THE ABSOLUTELY BASICS ABOUT THE USA

The governing body of the American democracy is the Congress. It comprises the Senate and the House of Representatives. It is located in the Capitol Hill, in the picture above.

 

The Capitol Hill is located in Washington, District Columbia, D. C. in short. The District is the seat of United States federal authority.

 

The Congress shall have power to exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government of the United States,
says the Constitution.

 

Some interpreters mistake the area for 10 square miles (screenshot, Polish PARLIAMENT WEBSITE, source: SEJM.GOV.PL). We set a square of 10 miles on each side, for a ten miles square. The area is 100 square miles then.

 

Many researchers derive democracy from ancient Greece. How could we compare ancient Greece and modern America?

 

Ancient Greeks actually developed a proto-democracy: they happened to have kings and queens, depended on military leaders and bequeathed elitism.

 

America is a democracy. There have been no kings or queens of the USA. The head of the state is the President. The President resides in the White House.

 

PICTURE: THE WHITE HOUSE

 

Washington D.C. is the capital of the USA. District Columbia is on the American East Coast.
PICTURE: USA MAP

 

The state of Washington is on the West Coast.
PICTURE: WASHINGTON STATE

 

We can get maps of the USA at the National Atlas website, NATIONAL ATLAS.GOV.

 

We usually tell the name of our location along with the name of the state, if we give our address in the United States.

 

Washington state got its name after George Washington, the first American president. The state is the only American state named after a president.

 

PICTURE: GEORGE WASHINGTON

 

There are many places named Washington, in the United States. George Washington remains a prominent figure.

 

He fought for American freedom in the Revolutionary War against England. He was President in years 1789-1797, after the War.

 

The American Revolutionary War had its written formulation
in the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

 

The Revolutionary victory brought another historic formulation,
the UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION.

 

United States government was built “from scratch” by the “FOUNDING FATHERS”:

 

The constitutional reallocation of powers created a new form of government, unprecedented under the sun. Every previous national authority either had been centralized or else had been a confederation of sovereign states. The new American system was neither one nor the other; it was a mixture of both,
wrote historian Forrest McDonald[40]
on the FEDERALIST reflections by JAMES MADISON.

 

The new form of government is DEMOCRACY,
more advanced than Greek prototypes.

 

Advertisements

LANGUAGE MAPPING SUMMARY

The grammar course refers to the notion of the human language faculty, not the Language Acquisition Device. Our devices are strictly linguistic and symbolic implements.

 

Everyone has one PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE really. Three fields or extents can symbolize this reality, for the grammatical time (CHAPTER 1).
PICTURE: THE THREE FIELDS OF TIME; PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

 

In the Fields of Time, we observe on the verb form “will” mapping on the FUTURE already in the PRESENT grammatical form (CHAPTER 2).

 

We perceive and extract three Aspect patterns,
in CHAPTER 3 and SUBCHAPTER 3.1.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT PATTERNS, THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

 

We symbolize the first element in the Simple pattern with the Greek lemniscate, that is, the INDETERMINATE OR INFINITY: it can be any verb.

 

We associate grammar and human natural mapping, as with geography and travel, in CHAPTER 4.

 

We people live on Earth. We usually view lands or waters as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas in which we are. We perceive routes and ways to places. We happen to be at landmarks and places.

 

Such are human natural variables for space, in English. We can use them for the grammatical Aspect.
PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

Arrows are very familiar symbols to show or indicate the way. We combine our mapping and arrow symbols, to exercise our target grammatical time, in CHAPTER 5.

 

The ability will be vital with Modal verbs. Their forms may not tell directly what time the talk is about.

 

We make a color palette, and combine language components for the Affirmative, Negative, or Interrogative (SUB-CHAPTER 5.1).

 

VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

 

To expand our syntax, we learn to keep the head time (CHAPTER 6). We use time frames. We keep the real-time frame open for the Perfect, and we close it for the Simple or Progressive: Perfect tenses can make more than one reference in real time.

 

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND, AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

All along, we mind we use concepts, inventions, and symbols. We do not claim there is anything like time frames or time extents in human heads.

 

Common sense, if we can make a wheel, it does not mean we have wheels in our heads.

 

We compare our mapping variables {ON} and {IN} in CHAPTER 7. In classic terms, we compare the Simple and the Progressive, for the stative use of verbs as to love, to hate, to think.

 

We merge our mapping variables {IN} and {TO} for the Perfect Progressive, in CHAPTER 8.
PICTURE: THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE MERGER

We get a mapping variable {AT}, to manage all Aspects as we want.
PICTURE: 4 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

We do not change language. The following examples come from the Corpus of Contemporary American English, COCA:
This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
I’ve been loving it. But I want to keep doing different things.

 

We consider the variable {ON} for an earthling basic variable in SUB-CHAPTER 8.1. Astronauts also have learned language on Earth.

 

Modal verbs challenge us on the target time in CHAPTER 9.

 

We make relative time frames for Modal forms, and learn to keep the earthling basic variable, in SUBCHAPTER 10.1.

 

But the obstacles, she would have made progress.
(She did not make or has not made progress.)
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

*****

Despite the obstacles, she would have made progress.
(She has made progress.)
SYMBOLICS: MODAL MEDIATIONPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Feel welcome.
EMOTICON: SMILE

10.4. MORE WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

Exercise 64. The word “if” does not belong with Form Relativity only. We can change “if” for “whether”, when we talk about circumstances or results rather than provisions or causes.

 

We have the “if” we can change underlined, in the exercise.

 

To practice spoken comprehension, we can use abbreviated auxiliaries, reorder phrases, as well as use Inversion, for style and flexibility.

 

Example 1:
She did not know if she was right.

 

Answer:
She did not know whether she was right.

 

Example 2:
If he hadn’t been extremely busy,
he would’ve remembered about the coffee.

 

Answer:
Hadn’t he been extremely busy,
he would’ve remembered about the coffee.

 

Alternately:
Had he not been extremely busy,
he would have remembered about the coffee.

*****
TASK

1. If she weren’t reading the calligraphic,
she’d be sleeping.

 

2. If he was writing, reading, or talking,
the colloquium had him busy all the time.

 

3. If he hadn’t heard from Bill then,
he’d be writing him a letter now.

 

4. If it weren’t such a good quality,
she’d think it a mere prank.

 

5. If it sustains the quality throughout,
it’ll compare with the Bodleian Horace.

 

6. They will / can see in the library,
if they get the Medici print.

 

7. If it weren’t so conscientious,
he’d throw it in that Babbitt’s garden next door.

 

8. If it proves necessary,
she’ll have it carbon dated.

 

9. If it is as good as it looks,
it might be of worth even as just a calligraphic.

 

10. If it hadn’t been deprived of the front matter,
it would be easier to find out who made it.

 

Further journey brings the Causative and the Passive, our “have it carbon dated”, in example 8, and “had been deprived”, in example 10.

 

Exercise 65. We can use the word “if” also in the sense of the word “when”. Grammatically, it is up to our choosing, if we speak the premise or the result first.

 

The exercise is not grammatically difficult. Let us think how we could say it, as in EXERCISE 33 and EXERCISE 34.

 

Example:
IF you provision in the condition,
may stipulation precede in position.

 

Answer:
May stipulation precede in position,
WHEN you provision in the condition.

*****
TASK

1. You’ll make your adage suit,
IF you toot the root in the foot.

(We can look up word stress patterns in dictionaries).

 

2. IF the comma won’t curse or ban,
a dot might bid the span.

 

3. IF the verb does not adjust,
the pronoun must never entrust.

 

4. IF a Modal will emend,
may
diction recommend a robust complement.

 

5. IF meanings collate and debate,
may syntax negotiate.

 

Exercise 66. It is most often up to ourselves to decide, if we use Form Relativity. Let us practice the choosing. The arrow cues show the target grammatical time.

 

As in EXERCISE 43 and EXERCISE 58, we practice holding on to our grammatical thinking even against unusual wording.

 

Our inspiration is a fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen,
“THE LITTLE TINY OR THUMBELINA”.
Let us think the exercise over, as in MIND PRACTICE.

 

Example:
If there 1. (be) other Little Tinies, the Little Tiny 2. (can be) one of many similar beings.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 1-2

 

Answer, with Form Relativity:
If there were other Little Tinies, the Little Tiny could be one of many similar beings.

 

Alternate, without Form Relativity:
If there are other Little Tinies, the Little Tiny is / can be one of many similar beings.

 

A. “If I 3. (be) only one of many Little Tinies, I 4. (be) actually a Little Tiny”, the Tiny hypothesized.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 3-4

 

B. She 5. (be) strictly an inch tall and she 6. (want) a measure for her dreams.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 5-6

 

C. “A cubit 7. (be) the length of your forearm right to the tip of your middle finger”, she 8. (reckon).PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 7-8

 

D. However, a cubit 9. (be) factually about 17.5 inches.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASK 9

 

E. “If you 10. (have to think) about an inch to think about a cubit”, she went on hypothesizing, “my cubit N 11. (can be) a cubit, as I 12. (be) just an inch tall.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 10-12

 

G. She 13. (visualize) a cube. “If you really 14. (need to consider) measures, you 15. (figure) on a cube of a dream”, she made another theory.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 13-15

 

H. Nothing was positively two-dimensional. “Even if you 16. (reason) on your forearm simply, you 17. (will make) it out for three-dimensional”, she 18. (speculate).PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 16-18

 

I. “If nothing 19. (be) truly two-dimensional, dreams 20. (be) non-two-dimensional, too.”PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 19-20

 

J. “You 21. (can have) a cube of a dream, if you 22. (want) to tell whether your dreams are big or small?”PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 21-22

 

K. She 23. (start) to entertain the theory. Once you 24. (agree) to a measure, you 25. (can add up) cubes with dreams like with anything else.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 23-25

 

L. Well, but a Thumbelina 26. (can have) a cube of a dream, if cubes 27. (be) cubits big, too? The Tiny 28. (sigh) with uncertainty.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 26-28

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Exercise 67. Let us be back with the grain of sand. The word “if” is not the only word to help make hypotheses. Let us try the words “as” and “when”.

 

They can work as conjunctions. “As” would agree with the premise. “When” would allow an opposite sense. We can know the study of meaning as semantics.

 

Example:
“If I N (be) a grain of sand, I (be) more prone to be of a like mind with a westerly wind”, the grain of sand thought.

 

Answer:
“If I were not a grain of sand, I would be more prone to be of a like mind with a westerly wind”, the grain of sand thought.

 

Task B gives the NODUS for the exercise. We put the thought in quotes in the grammatical PRESENT. All other phrasing is in the time of the nodus, or relative to the time of the nodus.

 

The exercise can help us prepare for further journey: the Reported Speech and other linguistic challenges.

 

A. “If wits N (be) a real thing, you (can evade) the matter of their shape”, the grain of sand (deliberate).

 

B. The grain of sand did eight hours of thinking about composite things a day.
NODUSSYMBOLICS: A NODUS

 

C. As the eight hours N (be) immaterial, the faculty the grain of sand (employ) during the time N (can be) immaterial either, it (conclude).

 

D. Obviously, the faculty you (use) to ponder on composite things (have to be) the reasoning faculty.

 

E. Wits, whatever their quality, (have to be) of a shape, the grain of sand (feel).

 

F. Therefore, it (be) uncanny for a grain of sand and a wind to be of the same mind.

 

G. “A thought (can be) genuinely the same, when the wits (be) not?”

 

H. Possibly, asking the wind its opinion N (can decide) on the issue, the grain of sand (analyze).

 

I. Alternately, the phrase “the same thought” (may become) just a way to speak about potentially very dissimilar things.

 

J. Still, the phrase “the same thought” truly (exist) and (have) its real shape. “What (happen), if you (translate) it to another language?”

 

K. The grain of sand (wonder) for five minutes. The phrase sure (may change) in its look.

 

L. Then, the term “shape” N (will be) as easy to comprehend.

 

M. “The same thought (will render) the same shape of mind if you (give) it the look of another language?”

 

N. The grain of sand (immerse) in thought for another five minutes.

 

Exercise 68. We can join Jim Colderstone in winter Alaska. Alaska has the largest population of bald eagles in the USA. We can mark Modality with the letter M.

 

We do not have to use a Modal everywhere the letter M is. We can use more than one Modal where the letter M is, or is not, too. The symbol is just to encourage Modality.

 

We are in the grammatical PRESENT, and we include Expression, but the exercise is open-ended: no one can or may prescribe on a natural language.

 

When Jim ran into the office (CHAPTER 6), Jill was not there. She left him a note, before going on her Paris vacation.

 

We cannot demand insight into private correspondence. The exercise only renders the message, in a mystified way. We can try to guess what Jill might have written, after a minor discord.

 

Example: You M N 1. (have) the ambition to be the colder stone, if you M 2. (be) in winter Alaska yourself.

 

Answer: You would not have the ambition to be the colder stone if you could be in the winter Alaska yourself.

 

A. It M 3. (be) enough that you 4. (go) EPIC terrestrial and you M 5. (see) that the temperatures 6. (favor) a Colderstone for the role.

 

(We can go epic.noaa.gov/epic, if we want to go EPIC terrestrial ourselves.)

 

B. Although you M N 7. (go) to Alaska to do STEM paperwork only, you M 8. (like) the ridges of new green and the cool breeze in a shiny spring Alaskan morning.

 

(We can go nsf.gov for STEM programs.)

 

C. Space and time M 9. (become) a source of perplexity, if you 10. (think) about times outside the present.

 

D. Well, humans M N 11. (be) logic strictly. And temperature, for the senses to come together well, M N 12. (be) the source for all feeling.

 

E. If they N 13. (have) a place in a human discourse, words M N 14. (tell) anything exact. The place yet 15. (be) only hypothetical. This 16. (be) the human person to make language possible.

 

Let us take our story to the grammatical PAST.

 

Answer:
Naturally, you would not have the ambition to be the colder stone, if you could be in winter Alaska yourself.
AN OPEN MODAL FRAME IN THE PAST
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Alternate:

Naturally, you would not have had the ambition to be the colder stone, if you could have been in the winter Alaska yourself.
A MODAL FRAME CLOSED ON THE PAST
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

The alternate can “anchor” our discourse. The time-anchored alternate would tell about “there, then, that time, that winter: THE Alaska on the occasion, in the circumstance”.

 

*****

 

FROM THE KEY: Grammar resources vary so vastly in guidance on Modal verbs and the Conditional or Unreal Past that we may feel we need a comparison on language forms.

 

When we work out own, independent perspectives, we become able to use our language logic consistently.

 

It is enough we are consistent. We do not have to follow any particular resource, to be correct.

 

A.
MODAL MEDIATION in the PRESENT
It may / can be enough that you go EPIC terrestrial and you may / can see that the temperatures would favor a Colderstone for the role.

 

FORM RELATIVITY in the PRESENT
It could / might / would be enough that you went EPIC terrestrial and you might / would see that the temperatures might / would favor a Colderstone for the role.

 

2ND CONDITIONAL REFERENCE
If you went EPIC terrestrial, you would / might see that the temperatures might / would favor a Colderstone for the role.

 

NO MODAL MEDIATION or FORM RELATIVITY in the PRESENT
It is enough that you go EPIC terrestrial and you see that the temperatures favor a Colderstone for the role.

 

ZERO CONDITIONAL REFERENCE
If / When / As you go EPIC terrestrial, you see that the temperatures favor a Colderstone for the role.

*****

Feel welcome to continue with the language story in Part Three (!)

 

Part Three can bring
Jill’s library in plain canvas ― the speech part and the determiner manner and matter;
Chantelle’s travel to the Book Cliffs ― verbal nouns and other ways of syntax to the notional time;
Reported speech, the Passive, and many more components of our language landscape.
EMOTICON: SMILE
LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

10.3. WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

Envisioning language study as travel in a dimension, we could think about virtual words as guarding us against steep slopes. Let us warm up.

 

Exercise 60. To practice targeting time extents, we can use another virtual word, thimo. We can give it the gillyflower color, as for bimo.

 

BUTTON: SEE THE COLOR CODE AND VIRTUAL WORDS

 

Our virtual words are just to practice. Thimo has the sound “th” (ɵ). Learners happen to substitute or mistake it for other speech sounds.

 

We can practice our tongues. We may pronounce bimo [bImoU], with the tip of the tongue pressed against our lower teeth.

 

Then, we can try phimo [fImoU], with the tip of the tongue against the lower teeth, still.

 

Keeping our tongues firm at lower teeth may take conscious control.

PICTURE: TH PRACTICE

 

After, we can say thimo [ɵImoU], with the tip of the tongue at the upper teeth. We do not press the tongue against the teeth. We let a little air between.

 

This can help us become more aware and in control of our tongues.

 

PICTURE: TONGUE CONTROL
EMOTICON: A JOKE

We remember to think the exercise over, as in our MIND PRACTICE. The arrow cues show the target grammatical time. We regard our linguistic Form Relativity.

 

Example: If you thimoed, you bimoed.
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE SIMPLE, ARROWThe forms “thimoed” and “bimoed” together show there is no form relativity. Our target grammatical time is the FUTURE.

 

Answer: If you WILL thimo, you WILL bimo.

 

1. If you thimo, you bimo.SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

2. If you WERE ABLE TO thimo, you WERE ABLE TO bimo.SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

3. If you thimoed, you WOULD bimo.SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

4. If you HAD thimoed, you WOULD have bimoed.SYMBOLICS: FUTURE SIMPLE, ARROW

 

5. If you thimo, you WILL bimo.SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

6. If you thimoed, you WOULD bimo.SYMBOLICS: FUTURE SIMPLE, ARROW

 

7. If you HAD thimoed, you WOULD have bimoed.SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

8. If you thimo, you WILL bimo.SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Exercise 61. Let us try “jumping” time extents, as in EXERCISE 55. We provide the arrow cues for the target grammatical time. Our “jumping” symbols are,

 

SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD“One time extent forward”;

 

SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD“One time extent backward”.

 

We can present the flow of time as on a symbolic line.
SYMBOLICS, LINEAR FLOW OF TIME

 

Let us mind and say “thimo”: if we want to thank someone, we’d better not tank him or her.

 

We may compare a few more examples:
than (a comparative), tan (brown skin color to result from sunbathing),
these (a demonstrative), tease (to irritate),
thin (not thick, heavy, or broad), tin (a metal).

 

We can be specific about our Interrogative Expression and follow the place of the question mark.

 

Example: If you thimoed {?}, you bimoed.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

Answer: DO you thimo, if you bimo?
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Example: If you thimoed, you bimoed {?}
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

Answer: If you thimo, DO you bimo?
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

We can place the letter N for our Negative Expression specifics.

 

Example: If you thimoed {N}, you bimoed.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

Answer: If you DON’T thimo, you bimo.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Example: If you thimoed {N}, you bimoed {N}.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

Answer: If you DON’T thimo, you DON’T bimo.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Example: If you thimoed, you bimoed {N}.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

Answer: If you thimo, you DON’T bimo.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

*****
TASK

1. If you thimoed, you bimoed {?}SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

2. If you thimo {N}, you bimo.SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

3. If you thimoed, you WOULD bimo {?}SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

4. If you HAD thimoed, you WOULD HAVE bimoed {N}.SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

5. If you thimo, you WILL bimo {N}.SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

6. If you thimoed, you WOULD bimo {N}.SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

7. If you HAD thimoed, you WOULD HAVE bimoed {?}SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

8. If you thimo, you WILL bimo {?}SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

9. If you thimoed {N}, you WOULD bimo.SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

10. If you HAD thimoed {N}, you WOULD HAVE bimoed {?}SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

Exercise 62. We can be back with someone we met in EXERCISE 37. Ms. Seges appeared already in Part One of our grammar course.

PICTURE: MS. SEGES

We were learning about personal pronouns, then (CHAPTER 1).

 

If we have read the note for exercise 56 (in our MODAL RELATIVITY PRACTICE), we know that “we” can work as a personally neutral figure of speech (I do not presume you remember all detail).
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

The same note mentions figurative thinking. We can mark the time frame and Aspect features when a story is fictional, too.

 

It is weekend, late morning. Mr. Seges ― he never appeared in our grammar story before ― returns from a literary meeting.

 

Example: Ms. Seges is home, in her study. Though she had worked most of the night on her new book, she would be analyzing some old papers, now.

 

Answer: Ms. Seges is home.

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Though she had worked most of the night on her new book,
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

she would be analyzing some old papers, now.
SYMBOLICS: MODAL MEDIATIONSYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

We mind we can view Modal structures as modified real-time phrases
(SUB-CHAPTER 10.1).
Here, the phrase is not about a theory.
In our story, Ms. Seges is in her study, analyzing some old papers.

 

Let us compare a theory:
There is something very interesting about the old papers.
Otherwise, she would be sleeping.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INSYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

*****

TASK

1. MR. SEGES: Honey, I’m back. What are you doing?

 

2. MS. SEGES: I’d be reading horoscopes.
(Ms. Seges never reads horoscopes.)

 

3. That is…?
(Mr. Seges does not believe she would ever read horoscopes.)

 

4. This looks like a calligraphic copy of Vespucci’s letters. It was slipping out of our backyard hedge, no covers or front matter.

 

5. Hadn’t it sure taken a lot to make such a book, I’d suspect that Babbitt next door.

 

6. You remember, Bill wrote the book I was looking for was as likely to be obtained as a calligraphic of Vespucci’s originals.

 

7. And it was the title the Babbitt gave me. It was completely a legend, Bill even checked with the Freeman’s.”

 

8. About legends, my favorite Chicago blend is…

 

9. Honey, I would have remembered about the coffee; but I was so preoccupied…

 

10. I’m putting that with my records. The coffee is not completely a legend. It continues to exist somewhere in Chicago.EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us remember about text rich interpretation, as in EXERCISE 55. Babbitt is a character by Sinclair Lewis, an American writer. The Freeman’s is a famous auction house to specialize also in books.

 

Amerigo Vespucci described his voyages in letters to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici. Calligraphic copies were still quite a habit for most important documents, in Vespucci’s times.

*****

Not only books and their covers could be stylish. Inversion can be a matter of style.

 

It does not indicate a question in the pattern Hadn’t it sure taken a lot (of work)”, above.

 

Relative verb forms also allow the past plural “were” for pronouns I, he, she, and it. We can say, “If I were, If he / she / it were…” to hypothesize generally about the PRESENT.

 

Forms as “If I / he / she / it was…” may sound more particular. The form “were” is more widely acknowledged, especially in school contexts.

 

Formal American English also favors full forms of verbs.

 

If I was Santa, I would not be (wouldn’t be) looking for a spare bag now.

 

If I were Santa, I would be (I ‘d be) a book Santa: I would give away books to kids.

 

Skimming can encourage effective learning; feel welcome to have a peek into EXERCISE 64, before doing this one.

 

Exercise 63. Let us focus on Form Relativity with the Progressive. We remember about the earthling proper egoism (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 8.1).

 

We have the value {IN} next to the verb to go with the Progressive. However, we can stay {ON} our cognitive grounds for qualities, hearts and minds (CHAPTER 7).

 

Example: {PAST}, he, N 1. (be) extremely busy, 2. (remember) {IN} to bring that brand coffee.

 

Answer: If he had not been extremely busy, he would have remembered to bring that brand coffee.

 

For both the verb phrases, are symbolics is going to be
A CLOSED MODAL FRAME, AND GRAMMATICAL TARGET PAST
SYMBOLICS: CLOSED MODAL FRAME -- GRAMMATICAL TARGET PAST

 

Please think if to use FORM RELATIVITY in example 2. A non-relative form will show a number of activities different from the relative. We can use Modals other than WILL, too.

*****

1. {PRESENT}, she, N read {IN} the calligraphic, she, sleep {IN}.
(She worked on her new book all night.)

 

2. {PAST}, he, N write {IN}, he, read or talk {IN}.
(The colloquium was very engaging.)

 

3. {PAST}, he, N hear {IN} from Bill then, {PRESENT}, he, write {IN} him a letter now.

 

4. {PRESENT}, it, N be {IN} such a good quality, she, think it a mere prank.

 

5. {FUTURE}, it, N sustain {IN} the quality throughout, it, compare {IN} with the Bodleian Horace and Francis Crease talent.

 

6. {FUTURE}, they, look in the library, they, get the Medici print.
(Someone most probably made it from the Medici print.)

 

7. {PRESENT}, it, N be so conscientious, he, throw it in that Babbitt’s garden next door.

 

8. {FUTURE}, it, prove necessary, she, have it carbon dated.

 

9. {PRESENT}, it, be as good as it looks, it, M be of worth even as just a calligraphic.

 

10. {PAST} it, N deprive of the front matter, {PRESENT}, it, be {IN} easier to find out who made it.

 

Feel welcome to some more exercise. We are gradually getting independent of cues. Real-time, we people speak without them.
10.4. MORE WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK
BUTTON: 10.4. MORE WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE

We would not have progress for something hypothetical only. We might question the making of Progressive auxiliary forms.

 

Do we need to shift our variables to a hypothetical time span, to make patterns as,
“If we were lazy,
we would have BEEN doING
something else for the past hour” (10.1)?

 

Our Modal relativity extent always keeps the variable {ON}. We do not say “*we are maying”, “*we are mighting”, or “*we are musting”.

 

We can picture the relative, auxiliary extent as expanding from the variable {ON}, our earthling basic variable (SUB-CHAPTER 8.1).

 

PICTURE: MODALITY VARIABLE ON

 

We noted on feature transfer for our anchor HAVE, in SUB-CHAPTER 10.1. Auxiliary time may net or ignore duration; possibly, it would not merely repeat the variables we have with our real-time cognitive map.

 

Syntax yet might carry the Progressive feature to activate with the auxiliary rather than main time, when we decide.

 

PICTURE: FEATURE SYNTACTIC TRANSFER, WOULD HAVE BEEN DOING

*****

In English, we happen to use the same word forms for nouns, as well as verbs, or adjectives.

I am reading a book (SPEECH PART: NOUN);

I have booked (SPEECH PART: VERB) tickets;
It is good to use book (SPEECH PART: ADJECTIVE) knowledge reasonably.

 

It even must be that our minds can make language information pools, for that. Feature transfer would be possible within an information pool.

 

We can symbolically picture a feature pool as below, and use it for fun, as a “wheel of fortune”.

PICTURE: A SYMBOLIC POOL OF LANGUAGE FEATURES

Sometimes, a feature would exclude another. We do not say “*have mayed” or “*have musted”, for example. We have the features on opposite sides.

 

Features also can merge, as the ING for the Perfect Progressive, or add up, as our head and syntactic forms of “HAVE”.

 

Have fun (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE
10.3. FORM RELATIVITY: WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK
BUTTON: 10.3. FORM RELATIVITY, WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

10.1. THE UNREAL PAST OR CONDITIONAL: REAL TIME

Let us try a few more quotes.

 

More than that, and breaking precedent once more, I do not intend to commence any sentence with these words ― “If George Washington had been alive today”, or “If Thomas Jefferson”, or “If Alexander Hamilton”, or “If Abraham Lincoln had been alive today…”
Theodore Roosevelt, American President

PICTURE: PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT

PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT

 

Grammar resources might label the quote from Theodore Roosevelt as the 3rd Conditional, Unreal Past, or even the Past Unreal Conditional, dependent on the grammar approach solely.

 

Some of those resources would tell we build the 3rd Conditional of the Past Perfect and the Future in the Past.

 

We would have to recognize the Past Perfect for a potentially Unreal form, then.

 

Worse still, our “Unreal Past Perfect” would be as good as merely a fancy. Please compare a quote from Gerald Ford.

 

If Lincoln were alive today, he’d be turning over in his grave.

 

PICTURE: PRESIDENT GERALD FORDPRESIDENT GERALD FORD.

 

It is not only for our pension plans that we might be unwilling to have the Past Perfect for merely a fancy.

 

With Perfect tenses overall, our syntactic HAVE helps tell about real time. It has an open, real-time frame. To compare physical space, we might think about paths or routes on real ground.

 

{TO} is our cognitive variable.
We have the variable to render duration and time spans.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HAVE WORKED -- I HAD WORKED

 

With the Unreal grammatical time or Conditional, HAVE brings hypothetical time. It is not part the real map, then.

 

It comes with an auxiliary compass for relative time, and closes the frame for the theory. We attach the auxiliary compass to the Modal.

 

Our cognitive variable is {ON}.

 

TEXT EXTENT: WE MAY HAVE WORKED -- MIGHT HAVE WORKED

Duration and time span become generalized.
We have called it our Modal Net.

 

TEXT EXTENT: MODAL NET, MAY HAVE JUMPED, MIGHT HAVE STOPPED

Whether our verb would be to read, to speak, to run, to stop, or to jump, duration becomes non-essential, with a theory closed frame.

 

The matter is exactly the same with the anchor HAVE in Theodore Roosevelt’s quote. The phrase, “had been alive”, is not concerned with longevity or shortness of life.

 

The phrase narrates about being alive generally, and we could quote Gerald Ford’s wording, “were alive” for an exact paraphrase.

 

Naturally, we might note that live people would not be likely staying in their graves, but our thing here is to work grammar for language uses as they are, even if absolutely abstract or humorous.

EMOTICON: SMILE

We may recur to CHAPTER 10. Our example was
“If you HAD eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT HAVE had it (at some later, but still PAST time)”.

 

Again, the anchor HAVE pays no heed to the length of time it takes to eat a cookie. It helps mind if the cookie remains, or has been consumed in the course of events.

 

The syntactic role is narrative, not factual.
We may compare SUB-CHAPTER 9.2.
I thought the handle MIGHT HAVE / COULD HAVE broken off.
(It turned out it was still in place.)

 

However we know the theory was against fact, we can tell our story with the anchor HAVE.

 

About stories and their telling, the Conditional or grammatical “unreal time” are often backtrack logic: we look to the consequent, to speculate on the premise.

 

Let us think if language might transfer features.

 

PICTURE: BACKTRACK LOGIC, FEATURE TRANSFER

We can view the phrase had eaten as a transfer of the syntactic anchor from the consequent.

 

We may think about a similar transfer for the Passive, where the object becomes the subject and the predicate adapts.

 

We do not need to view the anchor HAVE as the real-time Past Perfect. For speculation as “had been alive” or “were alive”, the choice is purely stylistic.

 

Let us try another president quote.

*****

“If I had permitted my failures, or what seemed to me at the time a lack of success, to discourage me, I cannot see any way in which I would ever have made progress.”
Calvin Coolidge, American President

PICTURE: PRESIDENT CALVIN COOLIDGE

CALVIN COOLIDGE IN 1910, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

 

Grammar resources might label the above as the 2nd Conditional, or view the phrase “I WOULD have made progress” as a Modal modification of a real-time “I HAVE made progress”.

 

The argument might be, the words definitely refer to a time span, between some time PAST and PRESENT, in which progress has been made.

 

Let us consider two views to our syntactic structures. We began building our language structures joining the grammatical Person, Time, and Aspect.

 

Modal verbs have brought form relativity and auxiliary grammatical time. Let us picture these language components.

 

PICTURE: THE BASIC POOL OF LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

Let us think where the verb TO HAVE might occur, as an auxiliary or head verb.

 

PICTURE: THE VERB ‘TO HAVE’ AS PART THE LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

 

For the auxiliary time, we may compare SUB-CHAPTER 9.1.
Modality is not indispensable:
We can have auxiliary time without it, too.
I am happy to have exercised;
I was happy to have exercised;
I will be happy to have exercised.

 

Let us change the verb “to exercise” into the verb phrase “to make progress”.
I am happy to have made progress;
I was happy to have made progress;
I will be happy to have made progress.

 

Let us modify our infinitive with the Modal form MAY.
I am happy I may have made progress;
I was happy I might have made progress.
I will be happy I may have made progress.

 

We can view phrases as modified, as well. Our view is likely to depend on the context and word sense, namely, if a phrase looks a theory, or not.

 

The progress in Calvin Coolidge quote is not a theory.
I cannot see any way in which I would HAVE made progress.

 

Our symbolics is to help comprehend.
For Calvin Coolidge quote, we can use
MODAL MEDIATION, REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME.
SYMBOLICS: MODAL MEDIATIONPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

For a theory, we may compare,
But the obstacles, she WOULD HAVE made progress.
But she has not made any progress.
The symbolics to help see the difference can be
A CLOSED MODAL FRAME.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

*****

Let us think how the Modal frame closes. With our modified infinitive above, Modality is attached as a subordinate clause. It does not make the main grammatical time.

 

Let us compare Modality for our main or head, real time.

 

If someone asked,
“What HAS she BEEN doing?”
An answer as,
“She MAY HAVE BEEN working”,
would close the hypothetical time on the grammatical and real-time PRESENT, just as the question.

 

Saying, “She MAY HAVE finished by tomorrow”, or “She WILL HAVE finished by tomorrow”, we would close our hypothetical time on tomorrow.

 

We can use our auxiliary time extent with all grammatical time, but we need to mind the form of the Modal verb alone, for the main time.

 

PRESENT Modal forms tend towards the grammatical PRESENT or FUTURE.

If we say we CAN or MAY work, the hypothesis goes into the FUTURE a little. Our Modal frame remains open. SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Modal shapes we class as PAST tend towards the PAST or PRESENT. It is only with the open frame that we can use PAST Modal forms for the grammatical FUTURE.

 

We might say,
“We COULD do this tomorrow,”
but without auxiliary HAVE.

PICTURE: MODAL VERB TENDENCIES IN THE FIELDS OF TIME

For our main time, we would not produce forms as
*She COULD HAVE / MIGHT HAVE finished by tomorrow.

 

The only exception would be the Modal WILL itself, but it is our regular mapping word for the FUTURE.
She WOULD HAVE finished by tomorrow.

 

The form “CAN” is quite special. We use it to tell what we are really able to do; we have the skill, or even mastery and finesse. Many grammar resources discourage closing the frame on it in the Affirmative, whatever the grammatical time.

 

If we are tentative about a future result, we can say
“Maybe it WILL HAVE ended by tomorrow”.
We may view the structure as the real-time Future Perfect, with an open real-time frame.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

*****

Language is not a record or chronicle. It does not require absolute certainty about things coming true, or confirmation in events, for the thought to be real and for the structure to be grammatical.

*****

Do we need to resolve between labels as “Unreal Past” or “Conditional”? Let us mark individual verbs for grammatical form, in these words by Franklin Delano Roosevelt:

 

“No group and no Government CAN (FORM: PRESENT) properly prescribe precisely what SHOULD (FORM: PAST) constitute the body of knowledge with which true education is (FORM: PRESENT) concerned.”

 

It is obvious there must be a relative interpretation for grammatical from, and the extent for this relativity embraces the verb phrase.

 

A verb phrase can be one verb, or a verb structure, as with auxiliary HAVE.

 

Classing entire stretches of language as Conditional or Unreal Past, we might feel lost for the main time. We can stay by terms as “a relative verb form”, or “verb form relativity”.

 

Verb forms would be relative to the main grammatical time, the reference we make for the real time.

*****

Well, we may have worked out some logic. If we were lazy, we would have been doing something else for the past hour.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

For a competent insight into our syntax, let us consider the Progressive. Feel welcome.
10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: 10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

CHAPTER 10. FORM RELATIVITY GALORE

With Modal verbs and patterns as the Conditional or Unreal Past, we may feel about language form more as a reflection.

 

Let us see if we could apply our MODAL TIME FRAME to guidance on the Unreal Past or the Conditional.

*****

There has been much dispute over the Conditional. Some grammarians reject it altogether.

 

Let us remember that labeling does not change the objective language reality. It cannot decide on how linguistic forms may work within human discourse.

*****

Let us use Conditional patterns, to compare language forms. We mind our target grammatical time, the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

We can practice with the verb TO HAVE. It can mean keeping, tolerating, or eating something.

 

As a syntactic verb, HAVE may provide the auxiliary time for Modal verbs. Let us look to the syntax and negotiation of meaning: how do we eat a cookie and have it?

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Our cookie is perfectly digestible. To choose on the word sense, we can underline the HAVE to mean keeping, tolerating, or eating.

 

We look to the premise (if you eat the cookie) and the consequent (you do not have it).

 

In PRACTICE 9.4. we viewed time as on a symbolic line.
SYMBOLICS: LINEAR FLOW OF TIME

 

ZERO CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PRESENT
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT

83. If you eat the cookie, you DO NOT have it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: PRESENT

If you eat {PRESENT}, you DO {PRESENT} NOT have
PICTURE: LANGUAGE FORM, PRESENT -- TARGET TIME, PRESENT, NO RELATIVITY

*****

1ST CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE FUTURE
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

84. If you eat the cookie, you WILL NOT have it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: PRESENT

If you eat {PRESENT}, you WILL {PRESENT} NOT have
PICTURE: RELATIVITY, LANGUAGE FORM, PRESENT -- TARGET TIME, FUTURE

We began our journey viewing the verb form “WILL” in the Fields of Time.

 

PICTURE: THE VERB FORM ‘WILL’ IN THE FIELDS FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

We noted there is not really a FUTURE shape for the verb form WILL.
We do not say *will will.

 

The verb form WILL maps on the FUTURE already in the PRESENT grammatical shape.

PICTURE: THE VERB FORM ‘WILL’ MAPPING ON THE FUTURE

We can compare Modal uses of WILL
85. She WILL be reading now.
(I am sure she is reading now.)

*****

2ND CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PRESENT
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT

86. If you ate the cookie, you WOULD NOT have it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: PAST

If you ate {PAST}, you WOULD {PAST} NOT have
PICTURE: RELATIVITY, LANGUAGE FORM, PAST -- TARGET TIME, PRESENT

*****

3RD CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PAST
VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

87. If you had eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT have had it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: ANTECEDENT PAST

If you had eaten {ANTECEDENT PAST},
you WOULD NOT have {ANTECEDENT PAST} had
PICTURE: RELATIVITY, LANGUAGE FORM, ANTECEDENT PAST -- TARGET TIME, PAST

*****

4TH (MIXED) CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PAST and PRESENT

VISUALS: FIELDS OF TIME, THE PAST AND THE PRESENT

 

88. If you had eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT have it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: ANTECEDENT PAST and PAST

If you had eaten {ANTECEDENT PAST},
you WOULD {PAST} NOT have
PICTURE: RELATIVITY, MIXED

*****

We have marked our HAVES: If you HAD eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT HAVE had it then.

 

The syntactic HAVE is green. The head verb, the notional HAVE is mauve and underlined. It may mean keeping, tolerating, or. . . eating something.

 

We may compare examples about Chantelle Règle having her extra Larousse, in SUB-CHAPTER 8.1.

 

Syntax can make us prone to interpret the notional HAVE as keeping something, in examples as 91a―d, though we can eat meals as well as have them.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Do we have to adopt the Conditional, to use Conditional patterns? Let us compare ideas.

 

Some grammars will say we use the First Conditional when the probability of something is high, and we use the Second for things more probable than those in the Third.

 

Grammars that reject the Conditional may support structures they name the Unreal Past. Let us consider the probability for saying,

 

89. If I WERE you, I WOULD . . .
(Please find the comment on the use of WERE also in exercise 62.)

*****

Skimming can be part an effective learning strategy. We can go backward and forward in our study guides, to get a picture of the language itself. The more study guides, the better.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

The PROBABILITY to become another human individual literally and ever really is ZERO, for everyone.

 

90. *I AM you . . . / *You ARE me . . . ?
(There is zero probability, even if someone pretends another person.)

 

Example 92 could be the Second Conditional or Unreal Past. Regardless of the label, it conveys zero probability, for the PRESENT, PAST, as well as FUTURE.

 

What would be if he were …

PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE

… if he were her … and if she were him …?

 

PICTURE: ALICE, AUTUMN STROLL

 

Bob says an unreal past could not exist without an unreal present or future, and he really wants to go to the Himalayas.

 

Alice says there never could be literally such a time as unreal time; just as well, you could try to have a cat for an unreal dog.

 

She pretends she is seeing bubbles, when it comes to unreal reality, and practices that too, sometimes.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Feel welcome to the GRAMMAR GRAPEVINE.

 

Chantelle says the world’s worst advice she ever got always came with someone saying, “If I were you…”

 

She skips the phrase owing to her language economy, also when she listens. She feels different about saying or hearing, “If I were in your shoes…”

 

PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S KITCHEN TALK

 

“I’d have fresh veg every morning.”
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Bob is not thinking about the high Himalaya: he is too small. It is not only in highest mountainous areas we may want to manage, however.

 

PICTURE: QUICKDRAW

 

91. If you HAD NOT taken care of it, this handle WOULD HAVE broken off.

 

PICTURE: WOMAN ON A CLIFF WAVING THE FLAG

 

Within the probability approach, example 91 is the 3rd Conditional, which tells about the least probable events. The example yet might be telling about a prevented thing.

 

Let us think about probability a little further.

 

92. If you take care of this handle now, it still MIGHT work.
(The probability is low.)
SYMBOLICS: 1 CUBE

 

We can transform the example and say,

92a. If you take care of this handle now, it WILL work.
(The probability is very high.)
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

Both 92 and 92a could receive the same label — of the First Conditional — and they differ in PROBABILITY very much.

 

In 92, taking care of the handle is probable to result in its working.

 

In 92a, the probability amounts to CERTAINTY. Taking care of the handle is sure to bring a working condition.

 

PROBABILITY is not going to explain on the use of forms. Let us try LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY.

 

PICTURE: PRESIDENT FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT

 

“It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something.”
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, American President

 

Let us sum up. For theory or guesswork, we can use

 

PRESENT verb forms to speak about the FUTURE,
PAST forms to speak about the PRESENT,
and
ANTECEDENT PAST forms to speak about the PAST.

 

Feel welcome to
10.1. THE CONDITIONAL OR UNREAL PAST: REAL TIME.
BUTTON: 10.1. THE CONDITIONAL OR UNREAL PAST: REAL TIME

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

9.4. MODAL RELATIVITY PRACTICE

We do not need to develop a hypothetical target time. We can return to our arrow cues and practice thinking about our regular linguistic targets, adjusting the Modal form.

 

It is enough we render the grammatical target as the rainbow is painted in the picture above: with an approximation.

 

Exercise 53. We warm up with virtual words and arrow cues. The cues never indicate the verb form; they indicate the target time.
BUTTON: SEE THE COLOR CODE AND VIRTUAL WORDS

 

For all of this exercise, our Modal time frame remains open
(SUB-CHAPTER 9.2).
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Our Modal is always going to be only relative to real time. Here, both PRESENT and PAST Modal forms can render a grammatical target as the PRESENT.

PICTURE: MODAL RELATIVITY

Example: may

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Answer: may be bimoing, or

 

might be bimoing

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 53, TASK

 

Exercise 54. We can try real verbs with the task from exercise 53. Let us remember about the stative use of verbs. We can use the variable {ON} for it, also if we have a Progressive cue.

 

Example: read, may
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Answer: may be reading, or
might be reading

 

1. write; 2. have (a good memory); 3. work; 4. know; 5. love; 6. think; 7. recall; 8. learn; 9. joke; 10. play.

 

Exercise 55. Let us try “jumping” time extents. We can view the flow of time as on a symbolic line.

SYMBOLICS, LINEAR FLOW OF TIME

 

Our cues mean,

SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD“One time extent forward”,

 

SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD“One time extent backward”.

 

Example: In Washington D.C., you WILL BE ABLE TO visit the Library of Congress.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

We give the target time cue and relative frame, for the underlined forms.
Answer: In Washington D.C., you can / may visit the Library of Congress.
SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROWSYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

1. After a day of a hop-on and hop-off the Washington trolley, you MAY feel you should have bought a two-day ticket.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

2. In Washington, we were renting right on the Potomac. The area was lovely. You just HAD TO take a walk along the river.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

3. You MUST book your seats in the Lisner Auditorium. The American Air Force jazz ensemble may perform live.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

4. You NEED TO give up on wading in the waterfalls of the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial Park. It is not allowed.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

5. You MAY enter the National Gallery of Art on first-come basis.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

*****

 

From the key: natural language happens to involve text rich interpretation. The “Washington trolley” will be the Washington trolley tour, for example.

 

Kids or adults, students or teachers, everybody uses rich interpretation of text quite often. It would be cumbersome to provide all details every time we speak, whatever the language.

 

We can learn to check on facts and trivia. Here is a sample search over Google. We just type Washington trolley in the search field.
https://www.google.ie/search?q=Washington+trolley&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b&gws_rd=cr&ei=Af2dV4bSOqLFgAa-vZrABQ

 

Example 1 has the Modal phrase “MAY feel” for a nodal reference. The phrase “SHOULD have bought” is a subordinate. We can have a peek at MAY for the PRESENT and FUTURE, in SUB-CHAPTER 10.1.

 

We also can view HAVE TO with a real-time closed frame and the infinitive. A phrase as, “We had to have worked hard”, could tell about a fact, not a hypothesis or opinion.

 

Many grammars will tell we can use BE ABLE TO rather than MAY, when we refer to the FUTURE.

 

However, if we resolve on example 3 as, “the ensemble will be able to perform”, we imply the ensemble might have difficulty playing, and the matter is about probability, not potential.

 

We can think about MAY with an open relative frame, to suggest prospect: “(Tomorrow) the American Air Force jazz ensemble MAY perform live”.

 

In example 5, we talk about permission. We may choose to say, “We will be able to / We will be allowed to…”

 

Exercise 56. We try “targeting” time extents. Our target time extent is the one in which we “land”. Let us be flexible, especially with examples 3 and 5.

 

We can refer our examples to American literature. Let these here invoke the ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN by Mark Twain.

 

Example: I thought I WOULD behave a while if I COULD.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- PRESENT

 

Answer: I think I WILL behave a while if I CAN.

 

I think I WOULD behave a while if I COULD.
(We mind the Relativity.)

 

1. But how CAN we do it if we don’t know what it is?
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- PAST

 

2. The widow rung a bell for supper, and you HAD TO come to time.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- FUTURE

 

3. And more ― they‘VE GOT TO (HAVE TO) waltz that palace around over the country wherever you want it, you understand.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- PAST

 

4. It fetched us a dollar a day apiece, all the year round ― more than a body COULD tell what to do with.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- FUTURE

 

5. Well, three or four months run along, and it was well into the winter, now. I had been to school most all the time, and COULD spell, and read, and write just a little, and COULD say the multiplication table up to six times seven is thirty-five, and I don’t reckon I COULD ever get any further than that if I was to live forever.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- PRESENT

*****

From the key: The phrases “you understand” (example 3), or “I don’t reckon” (example 5), tell the time of the narrator, the character to tell the story.

 

Human lives are not just stories, but the narrator time can help comprehend the notional time, the time of the person who speaks.

 

There is no universal notional time. We have to learn to keep own notional times. We can have our notional time for our psychological time, too.

 

Narratives or stories often use the personal pronoun we.
In our grammar story, the pronoun we is a personally neutral figure of speech. We can discuss language without assuming on me or you.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

The phrase “if I was to live forever” is an example of figurative thinking. CHAPTER 10 has more. Part Three expands on speech parts, as in “three or four months run along”.

*****

Exercise 57. Let us try to choose our Modals. We can stay on associations with Huckleberry for a while.

 

Example: He MAY / WILL be in the woods now.
(I know that he is in the woods.)

 

Answer: He WILL be in the woods now.

 

1. Let us not worry about it. There WILL / CAN be no advantage to it.
(It is certain that there is going to be no advantage.)

 

2. They HAD TO go / MAY HAVE gone out to the woods.
(The woods are not the only way.)

 

3. You SHOULD learn / SHOULD HAVE learned the way through the woods.
(Now is the time to learn.)

 

4. You MAY / WILL get lost in these woods.
(It is certain.)

 

5. They HAD TO get / MAY HAVE gotten lost in the woods.
(We are looking for them. The only way is through the woods.)

 

6. You SHOULDN’T/ CAN’T get lost in these woods.
(It is impossible. You know the way very well.)

 

7. He DIDN’T HAVE TO get / COULDN’T HAVE gotten lost in the woods.
(He knew the way.)

 

8. They MUST HAVE / MAY HAVE gotten lost in the woods.
(They took the way through the woods.)

 

9. You MAY / HAVE TO avoid the way through the woods.
(It is not safe.)

 

10. You WOULD HAVE / SHOULD HAVE gotten lost in the woods.
(That was certain.)

*****

From the key: In example 4, the Modal verb WILL tells about CERTAINTY for the PRESENT and the FUTURE. The FUTURE is usually an open context, the way life on Earth has been.

 

We use WILL when we are sure or resolved about something. We may compare example 3 in Exercise 55 and try to avoid the cumbersome, soothsayer style in our English that would result if we always used WILL for our FUTURE forms.

*****

Exercise 58. Our story is now about general POTENTIALITY and PROBABILITY, in the grammatical PAST. We do not require an auxiliary time extent. Our relative time frame remains open.

 

We can be back with the dayfly from EXERCISE 43, in sub-chapter 7.1. As in exercise 42, we practice to keep our grammatical thinking against even unusual wording.

 

Example: The dayfly (can think) about matter, without butterflies.

 

Answer: The dayfly could think about matter, without butterflies.

 

1. The dayfly (consider) it somewhat rude of the butterfly to make reservations on the wings. They (may differ), but there (be) no reason for the remark. Anyway, now the butterfly (have to be) far away, with its wings.

 

2. The dayfly (start) to think about infinity. If there (be) infinity, the word “infinite” (can) only denote it. You (need) five letters to write the word. The letters and the word (be) undeniably finite.
(NEED can be a head verb. Compare APPENDIX 1.)

 

3. There (have to be) some matter to the alphabet, the dayfly thought. Five letters (can make) an eight-letter word (!) You just (need to compose) them.

 

4. The number of possible words you (can make) with the alphabet (have to be) innumerable. That (be) the closest approximation to infinity the dayfly (may envision).

 

5. Letters also (can express) numbers. The dayfly (think) about other alphabets.

 

6. If there (will be) anything universal about all letters in the world, that (can be) the essence of writing. Nothing as universal readily (occur) to the dayfly, however.

 

7. Letters (may take) various shapes. Only language (may give) writing its matter.

 

8. The dayfly (start musing) if there (may be) universal thoughts.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

From the key: in example 1, the phrase “might differ” tells about holding to an opinion. We can give it an open frame. It is up to our choosing if and what opinions we hold. Further journey has more detail on Modal frames and nodal time.

 

We can be back with the westerly from EXERCISE 44.

*****

Exercise 59. The westerly is in the mountains. So far, our Modal time frames were ready for us: we only adapted the verb. Now, we have to decide if we open the frame or close it.

 

Generally, we are in the grammatical PAST. On top of everything, we think about Expression: we learn to manage big, real-life language information pools.

 

Example: The westerly (can gambol) on the shore a little longer, but it (gather) to go see the future: the mountains.

 

Answer: The westerly COULD HAVE gamboled on the shore a little longer, but it gathered to go see the future: the mountains.

 

1. What (will happen) about the present time ? The westerly (can perceive) something indivisible and intermediate about time. Time (be) in a way continuous. It (have to consist) of parts, however.

 

2. The present (have to border) on the past and the future. The present (be) somehow intermediary between the past and the future. However, how long (will) the present (be)? Sometimes, you (can view) the present as lasting as long as a day. Sometimes, it (will last) a split second.

 

3. Well, you (can) N (exist) only in the future or only in the past. With this regard, there always (will be) a present moment that (will be) the only present. There (will be) N anything of the past or the future, in the present?

 

4. The wester (get) to the mountains. They (be) its present now. The wester (can) N (think) about a more beautiful present. It (need) N the ocean to see something beautiful anymore.

 

5. How these beautiful mountains (can emerge)? The wester (speculate) if  winds (may shape) part their structure.

*****

From the key: With example 4, if we say the wester “COULDN’T think about a more beautiful present”, we place the matter in the mountains.

 

Alternately, if we say the wind “COULDN’T HAVE thought about a more beautiful present”, we make the frame on the time before it came to the mountains, when it was on the shore, in exercise 44.

*****

 

Grammar books will have much advice on Modal verbs with patterns named the Unreal Past or Conditional. For a comparison, let us try a grammar theory of relativity.

 

Our use of the word “relativity” is not about physics or families. It is linguistic. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 10.
BUTTON: CHAPTER 10, FORM RELATIVITY GALORE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISHu

9.3. DETAIL ON MODAL STRUCTURES

Modal Expression, especially the Interrogative or Negative, can give us some trouble, unless we approach the matter as science in a field: we analyze the molecules, see how they are doing, and make a model.

EMOTICON: SMILE

We can recur to CHAPTER 5, as well as compare APPENDIX 4.

 

54. We CANNOT skip the exercises.

 

55. We MAY NOT skip the exercises.

 

56. We WILL NOT skip the exercises.

 

57. We SHOULD NOT skip the exercises.

 

58. We OUGHT NOT TO skip the exercises.

 

59. We SHALL NOT skip the exercises.

 

60. We MUST NOT skip the exercises.

 

The form SHALL NOT may imply a conclusion, a decision ― more often in British English than in American, however. American English has the Modal WILL for resolves.

 

The Modal CAN attracts the particle NOT directly. They become one word, CANNOT. We may come upon the form CAN NOT in historic texts, as the GETTYSBURG ADDRESS.

 

PICTURE: ABRAHAM LINCOLN BY BYERS

 

President Abraham Lincoln gave the speech at the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in 1863.

 

The form “can not” is rarely used today. Feel welcome to read the ADDRESS as well as to do the VOLUNTARY EXTRA PRACTICE.

 

In the Affirmative, MUST NOT can mean that something is forbidden or strongly discommended. NEED can take on the regular negative. The auxiliary is the verb to do.

 

61. We DO NOT NEED to memorize dictionaries.

 

We can use the short form DON’T, when our contexts are not formal.
61a. We DON’T NEED to memorize dictionaries.

 

NEED can take a Modal negation, too. The Modal form may be more emphatic.

 

61b. We NEEDN’T memorize dictionaries.
(There is definitely no need to memorize dictionaries.)

 

HAVE TO takes the regular negative.

 

62. We DO NOT HAVE TO memorize dictionaries.
62a. We DON’T HAVE TO memorize dictionaries.

 

Our paths can diverge for NEED in the auxiliary PAST.

 

63. You DIDN’T NEED to do this.
(Something didn’t need to be done and it was not done.)

 

63a. You NEEDN’T HAVE done this.
(You did, but you COULD HAVE left it alone ― the thinking is about a hypothesis.)

 

Let us tackle the Interrogative. This is the Modal to move here.
CHAPTER 5 shows Inversion, along with the Negative Interrogative.

 

64. We CAN work a lot.
CAN we work a lot?

 

65. We MAY work a lot.
MAY we work a lot?

 

66. We WILL work a lot.
WILL we work a lot?

 

67. We SHOULD work a lot.
SHOULD we work a lot?

 

68. We OUGHT TO work a lot.
OUGHT we TO work a lot?

 

69. We SHALL work a lot.
SHALL we work a lot?

 

70. We MUST work a lot.
MUST we work a lot?

 

In Negative questions, the linguistic chemistry may depend on the form we use, short or full.

 

71. CAN we NOT work a lot?
71a. CAN’T we work a lot?

 

72. MAY we NOT work a lot?
72a. MAYN’T we work a lot?

 

73. WILL we NOT work a lot?
73a. WON’T we work a lot?

 

74. SHOULD we NOT work a lot?
74a. SHOULDN’T we work a lot?

 

75. OUGHT we NOT TO work a lot?
75a. OUGHTN’T we TO work a lot?

 

76. SHALL we NOT work a lot?
76a. SHAN’T we work a lot?

 

In questions, MUST NOT may ask about the proper course of things.

 

77. MUST we NOT work a lot?
77a. MUSTN’T we work a lot?

 

HAVE TO takes the regular Negative Interrogative.

 

78. DO we NOT HAVE TO work a lot?
78a. DON’T we HAVE TO work a lot?

 

Let us catch on to the Modal NEED in the grammatical PAST. It behaves more and more like a regular verb, in contemporary American.

 

79. DID you NOT NEED to work a lot?
79a. DIDN’T you NEED to work a lot?

 

Please compare,
80. NEEDN’T you HAVE worked a lot?

 

Expression 80 would be so rare that an American might consider it incorrect. Why is this? Asking questions involves making hypotheses.

 

Unless we ask a question for no reason or purpose and expect no answer at all, we make our questions thinking about some PROBABILITY at least.

 

Beside inversion, we can use the question mark or intonation alone, to make a question.

 

Let us regard language economy. In a language information pool, we may not need to provide information more than once.

 

80a. DIDN’T you NEED / HAVE TO work a lot?

 

An American could consider an alternate incorrect,
80b. *MUSTN’T you HAVE worked a lot?

 

NEED and MUST express a high degree of CONTINGENCY or CERTAINTY. Hypotheses with them might vary from those with other Modals: so many things SHOULD BE DONE, and they never are (!)

 

With high CONTINGENCY or CERTAINTY, we can net the hypothetical time: we have a strong hypothesis in the Modal alone. Here is our model (click to enlarge).

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: MODAL ECONOMY

MODAL ECONOMY; CLICK TO ENLARGE

 

Please compare the absolutely correct in American,
81. SHOULDN’T you HAVE read this all?

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

There is a structure close to the Modal verbs MUST, NEED, OUGHT TO or SHOULD. It is TO BE (SUPPOSED) TO.

 

82. You WEREN’T (SUPPOSED) TO get the gizmos.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can recur to the structure later in the grammar journey. Let us now exercise our brains in
9.4. MODAL RELATIVITY PRACTICE
BUTTON: 9.4. MODAL RELATIVITY PRACTICE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

9.2. THE MODAL TIME FRAME

Neither the Modal verb form alone, as COULD or MIGHT, nor Modal syntax alone, as COULD HAVE or MIGHT HAVE, is capable of telling the target grammatical time.

 

However, in all natural languages, we always speak or write in context. This means that our linguistic activity always has a cognitive ground.

 

We may recur to SUB-CHAPTER 6.2. Our example was Madame Règle, coming to lunch between 1.00 and 2.00 p.m., or not showing up at all.
At 1:30, Latimer Sauf might say,

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

At 2:30, Monsieur Sauf might say,
7a. I didn’t see her today.

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

It was his knowledge of the context to give him the cognitive ground.

 

So far, our verbs have been regular or irregular, but the patterns they made showed the grammatical PRESENT from PAST or FUTURE directly.

 

We have had green extents to symbolize their target grammatical time.
Very often, the target grammatical time in what we say is the same as real time.
We may recur to SUB-CHAPTER 5.1.

 

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

Modal patterns are not so clear. We might say,
46. We have the time, we COULD go for a walk today;
46a. We are going to have the time, we COULD go for a walk tomorrow;
or
46b. We had the time yesterday and we COULD go for a walk.

 

The pattern alone, “We could go for a walk”, does not tell the target grammatical time and makes no difference for the real-time today, tomorrow, or yesterday.

 

We can grant Modal forms an extent of a different color. Let it be tea rose.

 

SYMBOLICS: TEA ROSE, MODAL RELATIIVTY EXTENT

 

Let us try a different color also for our time frames. To see how the frames could work with Modal verbs, let us think up a possible context.

 

Let us say, Jill lives on the West Coast. Her place has a large lounge with a view to the ocean. When you come to visit, you can sit down and look to the Pacific.

 

PICTURE: ESTATE

 

Madame Règle has visited Jill a few times so far. We may think about her most recent visit.

 

47. “You could sit down in the lounge, Chantelle. I‘ll make us some tea”, says Jill, greeting Madame Règle.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

(Chantelle is Madame Règle’s first name. We may know she is not a systematic person, also from SUB-CHAPTER 6.2)

*****

 

The USA is not a monolingual country. Millions of people speak Spanish, Chinese, French, German, and other languages, in America. French is widely spoken in Louisiana, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, for example. Could Chantelle Règle be an American?
(Names do not prescribe on personalities or citizenships.)
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Our Modal time frame is open, though we are not using the auxiliary HAVE, in the phrase “you COULD sit down”.

 

For our real time, only Perfect tenses have an open frame, and they always use the auxiliary HAVE. We can compare our example above,
7. I haven’t seen her today.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Why have an open frame for the Modal form “COULD”?

We have an open frame for Perfect tenses, as they always make more than one reference to time.

 

If we have written, the activity started some time before our speaking about it. If we will have written, we expect the activity will be taking place some time before a FUTURE moment.

 

Modal verbs also make more than one reference to time. Let us focus on the Modal verb CAN.

 

I CAN see.
(The ability does not belong with the PRESENT, only.)

 

I CAN see an opportunity for this to be actually working.
(The specific instance does belong with the PRESENT, but the ability to see opportunity does not.)

 

The Modal form COULD is capable of all grammatical time, as we have noted above:
We COULD go for a walk today, or tomorrow;
If we were able to find some time yesterday,
We COULD and DID go for a walk.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us view the real-time and Modal frames together. The main time is the PRESENT. Our green frame is closed on the PRESENT.

 

SYMBOLICS: YOU COULD SIT DOWN -- SHE SAYS

 

We can think about the open Modal frame for things generally offered, allowed, or possible, also in the PAST.

 

48. When you visited Jill, you always could sit down in the lounge and look to the ocean.

SYMBOLICS: YOU COULD SIT DOWN -- SHE REMEMBERED

 

The Modal form is the same for the PRESENT and the PAST.

 

Let us focus on the auxiliary HAVE and the frame, open or closed.
We can think about a phrasing as,
“You might have learned”.

 

We might view the above as correspondent with the Present Perfect,
Maybe you have learned;
our open time frame.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Our theory would look the same about a phrase as
Maybe you learned,
a Past Simple form,
our closed time frame.

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

There is no difference in the Modal form,
“You might have learned”,
whether we view it as corresponding with the phrase,
“maybe you have learned”
(PRESENT Perfect),
or the phrase
“maybe you learned”
(PAST Simple).

 

Modal forms do not tell what actually happened, has happened, happens, or is going to happen. They give theory, guesswork, or hypotheses. Their time is not the real-time. It is the theory time.

 

To compare the Perfect Aspects, the auxiliary HAVE can help map and talk like about real paths and environments.

 

For theory, we do not have to come up with “theoretical paths”. We can think about the hypothesis open or closed time frame. The syntactic HAVE can work as a time anchor, then.

 

49. I thought the handle MIGHT HAVE / COULD HAVE broken off.
(I was not there. It turned out it was still in place.)

SYMBOLICS: ORANGE 'HANDLE'

 

The time frame for the hypothesis is closed.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Our syntactic HAVE will look still more of a device, when we think about knowledge of what happens.

 

50. You COULD HAVE been more careful with the handle.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

We could be looking at a broken handle and hear,

 

50a. I was. Someone else MUST HAVE broken it off.

 

To recur to our examples with a walk: if we close a Modal frame, we may suggest that something did not happen.

 

51. We had the time yesterday, and we COULD go for a walk; it was lovely.

 

51a. We COULD HAVE gone for a walk yesterday, we had enough time, but Jim came in, and we stayed to study.

 

However, we cannot have Modal syntax for merely equivalent with the Negative, and there is no universal rule for Modal frames.
We also could say,

 

51b. We had plenty of time yesterday, and we COULD go to the movies, we COULD go for a walk, or we COULD go see Jill.

 

But Jim came in and brought those books we didn’t have, and we stayed in to study. Jill joined in.

*****

Modal verbs do not tell what really happens, has happened, happened, or is going to happen. Their forms may not differ for real-time today, yesterday, or tomorrow.

 

We can say their time is relative to real time, and economize on our real-time cognitive variables.

 

52. Maybe we HAVE learned something good. {TO}

52a. Maybe we learned something good. {ON}

 

A Modal phrase as
52b. We MIGHT HAVE learned something good,
does not tell between the real-time variables {TO} and {ON}.

 

Modal phrases yet will tell our value {IN}.

 

53. Maybe we were learning something good. {IN}
53a. Maybe we HAVE been learning something good. {AT}

 

We can make a hypothesis:
53b. We MIGHT HAVE been learning something good.

 

The Modal phrase retains the variable {IN}.

 

For relative time, we may just balance the variables {ON} and {IN}, and mind if our relative time frame is open or closed: hypothetical time anyway cannot the same as real duration.

 

We can call this our Modal net. We net (nullify as non-essential) the Perfect, our variable {TO}, for Modal forms. Our Modal phrases will become much simpler to make, and we remain correct according to classic grammars (!)

 

This is why we had all the practice with the word “handle”, in SUB-CHAPTER 9.1. We cannot be “fixed” on word forms. We need to learn to net them, sometimes.

 

Part Four has the nodi of time. Jemma says it is vital to have good gimmicks to make those, and the Modal net with relative frames is such a good gizmo.

 

PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES

Please note that our devices are linguistic tools. We do not follow the term of the “language acquisition device”, for human brains. We stay with human language faculties.

 

We keep our auxiliary HAVE always green, whether it brings an open or closed time frame. We retain only the basic distinction between auxiliary and head verbs. Grammar anyway requires thinking, and it would not be a good idea to get dependent on crayons.
EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us get to a few details on Modal structures, before we exercise.
9.3. DETAIL ON MODAL STRUCTURES
BUTTON: 9.3. DETAIL ON MODAL STRUCTURES

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH