Exercise 37. We have our time frames for our guidance. We choose between the Simple and the Perfect, in the PAST

Please put the verb in the form for the grammatical PAST and give the arrow cue along with the mapping value. In language, we can seek inspiration with words. Let it be a simple chair this time.

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Example: His parents (surrender) his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan (suggest) playing the musical chairs, Art (throw) in three right hand gloves. One of them (belong) to Ms. Duncan.

If we feel we could be better off writing entire answers, we can do so without looking to others. Writing belongs with human fine motor behavior. It is important in integrating language skills (see ■→THE ROLE OF FEEDBACK IN LANGUAGE LEARNING).

We may only think about the logical cues and mapping values, as in the ■→MIND PRACTICE.

Answer: {ON}; His parents surrendered his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan suggested playing the musical chairs, Art threw in three right hand gloves. One of them belonged to Ms. Duncan.

1. Despite his early predilection for challenge, he (get) himself a chairborne job. His chair (have) an advantage, however. He (design) └┘ it for use by one person exactly.

2. Originally, he never (expect) of a woman to fill a chair. He (change) his mind when he (perceive), at about 26, that the strategy almost (reduce) └┘ him to his local club armchair, for dialogue.

3. He (marry) Jin in summer. They (spend) their countryside honeymoon mostly bringing the chairs from the garden. His friend Jalen (persuade) him to go on a vacation, in a better weather. They (choose) Amtrak to journey. Art and Jin first (meet) in a parlor car. Face to face with their notebooks, they (realize) they were actually chatting with each other over the Unlimited (!)

4. He soon (begin) developing his son-in-law attitude. Eva, his mother-in-law, (love) to say nobody should let predecessors set the measure for the chair. Art (have) a reservation. His job (be) └┘ by principle like trying to keep someone on the edge of the seat with soft overboiled noodles. Jalen Seges (agree) that office routines (take) some time.

5. Art (know) that contending Eva’s arguments (be) suggestive of trying verbally to captivate a moving rock. Incontrovertibility (belong) with the Seges family ethos. A Yale graduate married to a Harvard grad, Ms. Seges (be) └┘ a woman of resolve, throughout her life. She (talk) table and chairs right when junior (begin) preschool. Her grandchildren would go to best schools, to fill their grandparents’ walnut bobbin chairs.

Art is thinking about a new job. Routines of predetermined beginning and end are not his dream. With language work, we also can learn to negotiate: we contend the arguments and not the people, for that.

Could we look up the Amtrak Unlimited, Yale, and Harvard over the Internet? Can we comprehend words like “incontrovertibility”, if our dictionary does not have them? There are sample hints down this page.

Exercise 38. Please tell the time frames and map values (ON, IN, or TO), along with the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE). We have the arrow cues with every task, if we need them.

Example: Her father 1. (be) a nibmeister. She 2. (have) a clear taste for good quality since she 3. (be) a little girl.

Here we have our symbolic cues.


Again, we can think about the frames and variables, minds first or only.
(1) was, {ON} PAST;
(2) └┘ has had, {TO} PRESENT;
(3) was, {ON} PAST.

A. When she was in her early teens, she 4. (make) a miniature book. It 5. (be) three inches square.


B. She 6. (keep) the book for her thinktionary. She still 7. (happen) to add words to it, though she 8. (make) many more such books.


C. A young girl, she 9. (put) her miniature book in her jacket pocket and 10. (go) to sit by the river. Whenever a word 11. (come) to her mind, she 12. (write) it in with her miniature fountain pen.


D. Her handwriting 13. (change) a little, since then. By and large, she 14. (adjust) her letters to the size of her notebook. One day, she 15. (engross) her future husband’s name in her thinktionary. His name 16. (remain) the only word to take a page entire, out of the alphabetical order.


E. Chantelle 17. (have) a collection of pens. Her favored inkwells 18. (be) glass, silver, and pewter. Her first book 19. (tell) about a girl’s language of the heart.


Form (16) also might be “his name remains”: there are no universal rules to govern contexts, and we are free to decide on our own, dependent on our cognitive mapping.

Miniature books belong with arts. Their scopes may be the same as of standard volumes. They are smaller because they are miniaturized. Chantelle’s miniature book is one of the biggest sizes ― it is three inches square.

The “thinktionary” is a coined word. We can compare it with the word “dictionary”. Everyone can have own thinktionaries. Have we met Chantelle already?

We do not have to use Past Perfect forms whenever anything happened earlier or preceded something else. We would need millions of past tense forms to speak about Old English, thinking only about the days and years since those times.

Amtrak Unlimited is a forum for Amtrak passengers.

Harvard and Yale are two very prominent and competitive American universities.

How do we interpret words as incontrovertibility, also if our dictionary does not have it? Just browsing and reading dictionaries, we might get even surprised with how much we remember and “intuitively” use.

We can interpret incontrovertibility by the word build. The American Heritage online will show the word in•con•tro•vert•ible and explain that the verb to con•tro•vert may mean “to raise arguments against; voice opposition to”.

We look up the parts in– and –ibility. The particle in– may negate. The particle –ibility can work with a noun and connote “an ability, inclination, or suitability”.

However, the particle in– may also mean “having the function of”. We can look up words such as “inbound” or “incant”. Inflammable materials or substances can be highly flammable.

The verb “to controvert” derives from the noun controversy. The noun consists of the particles contro– and versus.

Contro– or contra– can connote “against, opposite, contrasting”. The particle in– does not work in the sense “into” or “within” with the particle con–.

The American Heritage dictionary can tell that incontrovertibility relates to the adjective incontrovertible, meaning “impossible to dispute, unquestionable”.

In•con•tro•vert•i•ble•ness is another, probable form.

We can guess that Art’s mother-in-law may be a person difficult — but not impossible — to persuade or influence. His wife Jin is some personality, too.


Feel welcome to further journey: ■→CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS