Everyday language has phrases as a flow or passage of time, a course or current of events: we people happen to have such impressions about life and time. Let us imagine a river of time.

Our river may be turbulent at times, but not always as bad as in the picture.

We may also imagine alive pods of time, to get across the river. The pods can carry us through even if the run of time is very fast (one is emerging in the picture above): to speak, we do not drive or change the real time; we use the grammatical time in context.

The river and the pods may help with imagined tasks, before we take real linguistic challenges in real time. We can always abandon the imagery.


Let us picture there are word patterns to show in the river, and the pods of time surface with them. We need to use a pattern, for a pod to carry us through.

There is something in the patterns we know from the fields of time. The fields symbolize the grammatical PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE.

 The river also shows particles, ING and 3RD.
Let us picture the pods together.

The particle ING comes with the verb to be. The particle 3RD comes with the verb to have.

The first line of pods has markings as S and 2ND.
The feature S occurs in our PRESENT field of time, with objects of thought that use the pronouns he, she, or it.

■→CHAPTER 1 tells about the feature S, and ■→PRACTICE 2.1 tells about forms of verbs.The particle 3RD marks the third form of verbs. The ■→EXTRAS tell about the color code. Feel welcome to further journey.

■→This text is also available in Polish.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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