3.4. PRACTICE FOR THE CHARACTER AND TIME

Exercise 7. To get along with our language patterns at school, we need to be able to use grammar labels. We need to be cognitive, not to end up as the student in the picture above.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example: pattern 1
Answer: the Present Progressive

 

Grammatical time

Aspect

 

The Simple

The Progressive

The Perfect

The Future

5

6

7

The Present

4

1

8

The Past

3

2

9

 

Our next exercise works on a very important level in language learning. The level is metalinguistic.

 

Metalanguage is the style to talk about language.

 

It is owing to metalanguage that we can tell if a form that ends in ED is 3RD or 2ND. It is metalanguage to let tell the ED form with Perfect tenses is the 3RD form.

 

Most of us know metalanguage from school or individual study; we only might be not used to the specialist term, “metalanguage”.

 

Exercise 8. Let us practice associating the auxiliary and the Aspect. We can begin with “saying” the answers in our thoughts, as in our MIND PRACTICE.

 

When we think about the sound and shape of a word, we can say we conceptualize it.

 

Example: had
Answer: the third form, the Past Perfect

 

1. was

 

2. is

 

3. have

 

4. were

 

5. has

 

6. will be

 

7. will have

 

8. are

 

9. am

 

Exercise 9. BE or HAVE can build Progressive or Perfect patterns. They are auxiliary then.

 

BE and HAVE also can be head verbs.

 

For the match they make with personal pronouns, there is no difference if BE or HAVE is auxiliary or a head verb.

 

Let us practice BE and HAVE for the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE) and all grammatical persons.

 

As in EXERCISE 3, we can write “all persons” where our important language forms remain the same. It is not wrong to have own language work for an important activity.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Example: have in the PRESENT
Answer: I, you, we, they have <> he, she, it has

 

1. be in the PRESENT

 

2. have in the FUTURE

 

3. be in the PAST

 

4. be in the FUTURE

 

5. have in the PAST

 

Exercise 10. Let us try the patterns from exercise 8 with the virtual bimo. It is a virtual “regular verb” and makes the second and third forms with ED.

 

Minds first, let us only think the answers. If we want to, we write the answers after we have done the thinking for the entire exercise.

 

Example: had
Answer: bimoed

 

Exercise 11. Again, we can write “all persons” where the verb has the same form for all of them. We can place the person last, to exercise flexibility in the language habit.

 

Minds first (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Example: be in the PRESENT
Answer: am bimoing, I
are bimoing, you, we, they
is bimoing, he, she, it

 

1. have in the PAST

 

2. have in the FUTURE

 

3. be in the FUTURE

 

4. be in the PAST

 

5. have in the PRESENT

 

Exercise 12. We can learn to think Time first, or Aspect first. Let us tell the core word and label the pattern, Aspect first.

 

Please mind, we recognize core words only with regard to tense patterns. The words are the verbs TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO, and WILL.

 

Our purpose is to mind the words that can help make our reference to time. We do not intend to limit our vocabularies.

 

Example: am / is / are bimoing
Answer: be, Progressive in the PRESENT

 

1. have / has bimoed

 

2. was / were bimoing

 

3. will be bimoing

 

4. had bimoed

 

5. will have bimoed

 

 

With all natural languages, we people first learn to tell where things or persons are, and the ability to tell the hour comes after.

 

Time and place remain an association in our human minds throughout lifespan. We can use this association for grammar. Let us see more detail in CHAPTER 4.

CHAPTER 4. SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT WITH MAPPING VALUES

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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