Exercise 13. Imagination is an ability to envision, to form an image. Without such ability, we would be unable to prefigure on things, to predict what happens if we do something.

Let us draw mind maps for our physical whereabouts, our every day, and our lives. Our maps do not have to be exact. They are only for us to see we are able gradually to move from an imagination about space into an imagination about time.

Maps for physical whereabouts would be mostly about space. Maps about lives would focus on time more. Please draw your own maps, put on them as many associations as possible, all in English.

Example A. My physical whereabouts: the map should show physically nearest objects.

B. My everyday life: the places do not have to be physically close; it is important we associate them with our routine, frequent, and preferred experiences. This makes them psychologically close.

C. My life: we may generalize a little; well, I have always been about a bookish lifestyle.

Exercise 14. In language, we may recognize the content and inner framework. The framework is not about style only. It helps put thought into comprehensible patterns.

We use the verbs to be and to have, to build the Progressive or Perfect Aspects. When be and have help build a pattern, they help map on time and activity.

The mapping is usually an approximation: differences naturally happen among people, on how to view things, though we use calendars and clocks.

When they map, to be and to have belong with the language framework.

When they bring talk about existence (being) or ownership (having), to be and to have are head verbs. They head verb phrases, and belong with the content. ■→APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs.

Let us decide, where be and have belong with the framework, and where with the content.
F: language framework
C: language content

I have bought citrus pots.
We will have candied rolls.
have F or C
have F or C

have, F, framework, a function verb;
have, C, a content verb.

1. Ella’s cat is white as snow. It is snuggling in a ball.
be F or C
be F or C

2. Common sense is this: hat tricks are for wits.
be F or C
be F or C

3. An precious tree I do have, it has grown golden pears.
have F or C
have F or C

4. The chill wind has blown, we will have frost.
have F or C
have F or C

5. The lion is nearby, as playing are are the cubs.
be F or C
be F or C

Exercise 15. The prepositions ON, IN, or TO are only language markers. We do not have to look at a map or another picture, to think about language. Likewise, we do not have to position matters in physical space, to talk ideas. The prepositions are symbols.

Let us use the markers to make phrases. As in the Mind Practice, if we decide to write the answers, we do so after we have thought over the exercise entire. We can use the verb to write.

Here we have our fields of time.

Example: Variable {TO}, the PRESENT Field;
Answer: have written.

We can visualize the phrasing. With the website visuals, it is enough we type “Exercise 15” in the presentation search: travelingrammar.com/extras/visuals.

1. Variable {IN}, the PAST Field; 2. Variable {ON}, the PAST Field; 3. Variable {ON}, the FUTURE Field; 4. Variable {TO}, the FUTURE Field; 5. Variable {IN}, the FUTURE Field; 6. Variable {ON}, the PRESENT Field; 7. Variable {IN}, the PRESENT Field; 8. Variable {TO}, the PAST Field.

We are about to progress into verbal guidance more. Language Mapping does not require that we abandon classic grammar books.

We may want to talk about grammar, and classic grammar terms can be useful in this. Exercises 16-21 are to help the ends meet.

Exercise 16. To think about grammatical time, we do not have to feel bound to fields and land travel, even if only symbolically. We can imagine a bald eagle ON Mount Elbert. He nests IN a valley, flies TO the mountain top, and stays AT the summit, for warm days.

The eagle route has four types of reference. All Englishes in the world (American, British, Irish, or any other) have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive.

The fourth mapping form is have been I N G, the variable {AT}. We can think about it more in the second part of the grammar course.

Our inner language never is “fixed”, and it obviously does not need to become inflexible for grammar. In exercise 15, our guidelines were as “variable {IN}, the PAST field”. In this exercise, we may practice with phrases as PAST reference”, to live to be our head verb.
Example: have, PAST reference, he;
Answer: He had lived; the Past Perfect.

We work minds first: we think the entire exercise over, and write the answers only if we decide to do so.

1. , PRESENT reference, they;
2. be, FUTURE reference, you;
3. , PAST reference, we;
4. have, PRESENT reference, it;
5. be, PAST reference, she;
6. , FUTURE reference, we;
7. have, FUTURE reference, I;
8. be, PRESENT reference, he.

Exercise 17. Time for some work after all the leisure (!)

Grammar books may differ on Aspect labeling: some will say that the Progressive really is Continuous. Travelers in Grammar stay by the name Progressive: hardly anything in our everyday lives is actually continual or incessant.

We can try connotations as “in the Field of the FUTURE”, and the verb to guide. Minds first, we think about the answers, never saying or writing anything before we are through with the entire exercise.

Example: Perfect in the Field of the FUTURE, she;
Answer: She will have guided. (Future Perfect)

1. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, I;
2. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, you;
3. Progressive in the Field of the FUTURE, he;
4. Progressive in the Field of the PAST, she;
5. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, it;
6. Perfect in the Field of the PAST, you;
7. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, we;
8. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, she.

Exercise 18. Let us put our skills to an ultimate test and gather on verb forms from fragments. Speaking with someone in a noisy room happens to require such “gathering from pieces”.

Again, we remain by thinking the answers, without writing or saying what we think. Real-time language skill needs to be in the mind. Our head verb may be to continue.

Example: ING, it, the PAST Field;
Answer: It was continuing.

1. 3RD, he, the FUTURE Field;
2. ING, she, the PAST Field;
3. ING, they, the PRESENT Field;
4. 3RD, we, the PAST Field;
5. 3RD, you, the FUTURE Field;
6. ING, I, in the PAST Field;
7. 3RD, it, the PRESENT Field;
8. ING, we, the PRESENT Field;
9. 3RD, I, the FUTURE Field;
10. ING, you, the PAST Field;
11. 3RD, she, the PRESENT Field;
12. ING, he, the PAST Field;
13. 3RD, they, the FUTURE Field;
14. ING, we, the FUTURE Field.

Exercise 19. We can expand our practice and be more as in everyday life, where we have various head verbs. All verbs here refer to moving about. Let us also remember to use ■→APPENDIX 2 and ■→APPENDIX 3.

Example 1: walk, HAVE for the PRESENT;
Answer: Present Perfect, have/has walked.

So far, we have focused selectively, on the Progressive and Perfect as patterns that have auxiliary be or have. Now we can include the Simple Aspect as well, to be more like on a cognitive map. We mind that the indeterminate or infinity belongs with all Aspects.


The infinity symbolizes that it is impossible to calculate all words, phrases, and sentences people can make.

There is no way to count irregular verb uses alone. They may vary from one geographical area to another, from person to person, or even the same people may change in verb regularity.

The Simple pattern has mostly head verbs to map on grammatical time. Progressive and Perfect patterns use auxiliary verbs for that. Feel welcome to the ■→COLOR CODE.

Example 2: go, , for the PAST;
Answer: went, Past Simple.

1. hike, BE for the PRESENT;
2. trek, , for the FUTURE;
3. stride, HAVE for the PAST;
4. ramble, HAVE for the FUTURE;
5. move, BE for the PAST;
6. stroll, , for the PAST;
7. tread, , for the PRESENT;
8. step, BE for the FUTURE;
9. roam, HAVE for the PAST;
10. rove, BE for the PRESENT.

Exercise 20. Our head verbs all now refer to thinking. Let us use the Aspect, the Simple, Progressive, or Perfect, with the grammatical person (I, you, he, she, it, we, they). We may fancy our ■→BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS.

Example 1:
think, Progressive, in the PAST Field;
was thinking (I, he, she, it),
were thinking (you, we, they).

Example 2:
consider, Simple, in the PAST Field;
Answer: variable {ON};
considered (I, you, we, they, he, she, it: for all persons).

1. reason, Perfect, in the FUTURE Field;
2. imagine, Simple, in the FUTURE Field;
3. expect, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field;
4. figure, Perfect, in the PAST Field;
5. reckon, Progressive, in the PRESENT Field;
6. surmise, Simple, in the PAST Field;
7. meditate, Simple, in the PAST Field;
8. cogitate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field;
9. review, Progressive, in the PAST Field;
10. anticipate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field.

Exercise 21. Linguistically, abstract thinking is not about anything unreal. It extracts from experience. It integrates the essentials.

Let us try a few hat tricks. The chevron or symbol hat, ^ , may help us see if we can take language tasks “at the drop of the hat”, that is, fast and without effort. The illustration has an extract or essence for our observations so far.

In this exercise, all verbs relate to comprehension and learning. We can have a language note as, TO^PRESENT, for saying, TO a moment with a PRESENT reference. A note as ON^PRESENT would say, ON a cognitive map or extent) with a PRESENT reference. Everyone may write up own notation.

Example: gather, TO^PRESENT, she;
Answer: She has gathered.

1. understand, ON^PRESENT, I;
2. learn, IN^FUTURE, we;
3. notice, TO^FUTURE, he;
4. think, IN^PAST, you;
5. study, ON^PAST, they;
6. interpret, IN^PRESENT, he;
7. discern, TO^PRESENT, she;
8. comprehend, ON^FUTURE, we.

To sum up, the language markers ON, IN, TO (and later also AT) grammatically are prepositions, that is, function words. We use them as variables, in management of integrated patterns of language. The markers work in language inner framework. They do not make language content.

We do not need to be ashamed of the idea, we can discuss it with school professors (!)

For classic grammars, we do not say we are using the Present Simple, whenever we speak or write with the Present Simple pattern. Matters are the same with Language Mapping: we do not have to say or write the prepositions, to use them for mapping.

Another way round, we do not have to employ the Progressive, Simple, or Perfect tense patterns to use the words progress, simple, or perfect. Likewise, we can use prepositions for our content, regardless of the mapping framework.

A precious tree I do have, says example 3 in exercise 14. Our Simple pattern can have an auxiliary. Feel welcome to ■→CHAPTER 5.

■→This text is also available in Polish.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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