5.1. THE LOGIC SO FAR

Let us sum up on the logical capacities for language we have recognized so far. We can visualize them as extents.

 

The grammatical Time: Present, Past, or Future. We can recur to CHAPTER 1.

PICTURE: THE THREE FIELDS OF TIME; PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

 

For our language logic with speaking or writing, we can think about one extent, which would be PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE, at the particular time.
PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

The grammatical Aspects: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. We have given them mapping values {ON}, {IN}, and {TO}. We can review CHAPTER 3 and CHAPTER 4 for that.

 

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

For our speaking and writing, we can think about one extent, which has one Aspect value at a time.
PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

 

Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative, or Negative Interrogative. We can view CHAPTER 5: as there are no Affirmative Interrogative structures, or a “Negative Affirmative” syntax, we have separate extents here.

 

We can picture all our extents together.
VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

 

The colors here can form part a custom palette. Naturally, everyone is welcome to choose own colors.

PICTURE: LOGICAL EXTENTS AND A COLOR PALETTE

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We happen to say the FUTURE brings the things that are BEFORE us. We also happen to say that PAST things are BEHIND us.

 

We could look forward or back to events from where we are always, our PRESENT.

 

In language, it is important that we perceive our target grammatical time and Aspect. We can join the Time and Aspect in one symbol. Arrows have been widely known symbols to indicate a flow or direction.

 

PICTURE: AN ARROW SIGN

 

The Simple Aspect can work without an auxiliary. We can represent it with a plain arrow. We begin with the grammatical PRESENT.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

We have pictured the Progressive Aspect as being in a spot, a place in a map. We can represent it with a dot.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

The Perfect Aspect has showed our way to a place or time. We can represent it with an arrow or spearhead added to our simple dart.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE TO

 

Let us try to see our logic as in a chart.

 

PICTURE: TIME AND ASPECT SYMBOLICS, ARROW CHART

 

Please mind that our arrows are not shooting arrows. They are just to help find own way with grammar forms. If we make models to play, we make big models of soft material, as plush, especially if there should be little children around.

 

We can mark our arrows for Expression. The question mark and the letter N can do for the Interrogative and the Negative; we can join the letter and the mark, for the Negative Interrogative; the Affirmative can remain unmarked.

 

The arrows can prove very useful with Modal verbs. The verbs do not show the target grammatical time, in the form. We tell the Time from the context. Let us compare.
You might do the exercises tomorrow.

 

The target grammatical time here is the FUTURE. We can use our plain arrow.
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE SIMPLE, ARROW

 

The same form of the Modal verb, might, can tell about the PRESENT.
You might do the exercises now.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
EMOTICON: SMILE

You are welcome to some practice when you find it fit, really.
5.2. VIRTUAL WORDS AND REAL SYNTAX

 

BUTTON: 5.2 EXERCISES, VIRTUAL WORDS AND REAL SYNTAX

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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