Much has been written and said on what great difference it is, if we speak a language natively or as a foreign tongue, or how peculiar foreign language learning can be, in comparison with learning the first tongue in childhood.

Let us remember, there are no inborn language habits. There are no inborn grammar books either, and learning a language always requires thinking.

Would we say we use the verb to be because Mr. Y, a grammarian, says so? It might not stand for a good reason.

Repeating after people or books would not give us the flexibility we need to talk. This is why we have exercises as here: to make ourselves flexible habits for language.

Exercise 1. Let us try to use the verbs to be, to have, and to do, for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE, with the grammatical person (we refer to chapter 1).

With the pronouns I, you, he, she, and it, we may speak about single individuals or objects. We name this the singular, in grammar.

In simple words, let us put the verbs in the Fields of Time.

If we already know the forms well, we can take the exercise as a mild brainteaser. We consciously practice the Field (grammatical time) first. We can use the GRAMMAR VISUALS.

Example: PRESENT, (be), she

Answer: is

1. PRESENT, (do), I

2. FUTURE, (do), you

3. PAST, (have), I

4. PRESENT, (be), he

5. PAST, (be), you

6. FUTURE, (have), she

7. PAST, (have), it

8. PRESENT, (be), you

9. FUTURE, (do), he

10. PAST, (have), you

Exercise 2. In this exercise, we use the persons we, you, and they, too. This means we can speak about more than one individual or object.

In grammar, we name this the plural. We can use the pronoun youfor the singular and the plural, compare subchapter 3.2.

We may think about real people ― our acquaintances, friends as well as foes ― to do this exercise.


1. PAST, (do), they

2. PRESENT, (do), I

3. PRESENT, (have), he

4. FUTURE, (be), it

5. FUTURE, (be), we

6. PRESENT, (have), you

7. FUTURE, (have), we

8. PRESENT, (be), she

9. PAST, (do), they

10. FUTURE, (have), you

Exercise 3. We tell the grammatical time (the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE) and the person, for the verbs below. We can note “all persons”, where the form stays the same for all of them. We continue focusing on time first: we can stay with our visuals and Fields of Time.

Example: do

Answer: PRESENT, I, you, we, they

1. are; 2. will do; 3. did; 4. will have; 5. has; 6. am; 7. does; 8. had; 9. were; 10. have; 11. will be; 12. was.

Grammar practice is not only pen and paper. It is also about a way to think. Feel welcome to the 1.2. Mind practice.

Link 1.2. Mind practice