Let us sum up on the grammar logic so far. We have combined our core verbs (be, have, do, will), the grammatical Time (PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE), and Aspect (Simple, Progressive, and Perfect).

In ■→CHAPTER 4, we gave the Aspect cognitive mapping values, for the sake of a better language economy:
Simple: the cognitive variable {ON};
Progressive: the cognitive variable {IN};
Perfect: the cognitive variable {TO}.

Visuals can be helpful, with the ■→MIND PRACTICE, for example. We may picture the Aspect — Simple, Progressive, or Perfect — as colorful extents.

Another extent can symbolize the grammatical Time — the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

We need one more quality in our picture, to be able to affirm, deny, or ask questions. Grammars recognize the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative (■→CHAPTER 5) With Time and Aspect, they make the language capability we can properly name Expression.

We might rather keep the distinct extents, the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative, independent from one another. Let us reason, why.

As we saw in ■→CHAPTER 4, we cannot be {IN} an area of a cognitive map, without being {ON} it. The second part of the Travel shows we can combine the values {IN} and {TO}, and make the fourth mapping variable, {AT}, see ■→CHAPTER 8.

We can have the grammatical time for one type of logic too, as we can never perceive matters as PAST or FUTURE without our PRESENT. Part 4 of the grammar journey shows how to make the nodi of time.

The word nodus comes from Latin. Nodi were used in sundials. The word also could mean a knot, as these we make nowadays to tie our shoes. The grammatical nodi of time allow relative reference to Time; with some style, and not only for Reported Speech.

However, there are no “Affirmative Interrogative” structures, and there is no “Negative Affirmative” syntax. We may combine extents, the Negative and Interrogative, into the Negative Interrogative. ■→APPENDIX 4 has all the grammatical extents combined.

We extracted Aspect patterns from the River of Time, in ■→SUB-CHAPTER 3.1. We do not know what there is told before it is told; we use the infinity symbol for the place there could come any verb.


be ing

have 3rd

We may visualize the Time and Aspect as for moving about: hiking, for example.

We happen to say the FUTURE brings the things that are BEFORE us. We also happen to say that PAST things are BEHIND us.

To have good grammar, we need to perceive our target grammatical time. Arrows have been widely in use to indicate a flow or direction.

Arrow symbols can be especially useful with Modal verbs, as their forms alone never show one target time. We could say,
You might do the exercises now.
We also could say,
You might do the exercises tomorrow.


The Simple Aspect can work without an auxiliary. We can represent it with a plain arrow. As we can move about and take turns in more than one direction only, our arrow does not prioritize the left or right. We begin with the grammatical PRESENT.

We have pictured the Progressive Aspect as being in a spot, a place in a map. We can represent it with a dot or circle.

The Perfect Aspect has showed our way to a place or time. We can represent it with an arrow or spearhead added to our simple dart.

Let us try to see our logic as in a chart.

Please mind that our arrows are not shooting arrows. They are just to help find own way with grammar forms. If we make models to play, we make big models of soft material, as plush, especially if there should be little children around.

We can mark our arrows for Expression. The question mark and the letter N can do for the Interrogative and the Negative; we can join the mark and the letter, ?N, for the Negative Interrogative; we can leave the Affirmative unmarked.

Feel welcome to exercises,

■→This text is also available in Polish.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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