5.2. PRACTICE: SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

Exercise 22. Symbols can be really helpful, when we want effective and effortless language habits. Let us combine the Aspect and Time, to exercise symbolic cues. Ability for the target grammatical time is useful (■→5.1. THE LANGUAGE LOGIC SO FAR). We try only to think about our answers: true learning is in the mind.

Example:
generally {ON} the map for the PAST,
{ON} a PAST time extent

Answer:

1. IN a spot within the FUTURE time extent
2. TO a time within the PAST time extent
3. ON the PRESENT time extent
4. TO a time within the FUTURE time extent
5. TO a time within the PRESENT time extent
6. ON the FUTURE time extent
7. IN a spot in the PAST time extent
8. IN a spot in the PRESENT time extent

Exercise 23. Let us make language forms from elements, as in ■→PRACTICE 4.2. We use the symbolic cues.

Example: {TO}, 3RD, the PRESENT

Answer:

1. {IN}, ING, the PAST
2. {TO}, 3RD, the PAST
3. {ON}, the FUTURE
4. {IN}, ING, the PRESENT
5. {ON}, the PAST
6. {TO}, 3RD, the FUTURE
7. {ON}, the PRESENT
8. {IN}, ING, the FUTURE

Exercise 24. Let us try our language natures another way round. We begin with our arrow cue, to think about language elements.

Example

Answer: be ING, in the PAST.

Exercise 25. We can talk examples about Bob and Jemma (■→CHAPTER 5), along with the task from the previous exercise. Our head verb can be to learn.

Example

Answer: Jemma was learning.

Please mind, we are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are about flexible habits. It does not matter in the exercise here, if we say Jemma learns, or Bob learns. It matters to mind we say Bob and Jemma learn, if we want to speak about both of them.

Exercise 26. Let us now try our arrows with Expression. We can mark negative questions as ?N. We leave the affirmative unmarked.

Example 1

Answer: Will Bob and Jemma not have earned their credits?

Example 2

Answer: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.


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Exercise 27. Let us try grammar logic for the Interrogative and Negative, within the PAST time extent only. To learn may remain our head verb. We also can choose to visit ■→APPENDIX 2 or ■→APPENDIX 3, and try other verbs. We do not need to see the arrow cues, to think about them.

Example:

Answer: Was Jemma learning?

We are staying in the PAST Field of Time.

Exercise 28. Let us focus on the cognitive values for grammatical time. We use the symbolic cues, too. If the same head verb, to learn, brings monotony, ■→APPENDIX 2 or ■→APPENDIX 3 can give us plenty of other verbs.

Example: Had Bob learned?
Answer:

Everyday language has abbreviated forms as doesn’t, hadn’t, and won’t. Let us think about the full forms too, exercising as in the ■→MIND PRACTICE.

1. Jemma doesn’t worry.
2. Bob and Jemma hadn’t worried.
3. Is Jemma smiling?
4. Hasn’t Bob learned?
5. Bob didn’t worry.
6. Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?
7. Will Bob and Jemma smile?
8. Was Bob learning?
9. Bob won’t have failed.
10. Will Jemma be smiling?

Feel welcome to some more exercises,
■→SUCHAPTER 5.3. REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

■→This text is also available in Polish.


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The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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PSYCHOLINGUISTICS, LINGUISTICS,
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