CHAPTER 5. LET US MAKE OWN PATHS ABOUT TIME

We do not have to be born speakers of American English, to think in American English. We yet always need to think in the language, to speak it. This is why we exercise own logical ability.

 

APPENDIX 4 presents the many patterns we have for grammatical tenses in English. Merely memorizing them is not likely to work.

 

With our human logic, we become able to make the patterns independently, our skills are stronger, and we do not ever get to translate between languages, for grammar. We make own paths about time.

 

Let us visualize the logic we have worked so far. We have combined our core verbs (be, have, do, will), the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE), and tense patterns (Simple, Progressive, and Perfect).

 

We can picture colorful extents, for easier discernment. One can convey the AspectSimple, Progressive, or Perfect. In CHAPTER 4, we gave the Aspect cognitive mapping values, for the sake of better language economy:
Simple: {ON}
Progressive: {IN}
Perfect: {TO}.

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

 

Another extent can symbolize the grammatical Time — the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

We need one more logical quality in our picture, to be able to affirm, deny, or ask questions. Grammars recognize the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative, with the regard.

 

The Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative can make our third logical capability, Expression. We yet do not visualize it into one extent.

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  • We can picture the Aspect as one extent. Our mapping values work together, as we saw in CHAPTER 4. We cannot be {IN} an area of a cognitive map, without being {ON} it.

CHAPTER 8 shows we can combine the values {IN} and {TO} into our fourth mapping variable, {AT}.

 

  • We can visualize the grammatical time as one extent. We can never work the PAST or FUTURE without our PRESENT time. Part 4 shows how to make the nodi of time.

However, there are no Affirmative Interrogative structures, or syntax for a “Negative Affirmative”. We only may join the Negative and Interrogative, into the Negative Interrogative. We can have it for a combination of two extents.
VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

 

We can set our third logical effect in the foreground of our picture.

 

VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

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Let us now have a close look at the making of language patterns, for the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative.

 

To give all our focus to language logic, we can use virtual words. We have our bimo for a virtual verb and phimo for a virtual nominal, that is, a noun or word that can work like a noun; pronouns or gerunds work like nouns.
BUTTON: SEE THE COLOR CODE AND VIRTUAL WORDS

 

Our phimo (fimo) is not to mean anything particular, just “something”. We are within the PRESENT time compass now.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENTVISUALS: THE AFFIRMATIVE

Simple: Phimo bimoes.
Progressive: Phimo is bimoing.
Perfect: Phimo has bimoed.

 

We are remaining in our PRESENT time extent, and look at the Interrogative.
VISUALS: THE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Does phimo bimo?
Progressive: Is phimo bimoing?
Perfect: Has phimo bimoed?

 

We also have a look at the pattern that helps deny, in the PRESENT time extent.
VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE

Simple: Phimo does not bimo.
Progressive: Phimo is not bimoing.
Perfect: Phimo has not bimoed.

 

We often abbreviate our patterns, in everyday speech.

Simple: Phimo doesn’t bimo.
Progressive: Phimo isn’t bimoing.
Perfect: Phimo hasn’t bimoed.

 

We can merge the Interrogative and Negative extents, to ask negative questions. We could ask, “Isn’t phimo bimoing?”
(We suppose that phimo is bimoing).

Simple: Doesn’t phimo bimo?
Progressive: Isn’t phimo bimoing?
Perfect: Hasn’t phimo bimoed?

 

Let us compare formal American English, as for school. Formal syntax does not follow abbreviated auxiliaries.

Simple: Does phimo not bimo?
Progressive: Is phimo not bimoing?
Perfect: Has phimo not bimoed?

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Let us make observations. American English (the same as any English) is an SVO (SUBJECT―VERB―OBJECT) language. To affirm, we begin with the subject and follow up with the verb, which we may complement with an object.

 

We can have another virtual word, reemo, for our virtual object. It can mean just “another something”. Kids can make forms as Phimo bimoes reemo for language practice, as well as for fun.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

In our human and logical potential for asking questions, the elements move. The moving elements are the auxiliary and the subject. Grammars name it the inversion.

Phimo is bimoing reemo.
Is phimo bimoing reemo?

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Let us see an example with a real verbal and a real nominal. Verbals can be single verbs or verb phrases, as in tense patterns. Nominals can be nouns or noun phrases. For example,

 

  • word forms as to play, to be playing, is playing, or having played are verbals;
  • word forms as a game, a card game, or the game of the Ziggurat are nominals.
    (We can learn the game in Part 4).

PICTURE: ZIGGURAT GAME CARD, PHONEME [SH]

When we ask questions, auxiliaries move to places before subjects. Dependent on the grammar approach, we may view the word order as VSO then, or think about the subject as wrapped up in the verb phrase and basically SVO, still.

 

You are playing the Ziggurat.
{SUBJECT You} {VERB PHRASE AUXILIARY are HEAD VERB playing.}

 

Are you playing the Ziggurat?
(AUXILIARY) Are {SUBJECT you} {VERB PHRASE HEAD VERB playing?}

 

Head verbs are those that can head verb phrases. Above, “be playing” remains the verb phrase, and the verb “to playits head. Our mauve head verb does not move.

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The Simple Aspect can have an auxiliary, too. The auxiliary role is for the verb to do. It takes (E)S for the third person singular (he, she, or it).

 

We might say there is a natural interaction between the feature ‒ES and the auxiliary do. Let us see how our language chemistry could work for Simple Aspect questions.

 

Phimo bimoES.
DoES phimo bimo?

 

The linguistic chemistry is not limited to questions. We can have word movement generally for a highlight, if we compare Exercise 14 in SUB-CHAPTER 4.1. The auxiliary can take a feature and go before a nominal, or after a pronoun.

The orchard has a little nut tree.
A little nut tree, does the orchard have.
A little nut tree, it does have.

 

Here, the matter is not in formal or colloquial styles. We could say that language has pronouns for shorter nouns.

 

For emphasis, the Simple Aspect also allows saying,
Do read this all, please.
EMOTICON: SMILE

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Our “chemistry” is to mean a natural interaction between language components, as when the feature for the third person singular, –(E)S, moves from the head verb to the auxiliary.

 

Our logical capacity for denying has the negative element not. This element also becomes attracted to the auxiliary. In the Simple Aspect, it is the auxiliary do.

 

The Affirmative: Phimo bimoes.
The Interrogative: DoES phimo bimo?
The Negative: Phimo doES not bimo.
The Negative Interrogative: DoES phimo not bimo?

 

In everyday language, the attraction can be strong enough to make the forms abbreviated.

 

The Negative short form: Phimo doESN’T bimo.
The Negative Interrogative short form: DoESN’T phimo bimo?

 

What happens if we change our PRESENT time compass to the FUTURE time extent? Our Expression retains all qualities.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE
VISUALS: THE AFFIRMATIVE

Simple: Phimo will bimo.
Progressive: Phimo will be bimoing.
Perfect: Phimo will have bimoed.

 

The logic for the FUTURE can bring the auxiliary WILL into our scopes. Our auxiliary be stays to its basic form (be). We can return to SUB-CHAPTER 4.1., for notes on verb auxiliary roles.

VISUALS: THE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Will phimo bimo?
Progressive: Will phimo be bimoing?
Perfect: Will phimo have bimoed?

 

It is the auxiliary WILL to attract the element not, for the Negative.

VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE

Simple: Phimo will not bimo.
Progressive: Phimo will not be bimoing.
Perfect: Phimo will not have bimoed.

 

The phrase will not becomes won’t, in everyday American.

Simple: Phimo won’t bimo.
Progressive: Phimo won’t be bimoing.
Perfect: Phimo won’t have bimoed.

 

Again, formal American English will not follow the abbreviation.

VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Will phimo not bimo?
Progressive: Will phimo not be bimoing?
Perfect: Will phimo not have bimoed?

 

Feel welcome to APPENDIX 4, and think it over with virtual words, as in MIND PRACTICE 1.2. We sum up on our visuals and observations in SUB-CHAPTER 5.1.

BUTTON: LINK TO SUB-CHAPTER 5.1

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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