In our journey so far, we have combined our core verbs (be, have, do, will), the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE), and tense patterns (Simple, Progressive, and Perfect).

Visuals can help. Let us picture colorful extents. One may convey the Aspect — Simple, Progressive, or Perfect.

In ■→CHAPTER 4, we gave the Aspect cognitive mapping values, for the sake of a better language economy:
Simple: the cognitive variable {ON};
Progressive: the cognitive variable {IN};
Perfect: the cognitive variable {TO}.

Another extent can symbolize the grammatical Time — the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

We need one more quality in our picture, to be able to affirm, deny, or ask questions. All grammars recognize the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative (■→CHAPTER 5). With Time and Aspect, they make our third, human and logical capability, Expression.

Expression comes together with Time and Aspect, we yet might prefer the Affirmative, Negative, or Interrogative as separate extents. Let us reckon.

We can reason, the Aspect is one type of logic, because the cognitive variables work together. We cannot be {IN} an area of a cognitive map, without being {ON} a cognitive ground.

The second part of the Travel shows we can combine the values {IN} and {TO}, and make the fourth mapping variable, {AT}, see ■→CHAPTER 8.

Grammatical time is one type of logic too, as we can never work the PAST or FUTURE without our PRESENT. More, this Wednesday is the FUTURE on this Monday, but not on this Thursday or after. Part 4 of the grammar journey shows how to make the nodi of time.

The word nodus comes from Latin. Nodi were used in sundials.

The word also could mean a knot, as these we can make nowadays to tie our shoes. A nodus allows relative reference for grammatical time; with some style, and not only in Reported Speech.

However, there are no “Affirmative Interrogative” structures, and there is no “Negative Affirmative” syntax, and we might not like to get entangled with negation.

We yet may join the Negative and the Interrogative, into the Negative Interrogative. We can combine our visuals as well.

We have extracted Aspect general patterns, with the infinity symbol for the places any head verb could come.


be ing

have 3rd

The choice on colors is ours; we can make a picture to visualize the Time and Aspect.


Spring Flowing Colors

We happen to say the FUTURE brings the things that are before us. We also happen to say that PAST things are behind us.

To look forward or back to events, we are always in our PRESENT.

Good grammar is going to require that we perceive our target grammatical time. Modal shapes alone do not show the target time, and arrows have been widely in use to indicate a flow or direction.

You might do the exercises tomorrow.
The target grammatical time here is the FUTURE.
We can use a plain arrow.

The same form of the Modal verb, might, could be telling about the PRESENT.
You might do the exercises now.

We may mark the Time and the Aspect in arrow symbols.

The Simple Aspect may work without an auxiliary, and a plain arrow can show this. As people can move about in more than one direction, our arrow does not prioritize the left or right.

Let us begin with the grammatical PRESENT.

The Present Simple tells what we perceive {ON} own cognitive extents.

We have pictured the Progressive Aspect as being in a spot, a place in a map. We can represent it with a dot.

The Perfect Aspect can help view time like a way to a place. We can represent it with an extra head on our simple dart.

Let us try to see our logic as in a chart.

Please mind that our arrows are not shooting arrows. They are just to help find own way with grammar. If we make models to play, we make big models from soft material, as plush, especially if there should be little children around.

For Expression, the question mark and the letter N will do for the Interrogative and the Negative; we join the letter and the mark, for the Negative Interrogative. The Affirmative can remain unmarked.

Feel welcome to some arrow practice.

■→This text is also available in Polish.


In the first part of the language journey, feel welcome to consider a picture for
■ the grammatical Past, Present, and Future;
■ the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect;
■ infinitive, auxiliary, and head verb forms;
■ the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative;
■ irregular verbs and vowel patterns: high and low, back and front.
Third edition, 2022.

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The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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