Exercise 40. Let us think about synonyms for stative and dynamic uses of the verbs below. The Infinitive can be Progressive too, feel welcome to ■→APPENDIX 1.

Example: to think.

Stative, variable {ON}, to consider, to believe;
Dynamic, variable {IN}, to be cerebrating, to be pondering.

1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.

Exercise 41. We may paraphrase the verbs in thought and tell where we would use the variable {IN}, and where we would mostly stay {ON} our cognitive extents. If we compare answers, let us mind that we people differ in verb use and answers do not have to be similar.

1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.

Exercise 42. We continue comparing variables {ON} and {IN}, Aspects Simple and Progressive, staying in the grammatical PAST.
In conversation, we people happen to get confused with unfamiliar wording and lose our ways with grammar too. The exercise here is to keep own grammar skill against even unusual wording.

The story is about ■→GREENSHANK’S closest relative, the ■→GREATER YELLOWLEGS, meeting the ■→LESSER YELLOWLEGS.

A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs and yellow legs.
We have only part the arrow cues: we learn to be independent.

The tale is a little inspired with ■→ARISTOTLE and mildly humorous. Regarding criticism on the philosopher, I do not endorse all translations or renditions. There are no autographs, that is, original manuscripts of his work preserved: feel welcome to the ■→BOOKS AND COURSE INFORMATION.

The use here is selective, and for thought exercise strictly. ■→TERESA PELKA.COM has my project ■→LEXICA, and Simple English Aristotle:
To have knowledge about our objects of thought, we study regularities about them. A regularity of natural and specific occurrence is a principle. ■→MORE

In this we do follow, throughout the grammar course. We study natural regularities in American English as written or spoken, and draw conclusions for grammar we could work ourselves.

Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs (1. hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser (2. chirp) mighty out of tune (!)

Answer: heard, variable {ON}; was chirping, variable {IN}.

A. The Greater (3. fly) up to the path and (4. think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature (5. give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet (6. can be) an enterprise.

B. The Greater (7. ponder) on some of the particulars, when he (8. see) the Lesser by the seashore.

C. The Lesser Yellowlegs (9. can try) the three-note whistle, it N (10. be) in violation of the laws of physics, (11. argue) the Greater. The Lesser (12. appear) very similar in size and gravity.

D. “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser (13. retort). The two-note (14. be) the only melody he (15. know) by heart.

E. The Greater Yellowlegs (16. expect) the refutation. However, there always (17. exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds.

F. Rare sounds (18. feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (19. observe). Education (9. may mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever (21. import) worse individually.

G. The uncouth absurd of the situation (22. consist) in risk of falling out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs (23. declare).

H. The Lesser Yellowlegs (24. deem) that impossible. One place (25. have) ground in one place, however negative the relation.

I. The two (26. meditate) steadily, when the Lesser (27. sigh). Elaborating on the two-note (28. chance) the Lesser common sense.

The variable {ON} can tell an activity that got on a cognitive map or extent when something else was in its course:
“the two were meditating steadily, when the Lesser sighed“.

Exercise 43. We compare variables {ON}, {IN}, and {TO}, for the grammatical PAST as well as PRESENT. Our story is about a creature from the Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly.

Example: Legend has it, dayflies (1. come) to exist around the time for summer solstice. A dayfly (2. begin) its life in the morning, and (3. die) before the second day sunset.

Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}.

A. It (4. be) early morning. “I (5. be) a day-fly”, (6. think) the dayfly, in the light.

B. The day-fly (7. wonder) over the way water (8. belong) with the earth and the air, when it (9. see) a dry leaf. It (10. begin) to cogitate if dry leaves (11. appertain) with green leaves, and if they (12. share) in a thing, to inhere.

C. It 13. (flutter) past a vividly red flower, when a butterfly (14. stop) it for a little conversation. “You (15. seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, (16. say) the butterfly.

D. “Right, living for a day (17. form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that (18. become) can be truly eternal anyway, as it had a beginning.”

E. The forever more (19. be) what everybody (20. care)”, the butterfly (21. remark). “I sure also (22. become).”

F. “I (23. marvel) if the becoming of dry leaves (24. happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and… butterflies.”

G. The butterfly (25. disapprove). “I sure N (26. will answer) this! You (27. can see) that we (28. differ). Our wings (29. be) of diverse brood.”

H. “Nobody (30. deny) this”, the dayfly (31. concede). “It (32. be) the becoming that I (33. distrust)”.

We can perceive the verb WILL with regard the PRESENT or the FUTURE:

“I sure will not answer this!”
We could make a close synonym, saying,
“I have no wish to answer this.”

We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. The verb to become has had a role in language history.


Spring Flowing Colors

Exercise 44. Let us now think about Time and Expression. We can mark the Negative with the letter N, the question mark (?) to mark the Interrogative.

First, we place our story mostly in the PRESENT. This manner to tell a story is called the dramatic narrative. Then, we take the story to the PAST. This can help us see how language logic works together.

Our story is about a westerly kind of wind that happens to rise in oceans. Some scientists have blamed record temperatures, hot or cold, on splits in westerly currents. Some observers stipulated extraterrestrial or supernatural influence, while it was… a westerly.

Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.

Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.

A. As it 3. (come) to the land, the high ocean 4. (become) the past and the land 5. (be) the present.

B. It 6. (be) the shore to 7. (delineate) on the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter and 10. (frolic) into eddies.

C. The wester 11. (swirl), when the future 12. (present) itself from afar. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shore land N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?

D. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.

E. There 20. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The shore 21. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past; the mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, when the wester 23. (get) there.

We take our story into the grammatical PAST. We can picture logic for grammar as a connected ability.

Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.

Could we merge variables, as {IN} and {TO}? Feel welcome to further journey.

■→This text is also available in Polish.


In the first part of the language journey, feel welcome to consider a picture for
■ the grammatical Past, Present, and Future;
■ the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect;
■ infinitive, auxiliary, and head verb forms;
■ the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative;
■ irregular verbs and vowel patterns: high and low, back and front.
Third edition, 2022.

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The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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