In everyday language, we can speak about the flow of time, a course, or current of events. Let us try to imagine a River of Time.
The River of Time may be turbulent, but it is not always as bad.
We can travel across the River using the Stones of Time. The stones have acquired their luster in the fast run of time.
Initially, when we only begin language work in a perspective, we may speak or write slower than later, when the language and the perspective belong well with our skills. We may feel we need more time to put our thoughts together.
The Stones of Time are to help us begin with imagined tasks, before we happen to face real linguistic challenges. We may feel we have little time, with real challenges.
When we speak, write, read, watch television, or listen to radio shows, there occur regularities, in every kind of talk. The regularities are grammatical tense patterns. We could not communicate without them.
Learning the patterns can be quite some work, not only in English. APPENDIX 4 can show how confusing they would be, if we tried merely to memorize them. We are going to be better off, learning to make the patterns on our own.
Imagination can help. Our River is imagined and the Stones are imagined. We can picture there are word patterns that show with the Stones. We need to use a pattern, to have a Stone of Time for our passage.
Let us think if the patterns have anything familiar, something from the Fields of Time.
There are our core verbs, will, be, and have in our patterns. They are the same as in our Fields of Time. We can compare CHAPTER 1.
Let us join our views, for the Fields and River of Time. We pictured the Fields to grasp the idea of the grammatical PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE.
There are particles, ING and 3RD, in our River patterns. In school, we can learn they let recognize and use the Progressive and Perfect grammatical tenses. The tenses are grammatical time patterns we can make also to talk about real time.
With progress, we may learn that grammar recognizes structures as the Future in the Past, and that also with Modal verbs. The idea of a time that would be just grammatical is very useful for those. Let us mark our patterns with grammar names.
We can note from the above that the Progressive pattern has the verb to be and the particle ING.
The pattern named Perfect uses the verb to have and the particle 3RD, that is, the third form of the verb.
Our PRACTICE 2.1. talks about the forms of verbs.
Now, our greatest mystery might be the first row of Stones. There is only the verb form “will”, along with particles (es) and –ED.
We can know from CHAPTER 1 that (es) is a feature for the 3rd person singular, as he, she, or it.
PRACTICE 2.1. shows –ED as a marker for the second form of the verb.
Many schools can affirm, this must be the Simple pattern for the grammatical time. We can match the label.
To know how to use the patterns, we work out what the grammatical labels and patterns mean. Feel welcome to further journey.
3.1. THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT