7.1. Practice for hearts and minds

Exercise 39. Let us provide synonyms for the verbs below. Deciding between our variables ON and IN, we can use the Infinitive also with the Progressive. Chapter 2.1 presents the Infinitive. Appendix 1 lays out the basics about verbs.


Example: to think


ON ― to consider, to believe
IN ― to be cerebrating, to be pondering


1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.


Exercise 40. Naturally, our answers do not have to be identical. Humans differ in stative verb use (chapter 7). Please try to paraphrase the verbs and tell where we could take the ING, and where we would mostly stay ON our cognitive extents.


1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.


Exercise 41. What impressions do you have when you think about advertising phrases as “I’m lovin’ it?”


Exercise 42. We continue comparing the variables ON and IN. Now, we have only part the arrow cues. We can check on using the cues in chapter 5.1. We are staying in the PAST.


The story has a little ambiguity: in everyday circumstances, we may hear or read words we never have come across before. We should not let unfamiliar vocabulary disorient us. We can seek or ask for clarification, on words we do not know. They need not get us lost in grammar generally. Here, we learn to keep our time reference against even unusual wording.


Our story is about the Greenshank’s closest relative, the Greater Yellowlegs, meeting the Lesser Yellowlegs.


Greater Yellowlegs


The tale is a little inspired with Aristotle (regarding criticism on Aristotle, feel welcome to the book information) and intended to be mildly humorous. A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs.


Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs 1. (hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser 2. (chirp) mighty out of tune (!)


Answer: heard: {ON}; was chirping: {IN}


A. The Greater 3. (fly) up to the path and 4. (think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature 5. (give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet 6. (can be) a huge enterprise. The Greater 7. (ponder) on some of the particulars, when he 8. (see) the Lesser Yellowlegs by the seashore.


B. The Lesser Yellowlegs 9. (can try) the three-note whistle, it N 10. (be) in violation of the laws of physics, 11. (argue) the Greater Yellowlegs. The Lesser Yellowlegs 12. (appear) very similar in size. — “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser 13. (retort). The two-note 14. (be) the only melody he 15. (know) by heart.


C. The Greater Yellowlegs 16. (expect) the refutation. However, there always 17. (exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds. — Rare sounds 18. (feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (observe). Education 19. (mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever 20. (import) worse individually.


D. The uncouth absurd of the situation 21. (consist) in being out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs 22. (declare). The Lesser Yellowlegs 23. (deem) that impossible. One place 24. (involve) one place, however Negative the relation.


E. The two 25. (meditate) steadily when the Lesser 26. (invoke) Probability. Their songs 27. (have) a logical interconnection. Elaborating on the two-note, although not completely out of the question, 28. (chance) common sense.



Exercise 43. We compare the features ON and IN, but with all our time extents (PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE). As there is more language logic to manage, we have all arrow cues. Our next story is about a creature from Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly.


Example: About the summer solstice, dayflies 1. (come) to exist in Cimmerian Bosporus. According to a legend, a dayfly 2. (begin) its life in the morning, and 3. (die) before the second day sunset.


Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}


A. It 4. (be) early morning. The dayfly 5. (flutter) its wings in the sunrise light. “I 6. (be) a day-fly”, it 7. (think). The spontaneous circumstance 8. (give) it its name.


B. The morning 9. (be) very bright and fresh. The dayfly 10. (wonder) over the water and the air, the green and the colorfulness of vegetation, when it 11. (see) a dry leaf. It 12. (know) that water 13. (come) from the earth and the air. It 14. (cogitate) if dry leaves 15. (belong) with green leaves.



C. It 16. (fly) past a vividly red rose flower when a butterfly 17. (stop) it for a little conversation. “You 18. (seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, the butterfly 19. (say). — “Right, I 20. (name) myself a dayfly”, the dayfly 21. (respond). “Living for a day 22. (form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that 23. (become) can be eternal, anyway.




D. This 24. (be) very interesting”, the butterfly 25. (remark). “I sure also 26. (become).” — “I 27. (think) about it when I 28. (see) that dry leaf over there”, the dayfly 29. (reply). “I 30. (contemplate) if the becoming of dry leaves 31. (happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and … butterflies.




E. The butterfly 32. (disapprove). “I sure N 33. (will answer) this! You 34. (can see) that we 35. (differ). Our wings 36. (be) dissimilar.” — “Nobody 37. (deny) this”, the dayfly 38. (concede). “It 39. (be) the becoming that I 40. (distrust). This morning 41. (become) broad daylight, and this day 42. (become) a night. However, the day and the night 43. (can inhere) in disparate matters, I 44. (feel). One of them 45. (may be) the light.” The butterfly 46. (shrug) its wings and 47. (fly) away.





From the key: We can perceive the verb WILL as referring to the PRESENT or the FUTURE.


“I sure will not answer this!”
We can make a close synonym, saying,
“I have no wish to answer this.”


“This morning will be becoming broad daylight,
and this day will become a night.”
We would make a close synonym, saying,
“This is what is going to happen.”


The verb to become has had a role in language history. We can make better acquaintance with it further in the travel. We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. I hope you do your dictionary work (!)




Exercise 44. We can look to grammatical Time and Expression (we may refer to chapter 5). When we want to deny something, we can use the Negative. In our notes, we can distinguish the Negative with the letter N. When we want to ask a question, we can use the Interrogative. We can distinguish it with the question mark, (?).


First, we can place our story mostly in the PRESENT. We name this manner to tell a story the dramatic narrative. Then, we can take the story to the PAST. This should help us see how our time capacities can work.


Our story can be about the westerly, the kind of wind to happen to rise in oceans. Westerlies can influence the weather. Some scientists have blamed splits in westerly flows for record-breaking cold or hot temperatures. Some observers even suspected extraterrestrial or supernatural influences over the weather, while it was… a westerly.


We have only part the arrow cues. We are exercising them also because the sense for target time can be very useful with Modal verbs.


Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.



Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.


A. It 3. (come) to the land and 4. (feel) a difference. Now, the high ocean 5. (be) the past and the land 6. (become) the present.



2. The shore 7. (delineate) the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter and 10. (frolic) into eddies.



3. The wester 11. (swirl), when the thought about the future 12. (come) to it. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shoreland N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?



4. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.



5. The shoreland 20. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past. Then, there 21. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, if the wester 23. (get) there.



We can take our story into the grammatical PAST. Please try to focus on the verb WILL.


Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.


1. It came to the land and felt a difference. Now, the high Ocean was the past and the land had become the present.


2. The shore delineated the past and the present. It was the limit for both. The wind was playing with the matter and frolicking into eddies.


Please mind: we can use the variable ON for an activity that gets on the map, while something else is happening: The wester was swirling, when the thought about the future came to it.




We can envision our grammatical logic as interconnected.




We can merge our variables IN and TO. What is going to be our new, merged variable? The merger might be not as simple as a wester frolicking into eddies. Feel welcome to further journey.


Link to chapter 8. The Perfect and Progressive merger2