Exercise 40. Let us provide synonyms for stative and dynamic uses of the verbs below. The Infinitive can also have the Progressive shape.

Example: to think.

Stative, variable {ON}, to consider, to believe;
Dynamic, variable {IN}, to be cerebrating, to be pondering.

1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.

Exercise 41. We paraphrase the verbs and tell where we would take the ING, and where we would mostly stay {ON} our cognitive extents. Our answers do not have to be identical. We people differ in verb use.

1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.

Exercise 42. We continue comparing the mapping values {ON} and {IN}, staying in the grammatical PAST.
In conversation, we people may get confused with unfamiliar wording and become confounded in grammar too. The exercise here is to learn keeping own grammar against even unusual wording.

The story is about ■→GREENSHANK’S closest relative, the ■→GREATER YELLOWLEGS, meeting the ■→LESSER YELLOWLEGS.

A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs and literally yellow legs.
We have only part the arrow cues: we learn to be independent.

The tale is a little inspired with ■→ARISTOTLE and intended to be mildly humorous. Regarding criticism on the philosopher, I do not endorse all translations or renditions. There are no autographs, that is, original manuscripts of his work preserved: feel welcome to the ■→BOOKS AND COURSE INFORMATION.

The use here is selective, and for thought exercise strictly. ■→TERESA PELKA.COM has my project ■→LEXICA, and Simple English Aristotle:
To have knowledge about our objects of thought, we study regularities about them. A regularity of natural and specific occurrence is a principle. ■→MORE

In this we do follow, throughout the grammar course. We study natural regularities in American English as written or spoken, and draw conclusions on grammar that can work for ourselves.

Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs (1. hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser (2. chirp) mighty out of tune (!)

Answer: heard, variable {ON}; was chirping, variable {IN};

A. The Greater (3. fly) up to the path and (4. think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature (5. give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet (6. can be) a huge enterprise.

B. The Greater (7. ponder) on some of the particulars, when he (8. see) the Lesser Yellowlegs by the seashore.

C. The Lesser Yellowlegs (9. can try) the three-note whistle, it N (10. be) in violation of the laws of physics, (11. argue) the Greater Yellowlegs. The Lesser Yellowlegs (12. appear) very similar in size.

D. “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser (13. retort). The two-note (14. be) the only melody he (15. know) by heart.

E. The Greater Yellowlegs (16. expect) the refutation. However, there always (17. exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds.

F. Rare sounds (18. feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (19. observe). Education (20. mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever (21. import) worse individually.

G. The uncouth absurd of the situation (22. consist) in being out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs (23. declare).

H. The Lesser Yellowlegs (24. deem) that impossible. One place (25. involve) one place, however negative the relation.

I. The two (26. meditate) steadily, when the Lesser (27. sigh). Elaborating on the two-note (28. chance) the lesser common sense.

The variable {ON} can tell an activity that got on a cognitive map or extent when something else was in its course:
“the two were meditating steadily, when the Lesser sighed“.

Exercise 43. We compare the variables {ON} and {IN} for the grammatical PRESENT or PAST. Our story is now about a creature from the Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly.

Example: Legend has it, dayflies (1. come) to exist around the time for summer solstice. A dayfly (2. begin) its life in the morning, and (3. die) before the second day sunset.

Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}

A. It (4. be) early morning. “I (5. be) a day-fly”, (6. think) the day-fly in the light.

B. The day-fly (7. wonder) over the way water (8. belong) with the earth and the air, when it (9. see) a dry leaf. It (10. begin) to cogitate if dry leaves (11. appertain) with green leaves, and if they (12. share) in a thing to inhere.

C. It 13. (flutter) past a vividly red flower, when a butterfly (14. stop) it for a little conversation. “You (15. seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, (16. say) the butterfly.

D. “Right, living for a day (17. form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that (18. become) can be eternal, anyway.

E. This (19. be) the forever more everybody (20. care)”, the butterfly (21. remark). “I sure also (22. become).”

F. “I (23. contemplate) if the becoming of dry leaves (24. happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and… butterflies.”

G. The butterfly (25. disapprove). “I sure N (26. will answer) this! You (27. can see) that we (28. differ). Our wings (29. be) dissimilar.”

H. “Nobody (30. deny) this”, the dayfly (31. concede). “It (32. be) the becoming that I (33. distrust)”.

We can perceive the verb WILL as referring to the PRESENT or the FUTURE

“I sure will not answer this!”
We could make a close synonym, saying,
“I have no wish to answer this.”

We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. The verb to become has had a role in language history.


Exercise 44. We focus on the grammatical Time and Expression. We mark the Negative as N, and the Interrogative with the question mark, (?)

First, we place our story mostly in the PRESENT. This manner to tell a story is called the dramatic narrative. Then, we take the story to the PAST. This should help us see how language logic can work together.

Our story is about a westerly kind of wind that happens to rise in oceans. Some scientists have blamed record temperatures, hot or cold, on splits in westerly currents. Some observers stipulated extraterrestrial or supernatural influence, while it was… a westerly.

Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.

Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.

A. It 3. (come) to the land and 4. (feel) a difference. Now, the high ocean 5. (be) the past and the land 6. (become) the present.

B. The shore 7. (delineate) the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter, and 10. (frolic) into eddies.

C. The wester 11. (swirl), when the thought about the future 12. (come) to it. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shoreland N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?

D. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.

E. The shoreland 20. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past. Then, there 21. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, when the wester 23. (get) there.

We take our story into the grammatical PAST. We can envision logic for grammar as a connected ability.

Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.

Could we merge variables, as {IN} and {TO}? Feel welcome to further journey.

■→This text is also available in Polish.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
■→Free access, Internet Archive
Electronic format $2.99
■→E-pub | NOOK Book | Kindle
Soft cover, 260 pages, $16.89
■→Amazon | Barnes & Noble
Hard cover, 260 pages
■→Barnes & Noble | Lulu



Internet Archive, the free text and image repository

■→Feel welcome to use the materials in my account
The posters are available to shop online as well.