Good luck (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

Exercise 34. All verbs in parentheses will have a closed time frame, and remain {ON} a PAST cognitive ground.

 

1. The kitten (spill) all the milk by the mill down the hill.

 

2. The hedgehog (hide) the apples from the bird in a good jar with a lid.

 

3. The rabbit (strew) the cashews for the jabiru and (go on) making his debut callaloo.

 

4. The gades (lay) a fair-trade plan for a decade.

 

5. The corn-fed chick (flee) the shed for some strick.

 

6. The adept turtle (keep) his hep by the skep except when the bees (sweep).

 

7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.

 

8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast.

 

9. The southern wind (heave) the sea and (sheave) the tides to incline a span unsized in eyes.

 

10. The butterfly (weave) in a cove; the dove taut (think) about a courtly lot.

*****

For spoken American English, please find the Voice of America at VOANEWS.COM. There is worthwhile, standard American English along with materials for learners. The LEARNING ENGLISH site has slow and clear readouts of news.

*****

Exercise 35. Let us try our time frames and logical cues with mapping values. Our pieces of thought are longer, more proportionate to everyday language.

 

We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles.

 

Good American English does not have to be gravely serious (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

WE CAN FIND THE LYRICS ONLINE
We also can visit the official website
THE OFFICIAL SIMON & GARFUNKEL

 

Example: Right after he (1) had fought his dependence on the game of Monopoly, he (2) fell for spinnakers completely. A born and bred Alaskan, he (3) went to cruise the Antarctic with a chute.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 35, ANSWER

 

1. He (4) sold his vintage Chevy and nearly (5) bought a Jeep, when he (6) thought that his vehicle (7) approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost (8) portended a personality change.

 

2. A newspaper article on alpha and beta males seriously (9) disappointed him. He (10) was neither.

 

3. Many years, he (11) has looked for a role model. Nobody (12) has met his expectations on both personality and body build, however, and he (13) gave up trying to have body and mind for separate, on Earth.

 

4. He (14) has pursued some philosophy. At the present, he (15) is pessimistic on a resolve between existence and matter. He (16) thinks he (17) will resort to stoicism.

 

5. His friend (18) says he (19) needs some sense of humor, if he (20) wants to put up with a woman in his life. The woman always (21) is another Self.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Could this be Jim?

 

Exercise 36. We are staying with the Simple pattern {ON} a PAST time extent. We try some syntax for the Negative, too.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 36 TASK ILLUSTRATION

 

Example: Consciously pragmatic, Jill (decide) that tidying on her own (be) N too traditionalist. At least she (remember) where her things usually (be) before she (put) them somewhere completely else.

 

Answer: decided, was not (N, the Negative), remembered, were, put

 

In the beginning, we may care to write up entire answers. Our human memories can learn with writing habits. It is up to us to choose (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Full answer: Consciously pragmatic, Jill decided that tidying on her own was not too traditionalist. At least she remembered where her things usually were before she put them somewhere completely else.

 

1. She never (get) totally honest with anyone, on favorite comedy episodes.

 

2. An article on family roles in kite flying (incline) her towards psychoanalysis for a while. She yet soon (conclude) that she (need) N another grammatical person to be herself. Being herself anyway (happen) to her all the time, and she simply (like) to hold the strings. The West Coast had the weather.

 

3. Disputes on Sandburg and Creeley (bring) her to the belief it (be) never possible to think about one poet strictly, although it (make) no sense sometimes to try talking about two at the same time.

 

4. After some study of a number of concepts on the cosmos, she (picture) the humanity as an odd kind of fish in a series of still larger fish tanks. Early in the series, there (be) N any point to try bringing another fish tank to imagination. It anyway (require) adding more fish tanks.

 

5. She (tolerate) pop music well and (watch) American football with friends, but she always (choose) her fountain pens on her own and (keep) them just for herself.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Could this be Jill?

 

Feel welcome to some more exercise, on the open or closed time frame and the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.
6.5. EXERCISES
BUTTON: 6.5. THE OPEN OR CLOSED TIME FRAME AND THE PRESENT, PAST, OR FUTURE

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6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning, Cloudy Weather, Wikimedia Commons

 

Exercise 32. For our warm-up, let us practice the time frames. We can do the exercise in our minds solely, as in the MIND PRACTICE. Our head verb is to work.

 

Example 1: Monsieur Sauf had worked.
Answer: {TO}, a PAST cognitive ground.
PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT(a time frame open to a reference mark in the PAST)

 

Example 2: Madame Règle will work.
Answer: {ON}, a cognitive ground for the FUTURE.
PICTURE: CLOSED TIME FRAME, FUTURE SIMPLE ARROW CUE(a time frame closed on a FUTURE time reference)

 

Please mind that our grounds for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE are the grammatical time. We do not need insight greater than for classic grammar, to talk about what happened, or to predict on our real-time future.

 

1. Monsieur Sauf worked.

 

2. Monsieur Sauf will have worked.

 

3. Madame Règle has worked.

 

4. Madame Règle works.

*****

One of the worst mistakes in language work is to keep vocabulary practice apart from grammar exercise. We are about avoiding it here.

 

Big dictionaries should not scare us. We do not have to memorize them. We can learn by referring to them.

 

It is good to use monolingual dictionaries and select on word sense. A monolingual dictionary has words and definitions in the same language.

 

Our brains can get the habit to choose on word sense. For example, the AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY has about 10 senses for the verb TO BE.

 

The word MAN has about 20 senses, and one of them is “a human being, a person”.

 

Women also belong with this sense of the word, as in all men are created equal, a phrase we may know from the Declaration of Independence.
FEEL WELCOME TO READ ABOUT THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

 

We may not want to worry about getting the money to buy expensive dictionaries, especially if we are just beginners. There are free dictionary resources, available over the web and in libraries.

 

For American English, there also is THE FREE DICTIONARY, or MERRRIAM-WEBSTER.

 

“Jumping into deep waters” is yet no good strategy for language, and Hispanic learners may like to compare the Spanish DICCIONARIO. People with French or German might like to use LAROUSSE or PONS, respectively.

 

All the websites have extensive free contents.

 

Our Travel in Grammar has a mirror in a Slavic language, Polish.
BUTTON: ZOBACZ PODRÓŻ W GRAMATYCE

 

*****

 

We may look up dictionary definitions, but we people naturally build own, mental lexicons for meaning. The word “mental” means “of the mind”.

 

It comes from the Latin word “mens, mentis”, signifying the mind, disposition, feeling, character, heart, as well as soul. Reading dictionaries can help us build own lexicons in our minds.

 

American English ― the same as any other language ― has formal and standard, as well as colloquial language uses. To be colloquial, a use may depart far from the standard, or even go opposite to it.

 

Colloquially, the word “mental” may refer to insanity. By standard, a “mental lexicon” is a “vocabulary of a mind”. We can decide how we use words. Free speech cannot require that we blindly follow, especially colloquial uses.

 

Let us try to reckon on word sense. The AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY says that stollen is a rich yeast bread containing dried fruit, as raisins, and candied fruit, as citron; chopped nuts, and spices.

 

In other words, stollen can be full-bodied sweetbread with fruit sweetmeats, grated or milled nuts, as well as marzipan or citron.

 

Obviously, own lexicons cannot be always a piece of cake. Let us think about COSMOS, as in the American Heritage dictionary:

 

1. The universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole.
2. An ordered, harmonious whole.
3. Harmony and order as distinct from chaos.
4. pl. cos•mos•es or cosmos Any of various mostly Mexican herbs of the genus Cosmos.

 

We do not have to agree. Human civilizations have had ideas as a “cosmogonic strife”, and the outer space observably clashes, sometimes.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

The cosmos flower grows also in the USA, up to the Olympic Penninsula in Washington (WIKIPEDIA).

 

Here is my idea for the word “cosmos”:
1. space to include the planet Earth ― we can compare the “outer space”;
2. spatial reference to be mapped on itself, as in stereometry, mathematics, information technology, and philosophy
(we can refer to the cosmos and give it attributes, we yet do not include the cosmos in any larger space, to map it);
3. American colorful garden flower to attract birds, also similar to gillyflower in color.

 

PICTURE: WHAT IS THE COSMOS, JOKE
EMOTICON: A JOKE
(Do not underestimate juniors learning, and please remember that the word “dude” is TABOO in official situations.)

 

There are a few kinds of the cosmos flower. The word “cosmos” comes from Greek. Also originally, it happened to refer to the outer space.

 

If we want to find out about the position of the Earth in space, we can visit NASA.GOV. NASA is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of America.

 

A good idea is to read a dictionary “until we get it”. If we are not sure what the “solar system” means, we open the dictionary at “solar” and “system”.

 

Sooner than later, we are going to be able to flip pages and read big dictionaries just like books. Let us try our linguistic natures with real words and big dictionaries.

 

Exercise 33. Natural languages do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds.

 

Let us mind our time frames.
Example: The goldfish awoke, hearing a croak.
Answer: a/wake, {ON} the PAST ground
PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.

 

2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.

 

3. The soybean alone outshone the legumes fair in Bayonne.

 

4. The hornbill had overlooked the rook by the brook.

 

5. The golden frog behind the chilidog overslept and wept.

 

6. The windflower withstood the rude mood in the wood.

 

7. The woodpecker has custom remade the pasquinade to treat his clade.

 

8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet.

 

9. The kinkajou understood that honey was for feel-good.

 

10. The kittiwake has shaken and partaken in casing bacon in Macon.

 

Feel welcome to further practice.
6.4. EXERCISES:
THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

BUTTON: 6.4. EXERCISES, THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

6.2. GRAMMAR COGNITIVE GROUND

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning in Spring (Le Boulevard de Montmartre, Matinée de Printemps), Wikimedia Commons 

 

The picture above is part a CITYSCAPE SERIES by Camille Pissarro. The series shows Boulevard Montmartre at different times of the year, day, and in varied weather.

 

We can think about grammar as allowing varied views on time.

 

Let us imagine an American in Paris (George Gershwin did). The American we imagine could be a young woman. She could be the Jill from the office, the Jill Smith that Jim wanted to meet.

 

Jin was not lying.
Jill is on her vacation.

 

PICTURE: JILL SMITH

Could this be Jill?

 

Jill is a reedy yet energetic figure, her rebellious and dark, almost black hair flying in the mid-September Paris wind. Jill is a very resolute person, one to walk big steps and to breathe deep.

 

Jill is entering a French restaurant ― a place deliberately prudent in its fine interior. She is looking for her friend, Madame Règle. Madame Règle often has her lunch there.

*****

Monsieur Sauf is not the stereotype, for a man to make his living gratifying taste buds. But the large apron knotted on his left hip in a kind of ― Jill, though learned, would never be sure ― stevedore or half hitch, you could think that he is some athlete, here about a plate of Moules Marinière himself. He is the restaurateur.

 

PICTURE: MONSIEUR SAUF

*****

This is not the first time Jill meets Monsieur Sauf. Still, she feels minute in his presence. She asks Monsieur Sauf about Madame Règle. Monsieur Sauf can say, reliant on his knowledge,

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.

 

PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT

 

He also can say,

 

7a. I didn’t see her today.

 

PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

Madame Règle is not a systematic person at all. The only regularity about her would be a small book she always carries fastened to her bag with a scarf or, actually, a variety of scarves of many colors and textures.

 

The book is not the same book every day, and the choice of the scarf sure depends on some totally unpredictable factor, just as the exact time for lunch, for which you might want to assume the broad time frame of about sixty minutes to commence or not to happen altogether.

 

PICTURE: MADAME RÈGLE

 

Madame Règle comes to lunch between 1:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. or does not show up at all. Let us check on the time. It is 1:30.

 

Monsieur Sauf can use expression 7. The expression has an open time frame. Madame Règle still may emerge in the door.

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.

 

PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT

 

Now let us think the time is 2:30. Monsieur Sauf can use expression 7a. The expression has a closed and PAST time frame.

 

Monsieur Sauf knows that Madame Règle is not coming today. The knowledge is part the context.

 

7a. I didn’t see her today.

 

PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

What if Jill asks whether Madame Règle was there, let us say, half an hour earlier? Monsieur Sauf may follow his linguistic gravity,

 

7b. I didn’t see her.
(On the cognitive ground: She was not here at the time in the PAST you are asking about.)

 

Jill is a grindstone to turn about good food. There is no telling her that good food could be bad and she esteems the French cuisine.

 

She usually visits Monsieur Sauf’s restaurant when she is in Paris. If she meets Madame Règle, she sure will join her for a meal by a table looking to the Quai de Seine (!)

 

There is an anecdote associated with Benjamin Franklin. A man asked a smith to make his ax especially sharp. The man ended up turning the grindstone himself.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can find plenty of facts and trivia about America at ARCHIVE.ORG, a free internet resource.

 

Let us practice our more and more METICULOUS natures in exercises.
6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

BUTTON: 6.3. EXERCISES, THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

CHAPTER 6. WE CAN CHOOSE OUR PATHS ABOUT TIME

There are no universal principles for choosing between the Present Perfect and the Past Simple. We may learn many classic rules, yet the truth is going to be that we need own resolves, in context.

 

Imagination can help shape language skill that works also real-life. Let us imagine a small office. A man is entering it. His name is Jim. He is asking about a woman who works there.

 

Real-life, we would notice some characteristics and qualities about Jim. Is he in a hurry? Is he anxious or relaxed? What is his manner of speaking ― fast, swift, steady?

 

We probably would perceive the time of day and the weather. Is it morning or afternoon? Is it warm and sunshiny, or cold and somber? Would we fancy raindrops on the windowsill?

Could this be Jim?

PICTURE: JIM SMILES

 

We may visualize the person in the office. Let us say she is a woman and her name is Jin. How could we describe her? We might use a dictionary to find at least five words about Jim and Jin.

Emoticon -- Smile

 

 

PICTURE: JIN ON HER BREAK

Could this be Jin on her break?

 

Jim is looking for Jill. He meets Jin. He asks her about Jill (sound-alike and look-alike names really happen). Jin could say,

 

1. Jill left a few minutes ago;

or,

1a. Jill has just left.

 

 

We pictured the Simple and the Perfect with mapping values {ON} and {TO} in Chapter 4.

 

1. Jill left a few minutes ago;
{ON, a PAST ground in time};
GRAMMATICAL LABEL: Past Simple.

ILLUSTRATION: ON A PAST GROUND IN TIME

 

1a. Jill has just left;
{the variable TO, the PRESENT ground in time};
GRAMMATICAL LABEL: Present Perfect.

ILLUSTRATION: TO THE PRESENT GROUND IN TIME

 

How do we tell the difference?

 

Expression 1, “Jill left a few minutes ago”,
refers Jill’s departure to the PAST.

 

Expression 1a, “Jill has just left”,
connects Jill’s departure with the PRESENT.

 

Importantly, Jin could choose her way to speak about the same fact, Jill’s leaving the office, let us say, at 5 p.m. sharp.

 

PICTURE: MEDITATION

We do not always need meditation, to make language choices.

Emoticon -- A joke


Newsweek

 

Do expressions 1 and 1a narrate on divergent perceptions of the same real time? Not necessarily. Let us consider a concept of a time frame. We may think about a famous American park, Yellowstone.

 

PICTURE: THE YELLOWSTONE STEAMBOAT GEYSER

The Steamboat geyser in Yellowstone.

 

2. Have you ever been in Yellowstone?

2a. Did you go to Yellowstone?

 

The time frame in example 2 is open. It embraces time to the PRESENT. The question asks if we have visited the park ever in our lives.

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND 

 

We could imagine a 50-year-old man asked if he has ever been in Yellowstone. The time frame would embrace 50 years of his life (!)

 

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND, AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

In example 2a, the time frame for the Simple Past is closed on a reference to the PAST.

 

PICTURE: ON A PAST GROUND

 

The PAST does not have to be distant, or — whatsoever — irrelevant. We close the frame, when we have the cognitive ground for it.

 

PICTURE: ON A PAST GROUND, A CLOSED TIME FRAME

 

In conversations, people usually seek a cognitive ground in common. To comprehend this, we can picture surfaces. This is how we could imagine our talk before 2a:

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE GROUNDS

 

2b. Have you met your Yellowstone friend?

2c. He moved to Treasure ― yes.

 

Yellowstone and Treasure are neighboring American counties. Our friend introduces a PAST reference in time. We can try the same cognitive ground. We may ask,

A COGNITIVE GROUND IN COMMON

2d. Did you go to the park?

 

A cognitive ground also can be a notional ground. A notion may be a thought or a word. A notional ground is not any surface actually to stand on, but we can take stands ― express our views and opinions ― using our cognitive or notional grounds.


The Economist – US Edition

We could consider saying,
2e. Did you go to the Yellowstone National Park, when you met your friend?

 

However, when we know our cognitive or notional ground, we would be more likely to hear or say 2d. Example 2e might have linguistic redundancy, that is, say needlessly.

 

After all, making a conversation is about having something to talk over, not about saying as many words as possible.
EMOTICON: SMILE

  

*****

 

Theories happen, that American English “generally is getting rid of” the Perfect tenses, and they are much less in use in American than in British. Let us reflect on the language information for what we say.

What is language information? When we speak or write, our contexts and circumstances, along with our memories and language styles, can make entire scopes of language features or elements come together as in information pools.

 

The star symbol below can stand for an information pool. We can think about the symbol as showing various language features and elements pooling together.

PICTURE: SYMBOL FOR A LANGUAGE INFORMATION POOL

*****

What if Jin only would be telling that Jill just left, knowing that Jill is still in the office? Could we think about language information, if Jin would be lying about Jill?

 

Let us reckon on truth conditions. For example, many people know and believe that water boils at about 100 degrees Celsius, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, or 373 Kelvin.

 

There could be circumstances on Earth or in the outer space in which this would not be true, however.

 

PICTURE: SPATIALIZATION

We do not need to travel the outer space to learn American, but we are free to imagine even miscellaneous worlds.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

PICTURE: ASTRONAUT SUIT

Saying, “At 100 centigrades”, could be the truth when telling how to set a kitchen oven. It could be a lie on a spaceship or another planet (!)

 

Someone saying that water always boils at the temperatures quoted above might not have knowledge of the world enough to tell other circumstances. He or she would not be lying. Telling a lie takes the intention to deceive.

 

Please mind that Americans use the Fahrenheit scale to tell temperatures. If an American says that our temperature is 100 degrees, it does not mean that we are boiling. In Fahrenheit, normal body temperature is about 97 to 99 degrees.

PICTURE: READING THE FAHRENHEIT, A JOKE

 

The Fahrenheit scale tells the freezing point of water as 32 degrees, and the boiling point as 212 degrees at one atmosphere of pressure.

*****


Paris Match

 

It is mostly grammar to have the language information. Let us think about a few examples.

 

Could we imagine a jealous husband?

 

PICTURE: A JEALOUS MAN
EMOTICON: A JOKE

3. Where have you been?

{TO, the PRESENT}, Present Perfect
PICTURE: THE PRESENT PERFECT ARROW CUE

 

3a. I’ve been to the movies.

{TO, the PRESENT}, Present Perfect
PICTURE: THE PRESENT PERFECT ARROW CUE

 

3b. Did you enjoy it?

{ON, the PAST}, Past Simple
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

 

The wife could say, especially if she does not want to answer too many questions,

 

3c. Actually, I didn’t like it much.

{ON, the PAST}, Past Simple

 

PICTURE: A WOMAN'S PORTRAIT

We do not have to look suggestive of portraits to tell the truth.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

The wife could be preparing a surprise birthday party for her husband. She could be lying about the cinema. The husband does not know it. Still, they would use their language knowledge to progress into a closed time frame.

 

They close the frame on a cognitive ground: they know they are speaking about the same time span.

 

3b. Did you enjoy it?

{ON, the PAST}, Past Simple

 

3c. Actually, I didn’t like it much.

{ON, the PAST}, Past Simple

 

*****

 

We do not always rely on clocks and watches, using the information that life brings.

 

WHEN? WHEN WE WERE THERE.

 

Let us imagine we are on a countryside vacation. We are staying at a motel. For a few days, we have our breakfast at the motel, before we go hiking.

 

PICTURE: ROUTE 66 ROAD SIGN

We may know U.S. Route 66 as the Will Rogers Highway, or the Main Street of America. Part the original highway is now a National Scenic Byway. Will Rogers was a famous American media personality of the 1920s and 1930s.


New York Puzzle Company – New Yorker The March – 500 Piece Jigsaw Puzzle

 

*****

 

4. Have you had breakfast?
{TO, the PRESENT}, Present Perfect
(We are still at the motel. The motel belongs with
the PRESENT).
PICTURE: THE PRESENT PERFECT ARROW CUE AND AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

4a. Did you have breakfast?
{ON, the PAST}, Past Simple
(We are out in the open. The morning in the motel belongs with
the PAST).
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

 

Obviously, time is good to reckon on time, too.

 

PICTURE: BEFORE A TIME

4. Have you had breakfast?
(It is morning, still; the time frame is open.)

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

***

PICTURE: FOUR O'CLOCK

4a. Did you have breakfast?
(It is afternoon; the time frame is closed.)

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

***

Choosing our time frame, we can think about effects of something. We also may highlight our regards.

 

PICTURE: JIM'S UNCLE AND COUSIN

 

5. He has met Jim’s little cousin.
(He can tell the kid is very curious about the world; we are highlighting the personal impression that holds also in the present time.)

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

***

5a. He met Jim’s little cousin last summer.
(It was when he last went to visit Jim; we are highlighting the time and closing the frame on it.)

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Our language information does not belong with information technology. No computer could do our human thing: begin, learn, and think on basis of our indeterminate.

SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

*****

 

Let us return to our office conversation. Importantly, an American really could say in the context,

 

2. Jill just left.
(This is what our Jin tells Jim.)

 

The word “just” effectively marks the recency. There is no language information missing from example 2, when we compare it with 1a.

 

1a. Jill has just left.

 

To consider how we gather from experience, we can expand our phrases. Jin might say,

 

1b. She left a few minutes ago ― what a pity you did not come a little earlier. Probably she has gone out of the building by now.
(Jin perceives that Jill’s presence belongs with the PAST; Jill was in a hurry to leave.)

 

Jin also could say,

1c. Jill has just left ― why don’t you ask at the front desk, she still may be somewhere around.
(Jin links Jill’s presence with the PRESENT; Jill might be in the building.)

 

Finally, asking questions in Perfect tenses ― as “Have you ever been in Yellowstone?” ― is natural in American. It is not true that American is the kind of English to delete the Perfect Aspect.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Feel welcome to some reasoning on our linguistic time frame and gravitation.
6.1. THE TIME FRAME AND THE NOTIONAL GROUND

LINK 6.1. THE COGNITIVE GROUND AND THE TIME FRAME


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