3.4. PRACTICE FOR THE CHARACTER AND TIME

Exercise 7. To get along with our language patterns at school, we need to be able to use grammar labels. We learn to make the labels, rather than to memorize them: merely memorized, they may get “mixed up”. Linguistic confusion can result as in the picture above.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example: pattern 1
Answer: the Present Progressive

 

Grammatical time

Aspect

 

The Simple

The Progressive

The Perfect

The Future

5

6

7

The Present

4

1

8

The Past

3

2

9

 

Our next exercise works on a very important level in language learning. The level is metalinguistic.

 

Metalanguage is the style to talk about language, as about nouns or verbs.

 

It is metalanguage to let tell if a form that ends in ED is 3RD or 2ND. Most of us know metalanguage from school or individual study; we only might be not used to the specialist term, “metalanguage”.

 

Exercise 8. Let us practice associating the auxiliary and the Aspect. We “say” the answers in our thoughts, as in the MIND PRACTICE. When we think analytically about language sound and shape, we conceptualize words.

 

Example: had
Answer: the third form, the Past Perfect

 

1. was

2. is

3. have

4. were

5. has

6. will be

7. will have

8. are

9. am

 

Exercise 9. The verb forms BE or HAVE can build Progressive or Perfect patterns. They are auxiliary then.

 

The forms BE and HAVE also can be head verbs.

 

For the match they make with personal pronouns, there is no difference if the BE or HAVE is an auxiliary, or a head verb.

 

Let us practice BE and HAVE for the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE) and all grammatical persons. In simple words, we are back with the Fields of Time, for the forms BE and HAVE. We can use our GRAMMAR VISUALS.

 

Similarly to EXERCISE 3, we can sum up, verbalize “all persons”, where our important language forms remain the same. It is not wrong to have own language work for an important activity.

EMOTICON: SMILE

In this exercise, we have work for a noun (What? Work), with BE and HAVE as head verbs. We have it for a verb (To do what? To work), with BE and HAVE as auxiliaries.

 

Example: have in the PRESENT
Answer: I, you, we, they have work (work is a noun);
I, you, we, they have worked (work is a head verb);
he, she, it has work;
he, she, it has worked.

 

We verbalize and visualize the patterns in our thoughts, as in the Mind Practice. The true learning is in the mind, not in keeping many notes.

 

1. be in the PRESENT

2. have in the FUTURE

3. be in the PAST

4. be in the FUTURE

5. have in the PAST

 

Exercise 10. Let us think the patterns from exercise 8 one more time, with the verb to learn. It is a regular verb and makes the second and third forms with ED. We choose on the grammatical person on our own.

 

Example: had
Answer: learned

 

Exercise 11. Let us get back with all grammatical persons. In our thought, we place them last, to exercise flexibility in the language habit.
Minds first (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Example: be in the PRESENT
Answer: am working, I;
are working, you, we, they;
is working, he, she, it.

 

1. have in the PAST

2. have in the FUTURE

3. be in the FUTURE

4. be in the PAST

5. have in the PRESENT

 

Exercise 12. We also can consciously think Time-first, or Aspect-first. In this exercise, let us tell the core word and label the pattern, Aspect-first.

 

Please mind, we recognize core words only with regard to tense patterns. The words are the verbs TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO, and WILL.

 

Our purpose is to mind the words that can help make our reference to time. We do not intend to limit our vocabularies.

 

Example: am / is / are learning
Answer: be, Progressive in the PRESENT

 

1. have / has learned

2. was / were learning

3. will be learning

4. had learned

5. will have learned

 

With all natural languages, we people first learn to tell where things or persons are, and the ability to tell the hour comes after.

 

Time and place remain an association in our human minds throughout lifespan. We can use this association for grammar. Let us see more detail in CHAPTER 4.

CHAPTER 4. SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT WITH MAPPING VALUES

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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