7.1. PRACTICE FOR THE HEART AND THE MIND

Exercise 39. The Infinitive also can be Progressive. ■→SUBCHAPTER 2.1. presents the Infinitive. ■→APPENDIX 1 lays out the basics about verbs. Let us provide synonyms for stative and dynamic senses of the verbs below.

Example: to think

Answer:
stative, variable {ON}, to consider, to believe;
dynamic, variable {IN}, to be cerebrating, to be pondering.

Let us remember about the links for resources from the previous chapter, ■→THESAURUS.COM and ■→WORDNET.PRINCETON.EDU.

If we choose to make vocabulary notes, we may combine notions and alphabets, to view vocabulary in a connected way.

1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.

Exercise 40. We paraphrase the verbs and tell where we could take the ING, and where we would mostly stay {ON} our cognitive extents. Our answers do not have to be identical. We people differ in stative verb use.

1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.

Exercise 41. Let us think about our whereabouts and lives, as in exercise 13 (■→SUBCHAPTER 4.2), and consider words from exercises 39 ad 40 in context.

Exercise 42. It may happen that we do not know a particular word in a text or conversation, or we know the words, but we are not familiar with the way they are put together; confused about the words, we get confused about grammar too.

Let us learn to keep our grammar against even unusual wording.

We continue comparing the mapping variables {ON} and {IN}, for the grammatical Aspect. We have only part the arrow cues (see ■→SUBCHAPTER 5.1.). We are staying in the grammatical PAST.

Our story is about the ■→GREENSHANK’S closest relative, the ■→GREATER YELLOWLEGS, meeting the ■→LESSER YELLOWLEGS.

Greater Yellowlegs, photo by Mike Baird, ■→WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

The tale is a little inspired with ■→ARISTOTLE and intended to be mildly humorous. Regarding criticism on Aristotle, feel welcome to the ■→BOOKS AND COURSE INFORMATION.

A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs.

Website under refurbishment.

Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs 1. (hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser 2. (chirp) mighty out of tune (!)
CUES

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, EXAMPLE TASK

Answer: heard, variable {ON}; was chirping, variable {IN}

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 3-6

A. The Greater 3. (fly) up to the path and 4. (think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature 5. (give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet 6. (can be) a huge enterprise.

B. The Greater 7. (ponder) on some of the particulars, when he 8. (see) the Lesser Yellowlegs by the seashore.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 7-8

C. The Lesser Yellowlegs 9. (can try) the three-note whistle, it N 10. (be) in violation of the laws of physics, 11. (argue) the Greater Yellowlegs. The Lesser Yellowlegs 12. (appear) very similar in size.

D. “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser 13. (retort). The two-note 14. (be) the only melody he 15. (know) by heart.

E. The Greater Yellowlegs 16. (expect) the refutation. However, there always 17. (exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds.

F. Rare sounds 18. (feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (observe). Education 19. (mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever 20. (import) worse individually.

G. The uncouth absurd of the situation 21. (consist) in being out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs 22. (declare).

H. The Lesser Yellowlegs 23. (deem) that impossible. One place 24. (involve) one place, however negative the relation.

I. The two 25. (meditate) steadily, when the Lesser 26. (sigh). Elaborating on the two-note 28. (chance) the lesser common sense.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25

FROM THE KEY:
The variable {ON} can tell an activity that got on a cognitive map or extent when something else was in its course: the two were meditating steadily, when the Lesser sighed. There are more examples to follow.

Exercise 43. We compare the variables {ON} and {IN} for all grammatical time, the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. As there is more language logic to manage, we have all the symbolic cues.

Our next story is about a creature from the Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly. The inspiration for the story comes from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, see over ■→INTERNET ARCHIVE.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 1-3

Example: According to a legend, it is around the summer solstice that dayflies 1. (come) to exist in the Cimmerian Bosporus. A dayfly 2. (begin) its life in the morning, and 3. (die) before the second day sunset.

Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 4-8

A. It 4. (be) early morning. The dayfly 5. (flutter) its wings in the sunrise light. “I 6. (be) a day-fly”, it 7. (think). The circumstance 8. (give) it its name.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 9-11

B. The morning 9. (be) very bright and fresh. The dayfly 10. (wonder) over the water and the air, the green and the colorfulness of vegetation, when it 11. (see) a dry leaf.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 12-15

C. It 12. (see) how water 13. (come) from the earth and the air. It 14. (cogitate) if dry leaves 15. (belong) with green leaves.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 16-19

D. It 16. (fly) past a vividly red rose flower when a butterfly 17. (stop) it for a little conversation. “You 18. (seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, the butterfly 19. (say).

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 20-23

E. “Right, I 20. (name) myself a dayfly”, the dayfly 21. (respond). “Living for a day 22. (form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that 23. (become) can be eternal, anyway.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 24-29

F. This 24. (be) very interesting”, the butterfly 25. (remark). “I sure also 26. (become).” — “I 27. (think) about it when I 28. (see) that dry leaf over there”, the dayfly 29. (reply).

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 30-31

G. “I 30. (contemplate) if the becoming of dry leaves 31. (happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and… butterflies.”

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 32-36

H. The butterfly 32. (disapprove). “I sure N 33. (will answer) this! You 34. (can see) that we 35. (differ). Our wings 36. (be) dissimilar.”

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 37-40

I. “Nobody 37. (deny) this”, the dayfly 38. (concede). “It 39. (be) the becoming that I 40. (distrust).

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 41-45

J. This morning 41. (become) broad daylight, and this day 42. (become) a night. However, the day and the night 43. (can inhere) in disparate matters, I 44. (feel). One of them 45. (may be) the light.”

PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 46-47
PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25

K. The butterfly 46. (shrug) its wings and 47. (fly) away.

FROM THE KEY:
We can perceive the verb WILL as referring to the PRESENT or the FUTURE

THE PRESENT
“I sure will not answer this!”
We could make a close synonym, saying,
“I have no wish to answer this.”

THE FUTURE
“This morning is becoming broad daylight,
and this day will become a night.”
We would make a close synonym, saying,
“This is what is going to happen.”

We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. The verb to become has had a role in language history. We may get to know it better, further in the grammar journey.

Exercise 44. We focus on the grammatical Time and Expression. To deny something, we can use the Negative. In our notes, we may distinguish the Negative with the letter N. To ask a question, we give the Interrogative the question mark, (?).

First, we place our story mostly in the PRESENT. This manner to tell a story is called the dramatic narrative. Then, we take the story to the PAST.

This should help us see how language logic can work together, for the grammatical time. Further in the journey, we may learn the Reported Speech.

Our story is about the westerly, the kind of wind that happens to rise in oceans. Westerlies influence the weather. Some scientists have blamed record temperatures, hot or cold, on splits in westerly currents.

Some observers even suspected extraterrestrial or supernatural influences over the weather, while it was… a westerly.

We have only part the arrow cues. We keep them to work out a sense for target time. It can be very useful with Modal verbs.

Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44, EXAMPLE

Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK A

A. It 3. (come) to the land and 4. (feel) a difference. Now, the high ocean 5. (be) the past and the land 6. (become) the present.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK B

B. The shore 7. (delineate) the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter, and 10. (frolic) into eddies.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK C

C. The wester 11. (swirl), when the thought about the future 12. (come) to it. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shoreland N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK D

D. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK E

E. The shoreland 20. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past. Then, there 21. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, when the wester 23. (get) there.

We take our story into the grammatical PAST. The verb WILL takes on another form, WOULD.

Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.

A1. It came to the land and felt a difference. Now, the high Ocean was the past and the land had become the present.

B1. The shore delineated the past and the present. It was the limit for both. The wind was playing with the matter and frolicking into eddies.

Please mind: we can use the variable {ON} for an activity that gets on the map, while something else is happening: The wester was swirling, when the thought about the future came to it.

TEXT EXTENT: THE WESTERLY WAS SWIRLING -- WHEN THE THOUGHT CAME

We can envision our grammatical logic as interconnected.

TEXT EXTENTS: PRESENT AND PAST, THE WESTERLY SETS -- SET -- ITS COURSE

Our logic for grammatical time can work in connected sets. Could we connect or merge our variables {IN} and {TO}? Feel welcome to further journey.
■→CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE