4.2. LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE

Exercise 13. If we never imagined anything, we would be unable to prefigure on things, to predict what happens, before we do something. Imagination is an ability to envision, to form an image.

 

Let us draw concept maps for our physical whereabouts, our every day, and our lives. Our maps do not have to be exact.

 

We only move gradually from a space concept into a time concept. Maps for physical whereabouts would be mostly about space. Maps about lives would focus on time more.

 

We have a few examples here. Please do draw your own maps, put on them as many associations as possible, all in English.

 

A. My physical whereabouts: the map does not have to be exact. It should only show physically nearest objects.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

 

B. My everyday life: the places do not have to be physically close; it is important we associate them with our routine and preferred experiences. This makes them psychologically close.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

C. My life: we may feel like going into the future a little.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK C, LIFE AND FUTURE

EMOTICON: A JOKE 

Exercise 14. We can recognize language content and inner framework. The framework is not about style only. It helps put thought into comprehensible patterns.

 

We use the verbs to be and to have, to build the Progressive or Perfect Aspects. When be and have help build a pattern, they map on time and activity.

 

The mapping is usually an approximation; it even cannot be 100% exact, as there happen to be differences among people, on how to view things.

 

When they map, to be and to have belong with the language framework.

 

When they bring talk about existence (being) or ownership, to be and to have are head verbs. They can head verb phrases, and belong with the content.

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs.
BUTTON, APPENDIX 1: THE VERB

 

Let us decide, where be and have belong with the framework, and where with the content. In the example, the answer is underlined.

 

F: language framework
C: language content

 

Example:
I have brought this for you.
This is a chart for our journey.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

Answer:
have      F or C (framework)
be          F or C (content)

 

1. Mary’s lamb was white as snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

2. As I was going to St. Ives, I was talking with a man of seven wives.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

3. An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, it has borne silver nutmeg and golden pears.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

4. The north wind has blown, we will have snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

5. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown.
be          F or C

 

Exercise 15. Let us exercise our symbolics for time. In our minds, we match a language marker (ON, IN, or TO) with a picture. The simple activity may help more advanced brainwork.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 15, INTRODUCTION

 

Example: Variable {TO}, the PRESENT Field
Answer: have

 

Our purely symbolic behavior might be illustrated as follows.
PICTURE, EXERCISE 15 SYMBOLICS

 

We may view or print the picture below (click to enlarge), and think about the answers, simply looking at the picture.

 

1. Variable {IN}, the PAST Field
2. Variable {ON}, the PAST Field
3. Variable {ON}, the FUTURE Field
4. Variable {TO}, the FUTURE Field
5. Variable {IN}, the FUTURE Field
6. Variable {ON}, the PRESENT Field
7. Variable {IN}, the PRESENT Field
8. Variable {TO}, the PAST Field

*****

We are about to progress into verbal guidance more. Language Mapping does not require that we abandon classic grammar books.

 

We may want to talk about grammar, and classic grammar terms can be useful in this. Exercises 16-21 are to help the ends meet.

*****

Exercise 16. We do not have to feel bound to fields and land travel, to think about grammatical time. We can imagine an eagle route.

 

PICTURE: EAGLE ROUTE WITH ASPECT PATTERNS

 

Our eagle route has four mapping forms. All English languages in the world (American, British, Irish, or any other) have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive.

 

The fourth mapping form is have been ING (the variable AT). We can think about it more in Part Two of our journey.

 

Our inner language does not need to be “fixed”. We do not have to stay by the connotation from exercise 15. It can be “PAST reference” now. Our head verb can be to live.

 

Example: have, PAST reference, he

Answer: He had lived; the Past Perfect.

 

We work minds first: we think the entire exercise over, and we write the answers only if we decide to do so.

 

Grammatical time

Aspect

 

The Simple

The Progressive

The Perfect

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FUTURE FIELDThe Future

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE FUTURE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PRESENTThe Present

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PRESENT

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PASTThe Past

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PAST FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PAST FIELD

 

1. , PRESENT reference, they

2. be, FUTURE reference, you

3. , PAST reference, we

4. have, PRESENT reference, it

5. be, PAST reference, she

6. , FUTURE reference, we

7. have, FUTURE reference, I

8. be, PRESENT reference, he

 

Exercise 17. Time for some work after all the leisure (!)

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Grammar books may differ on Aspect labeling: some will have Progressive tenses for Continuous tenses. Travelers in Grammar stay by the name Progressive.

 

Our connotation now can be “in the Field of the FUTURE. Our head verb can be to guide.

 

Example: Perfect in the Field of the FUTURE, she

Answer: She will have guided. (Future Perfect)

 

Minds first (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

1. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, I

2. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, you

3. Progressive in the Field of the FUTURE, he

4. Progressive in the Field of the PAST, she

5. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, it

6. Perfect in the Field of the PAST, you

7. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, we

8. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, she

 

Exercise 18. Let us put our skills to an ultimate test. We can try to gather our verb forms from pieces. Speaking with someone in a noisy room happens to require such “gathering from pieces”.

 

Again, we may remain by thinking the answers, without writing them or saying. Our head verb may be to continue.

 

Example: ING, it, the PAST Field

Answer: It was continuing.

 

1. 3RD, he, the FUTURE Field

2. ING, she, the PAST Field

3. ING, they, the PRESENT Field

4. 3RD, we, the PAST Field

5. 3RD, you, the FUTURE Field

6. ING, I, in the PAST Field

7. 3RD, it, the PRESENT Field

8. ING, we, the PRESENT Field

9. 3RD, I, the FUTURE Field

10. ING, you, the PAST Field

11. 3RD, she, the PRESENT Field

12. ING, he, the PAST Field

13. 3RD, they, the FUTURE Field

14. ING, we, the FUTURE Field

 

Exercise 19. We can have various head verbs. All verbs here refer to moving about. Let us remember there are many more verbs, in APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3.

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 2
BUTTON, APPENDIX 3

 

Example 1: walk, HAVE in the PRESENT

Answer: Present Perfect, have/has walked

 

We “gather from pieces” as above, we only include the Simple Aspect. We mark it as the indeterminate or infinity.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity symbolizes that it is impossible to calculate all words, phrases, and sentences we humans can make.

 

There is no way to count irregular verb uses alone. They may vary from one geographical area to another, from person to person, or even the same people may change in verb regularity.

 

The Simple pattern can use head verbs to map on grammatical time. Progressive and Perfect patterns use auxiliary verbs for that.

 

Example 2: go, , in the PAST

Answer: went, Past Simple

 

1. hike, BE in the PRESENT

2. trek, , in the FUTURE

3. stride, HAVE in the PAST

4. ramble, HAVE in the FUTURE

5. move, BE in the PAST

6. stroll, , in the PAST

7. tread, , in the PRESENT

8. step, BE in the FUTURE

9. roam, HAVE in the PAST

10. rove, BE in the PRESENT

 

Exercise 20. Now our head verbs all refer to thinking. Let us use the Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect, with the grammatical person (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).
We may fancy our BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS.

 

Example 1:
think, Progressive, in the PAST Field

Answer:
was thinking (I, he, she, it),
were thinking (you, we, they)

 

Example 2:
consider, Simple, in the PAST Field

Answer:
considered (I, you, we, they, he, she, it: all persons)

 

1. reason, Perfect, in the FUTURE Field

2. imagine, Simple, in the FUTURE Field

3. expect, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

4. figure, Perfect, in the PAST Field

5. reckon, Progressive, in the PRESENT Field

6. surmise, Simple, in the PAST Field

7. mediate, Simple, in the PAST Field

8. cogitate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

9. review, Progressive, in the PAST Field

10. anticipate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

 

Exercise 21. Our thinking and inner language are the fastest and most capable to manage our inner grammars.

 

Linguistically, abstract thinking is not about anything unreal. It extracts from experience. It integrates the essentials.

 

Let us try a few hat tricks. The hat, ^ , is a symbol we may use for our language notation. Let us see, if we can take language tasks “at the drop of the hat”, that is, fast and without effort. Below, we can see an extract or essence for our observations so far.

 

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

In this exercise, all verbs relate to comprehension and learning. We can have our language note, TO^PRESENT, for saying, TO a moment with a PRESENT reference. Everyone may write up own notation.

 

Example: gather, TO^PRESENT, she

Answer: She has gathered.

 

1. understand, ON^PRESENT, I

2. learn, IN^FUTURE, we

3. notice, TO^FUTURE, he

4. think, IN^PAST, you

5. study, ON^PAST, they

6. interpret, IN^PRESENT, he

7. discern, TO^PRESENT, she

8. comprehend, ON^FUTURE, we

 

Our language markers ON, IN, TO (and later also AT) grammatically are prepositions. We can have these function words for cognitive variables in inner management of integrated patterns of language.

 

We do not need to be ashamed of the idea in front of school professors (!)

 

Let us mind, we use our markers for the language inner framework. We can compare classic grammars: we do not have to say we are using the Present Simple, whenever we speak or write with the Present Simple pattern.

 

Matters are the same with Language Mapping: we do not have to say or write the prepositions, to use them for mapping.

 

Another way round, we do not have to employ the Progressive, Simple, or Perfect tense patterns to use the words progress, simple, or perfect. Likewise, we can use prepositions for our content regardless of the mapping framework.

 

An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, says example 3 in exercise 14. Our Simple pattern can have an auxiliary. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 5.

BUTTON, CHAPTER 5. THE AFFIRMATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, NEGATIVE, AND NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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