3.3. THE BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS

Let us picture the Simple, Progressive, and the Perfect with all personal pronouns.

 

We can view the verb phrase as the room we make for grammatical time. Verb phrases mostly have a few verbs, but in the Simple Aspect, one verb may be enough.

 

We begin with the FUTURE. Our head verb is to learn.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

THE SIMPLE

will learn
(I, you, we, they, he, she, it)

THE PROGRESSIVE

will be learning
(I, you, we, they, he, she, it)

THE PERFECT

will have learned
(I, you, we, they, he, she, it)

NOTES

Our verbal forms do not change for the grammatical person, in the FUTURE Field. All Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and the Perfect, take on the auxiliary WILL.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT

THE SIMPLE

I, you, we, they learn
he, she, it learns

THE PROGRESSIVE

I am learning
you, we, they are learning
he, she, it is learning

THE PERFECT

I, you, we, they have learned
he, she, it has learned

NOTES

The feature S keeps company to the third person singular, he, she, it. We have the forms learns, is learning, and has learned.

VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

THE SIMPLE

learned
(I, you, we, they, he, she it)

THE PROGRESSIVE

I, he, she, it was learning
you, we, they were learning

THE PERFECT

had learned
(I, you, we, they, he, she it)

NOTES

The feature S remains with the Past Progressive singular, for the 1st and 3rd persons: I, he, she, it was learning.

The form LEARNED looks the same for the Simple, where it is the 2ND form, and the Perfect, where it is the 3RD form. The matter is going to be the same with all regular verbs.

We tell 2ND or 3RD forms by the syntax, by the way we put words together.

If our syntax has the auxiliary HAVE, we use the 3RD form, for the FUTURE, PRESENT, as well as the PAST.

The PAST Simple pattern uses the 2ND form of the head verb.

We know patterns, when we know how to use them. CHAPTER 4 has a picture for this.

We also can practice the forms a little, before we think about further grammar guidance.

3.4. ASPECT PATTERNS IN EXERCISES
LINK 3.4. ASPECT PATTERNS IN EXERCISES

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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