BIBLIOGRAPHY

The following resources have been used as reference for language use. The work is in progress.

Practical English Usage (Practical English Usage, Third Edition)

 

A Practical English Grammar

 

A Practical English Grammar: Exercises 1 (Bk. 1)

 

A Practical English Grammar: Exercises 2 (Bk. 2)

 

English Grammar in Use: A Self-study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Students of English – with Answers

 

B.D. Graver, Advanced English Practice: With Key

 

TIME

 

The Economist

 

IN POLISH

Antoni Prejbisz, Gramatyka Języka Angielskiego

 


Marian Auerbach, Marian Golias, Gramatyka grecka

 


Lidia Winniczuk, Lingua Latina : Łacina Bez Pomocy Orbiliusza

 

Łukasz Koncewicz, Słownik łaciński

 

Advertisements

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

JOHN DUNLAP REPLICA,
FREE POSTER AND SOURCE HTML
LINK TO DOWNLOAD.

 

DECLARATION FIRST PRINT BY JOHN DUNLAP,
US LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.

 

Nothing can settle our affairs so expeditiously as an open and determined declaration for independance,
Thomas Paine, COMMON SENSE.

 

Following a discussion of Thomas Paine’s work, the Continental Congress agreed and announced the Declaration on July the 4th, 1776.

 

The Declaration of Independence is the formal proclamation of American independence from England.
July the 4th is a national holiday in the USA.

 

JUMP TO DECLARATION DATA

 

JUMP TO TYPESCRIPT DATA

 

The Declaration content

(Part 3 of our grammar journey invites work on nouns.)

 

IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776.
A DECLARATION
BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
IN GENERAL CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.

 

WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the Causes which impel them to the Separation.

 

WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.— –That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.

 

HE  has  refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.

 

HE  has  forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

 

HE  has  refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.

 

HE  has  called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.

 

HE  has  dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.

 

HE  has  refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their Exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within.

 

HE  has  endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

 

HE  has  obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

 

HE  has  made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries.

 

HE  has  erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance.

 

HE  has  kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the Consent of our Legislatures.

 

HE  has  affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

 

HE  has  combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation :

 

FOR  quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us :

 

FOR  protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States :

 

FOR  cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World :

 

FOR  imposing Taxes on us without our Consent :

 

FOR  depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury :

 

FOR  transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences :

 

FOR  abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rule into these Colonies :

 

FOR  taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments :

 

FOR  suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever :

 

HE  has  abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

 

HE  has  plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed the Lives of our People.

 

HE  is,  at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with Circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.

 

HE  has  constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

 

HE  has  excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.

 

IN  every Stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every Act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.

 

NOR  have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.

 

WE,  therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of Right do. And for the Support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

 

Signed by ORDER and in BEHALF of the CONGRESS,
JOHN HANCOCK, PRESIDENT.
ATTEST.
CHARLES THOMSON, SECRETARY.

 

Declaration data

 

John Dunlap printed the Declaration on the day the Second Continental Congress adopted it.

 

There is a distinct change in wording from this original broadside printing of the Declaration and the final official engrossed copy. The word “unanimous” was inserted as a result of a Congressional resolution passed on July 19, 1776,
says WIKIPEDIA.

 

The heading, The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America, yet remains the only difference from the print:

 

It was the print the people received, preparing for the prospective warfare, and none of the states was taken hostage by the resolve of the 4th, anyway.

 

Today, we may know the engrossed copy as THE STONE’S ENGRAVING of the Declaration of Independence.

 

As the original ink was fading, printer William J. Stone was commissioned in 1820 to create an identical engraving. He used a wet-ink transfer process. His copy is used for most presentations of the Declaration today.

 

We can compare prints with the NATIONAL ARCHIVES

 

 

The Declaration came after attempts to conciliate with England. The Olive Branch Petition was one of those efforts. Thomas Jefferson wrote the “original rough draught” of the Declaration in June 1776. John Adams and Benjamin Franklin were among the text co-editors.

 

Typescript data

The purpose of the typescript is not correction. No one might correct a historic document. The typescript is to show nominal structures consistently.

 

The Philadelphia printer, bookseller, and Revolutionary War soldier, John Dunlap made about 200 copies. He was evidently well capable of the print style, yet had very little time.

 

The style capitalized nominals, that is, printed nouns and forms to derive from nouns with big letters.

 

Italics show the original.
… a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes …
Please compare the “light and transient Causes”.

 

… whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise …

Result of time limitations, as above.

 

… the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within …
We may compare the “mean time” and the adverbial “meanwhile”

 

Noun phrases as “Judiciary Powers”, “Standing Armies”, or “Civil Powers” embrace the adjective owing to denotation, that is, reference in reality.

 

HE has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the consent of our Legislatures.
We may compare the “Consent of the Governed”, as above in the original. “The Governed” means people, persons. The structure works in language as a noun, hence the capital letter.

 

FOR quartering … protecting … cutting off … imposing …
Gerundive forms are not capitalized, as they derive from verbs. We may compare the verb phrase Petitioned for Redress”: it derives from the noun phrase “Petition for Redress”.

 

… already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy …
Please compare Circumstances of our Emigration”.

 

… constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive …
The phrase refers to the condition of being hostage, prisoner. The word “captive” means “prisoner”, a noun.

 

… whose Character is thus marked by every act …
We may compare Acts of pretended Legislation”, and Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of Right”.

 

… the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled …
The adjective “assembled” belongs with the phrase “Assembled General Congress”.

 

… solemnly Publish and Declare …
Please compare the comment for the “Petiton for Redress”, above.

 

That these United Colonies …
The Declaration style is oratorial, it relates to spoken language.

 

…And for the support of this Declaration …

 

Please mind the time limitations the circumstances imposed on the print.

The print uses the colon the way we mostly use the semi-colon nowadays.

 

10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE

We would not have progress for something hypothetical only. We might question the making of Progressive auxiliary forms.

 

Do we need to shift our variables to a hypothetical time span, to make patterns as,
“If we were lazy,
we would have BEEN doING
something else for the past hour” (10.1)?

 

Our Modal relativity extent always keeps the variable {ON}. We do not say “*we are maying”, “*we are mighting”, or “*we are musting”.

 

We can picture the relative, auxiliary extent as expanding from the variable {ON}, our earthling basic variable (SUB-CHAPTER 8.1).

 

PICTURE: MODALITY VARIABLE ON

 

We noted on feature transfer for our anchor HAVE, in SUB-CHAPTER 10.1. Auxiliary time may net or ignore duration; possibly, it would not merely repeat the variables we have with our real-time cognitive map.

 

Syntax yet might carry the Progressive feature to activate with the auxiliary rather than main time, when we decide.

 

PICTURE: FEATURE SYNTACTIC TRANSFER, WOULD HAVE BEEN DOING

*****

In English, we happen to use the same word forms for nouns, as well as verbs, or adjectives.

I am reading a book (SPEECH PART: NOUN);

I have booked (SPEECH PART: VERB) tickets;
It is good to use book (SPEECH PART: ADJECTIVE) knowledge reasonably.

 

It even must be that our minds can make language information pools, for that. Feature transfer would be possible within an information pool.

 

We can symbolically picture a feature pool as below, and use it for fun, as a “wheel of fortune”.

PICTURE: A SYMBOLIC POOL OF LANGUAGE FEATURES

Sometimes, a feature would exclude another. We do not say “*have mayed” or “*have musted”, for example. We have the features on opposite sides.

 

Features also can merge, as the ING for the Perfect Progressive, or add up, as our head and syntactic forms of “HAVE”.

 

Have fun (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE
10.3. FORM RELATIVITY: WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK
BUTTON: 10.3. FORM RELATIVITY, WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

10.1. THE UNREAL PAST OR CONDITIONAL: REAL TIME

Let us try a few more quotes.

 

More than that, and breaking precedent once more, I do not intend to commence any sentence with these words ― “If George Washington had been alive today”, or “If Thomas Jefferson”, or “If Alexander Hamilton”, or “If Abraham Lincoln had been alive today…”
Theodore Roosevelt, American President

PICTURE: PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT

PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT

 

Grammar resources might label the quote from Theodore Roosevelt as the 3rd Conditional, Unreal Past, or even the Past Unreal Conditional, dependent on the grammar approach solely.

 

Some of those resources would tell we build the 3rd Conditional of the Past Perfect and the Future in the Past.

 

We would have to recognize the Past Perfect for a potentially Unreal form, then.

 

Worse still, our “Unreal Past Perfect” would be as good as merely a fancy. Please compare a quote from Gerald Ford.

 

If Lincoln were alive today, he’d be turning over in his grave.

 

PICTURE: PRESIDENT GERALD FORDPRESIDENT GERALD FORD.

 

It is not only for our pension plans that we might be unwilling to have the Past Perfect for merely a fancy.

 

With Perfect tenses overall, our syntactic HAVE helps tell about real time. It has an open, real-time frame. To compare physical space, we might think about paths or routes on real ground.

 

{TO} is our cognitive variable.
We have the variable to render duration and time spans.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HAVE WORKED -- I HAD WORKED

 

With the Unreal grammatical time or Conditional, HAVE brings hypothetical time. It is not part the real map, then.

 

It comes with an auxiliary compass for relative time, and closes the frame for the theory. We attach the auxiliary compass to the Modal.

 

Our cognitive variable is {ON}.

 

TEXT EXTENT: WE MAY HAVE WORKED -- MIGHT HAVE WORKED

Duration and time span become generalized.
We have called it our Modal Net.

 

TEXT EXTENT: MODAL NET, MAY HAVE JUMPED, MIGHT HAVE STOPPED

Whether our verb would be to read, to speak, to run, to stop, or to jump, duration becomes non-essential, with a theory closed frame.

 

The matter is exactly the same with the anchor HAVE in Theodore Roosevelt’s quote. The phrase, “had been alive”, is not concerned with longevity or shortness of life.

 

The phrase narrates about being alive generally, and we could quote Gerald Ford’s wording, “were alive” for an exact paraphrase.

 

Naturally, we might note that live people would not be likely staying in their graves, but our thing here is to work grammar for language uses as they are, even if absolutely abstract or humorous.

EMOTICON: SMILE

We may recur to CHAPTER 10. Our example was
“If you HAD eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT HAVE had it (at some later, but still PAST time)”.

 

Again, the anchor HAVE pays no heed to the length of time it takes to eat a cookie. It helps mind if the cookie remains, or has been consumed in the course of events.

 

The syntactic role is narrative, not factual.
We may compare SUB-CHAPTER 9.2.
I thought the handle MIGHT HAVE / COULD HAVE broken off.
(It turned out it was still in place.)

 

However we know the theory was against fact, we can tell our story with the anchor HAVE.

 

About stories and their telling, the Conditional or grammatical “unreal time” are often backtrack logic: we look to the consequent, to speculate on the premise.

 

Let us think if language might transfer features.

 

PICTURE: BACKTRACK LOGIC, FEATURE TRANSFER

We can view the phrase had eaten as a transfer of the syntactic anchor from the consequent.

 

We may think about a similar transfer for the Passive, where the object becomes the subject and the predicate adapts.

 

We do not need to view the anchor HAVE as the real-time Past Perfect. For speculation as “had been alive” or “were alive”, the choice is purely stylistic.

 

Let us try another president quote.

*****

“If I had permitted my failures, or what seemed to me at the time a lack of success, to discourage me, I cannot see any way in which I would ever have made progress.”
Calvin Coolidge, American President

PICTURE: PRESIDENT CALVIN COOLIDGE

CALVIN COOLIDGE IN 1910, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

 

Grammar resources might label the above as the 2nd Conditional, or view the phrase “I WOULD have made progress” as a Modal modification of a real-time “I HAVE made progress”.

 

The argument might be, the words definitely refer to a time span, between some time PAST and PRESENT, in which progress has been made.

 

Let us consider two views to our syntactic structures. We began building our language structures joining the grammatical Person, Time, and Aspect.

 

Modal verbs have brought form relativity and auxiliary grammatical time. Let us picture these language components.

 

PICTURE: THE BASIC POOL OF LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

Let us think where the verb TO HAVE might occur, as an auxiliary or head verb.

 

PICTURE: THE VERB ‘TO HAVE’ AS PART THE LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

 

For the auxiliary time, we may compare SUB-CHAPTER 9.1.
Modality is not indispensable:
We can have auxiliary time without it, too.
I am happy to have exercised;
I was happy to have exercised;
I will be happy to have exercised.

 

Let us change the verb “to exercise” into the verb phrase “to make progress”.
I am happy to have made progress;
I was happy to have made progress;
I will be happy to have made progress.

 

Let us modify our infinitive with the Modal form MAY.
I am happy I may have made progress;
I was happy I might have made progress.
I will be happy I may have made progress.

 

We can view phrases as modified, as well. Our view is likely to depend on the context and word sense, namely, if a phrase looks a theory, or not.

 

The progress in Calvin Coolidge quote is not a theory.
I cannot see any way in which I would HAVE made progress.

 

Our symbolics is to help comprehend.
For Calvin Coolidge quote, we can use
MODAL MEDIATION, REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME.
SYMBOLICS: MODAL MEDIATIONPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

For a theory, we may compare,
But the obstacles, she WOULD HAVE made progress.
But she has not made any progress.
The symbolics to help see the difference can be
A CLOSED MODAL FRAME.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

*****

Let us think how the Modal frame closes. With our modified infinitive above, Modality is attached as a subordinate clause. It does not make the main grammatical time.

 

Let us compare Modality for our main or head, real time.

 

If someone asked,
“What HAS she BEEN doing?”
An answer as,
“She MAY HAVE BEEN working”,
would close the hypothetical time on the grammatical and real-time PRESENT, just as the question.

 

Saying, “She MAY HAVE finished by tomorrow”, or “She WILL HAVE finished by tomorrow”, we would close our hypothetical time on tomorrow.

 

We can use our auxiliary time extent with all grammatical time, but we need to mind the form of the Modal verb alone, for the main time.

 

PRESENT Modal forms tend towards the grammatical PRESENT or FUTURE.

If we say we CAN or MAY work, the hypothesis goes into the FUTURE a little. Our Modal frame remains open. SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Modal shapes we class as PAST tend towards the PAST or PRESENT. It is only with the open frame that we can use PAST Modal forms for the grammatical FUTURE.

 

We might say,
“We COULD do this tomorrow,”
but without auxiliary HAVE.

PICTURE: MODAL VERB TENDENCIES IN THE FIELDS OF TIME

For our main time, we would not produce forms as
*She COULD HAVE / MIGHT HAVE finished by tomorrow.

 

The only exception would be the Modal WILL itself, but it is our regular mapping word for the FUTURE.
She WOULD HAVE finished by tomorrow.

 

The form “CAN” is quite special. We use it to tell what we are really able to do; we have the skill, or even mastery and finesse. Many grammar resources discourage closing the frame on it in the Affirmative, whatever the grammatical time.

 

If we are tentative about a future result, we can say
“Maybe it WILL HAVE ended by tomorrow”.
We may view the structure as the real-time Future Perfect, with an open real-time frame.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

*****

Language is not a record or chronicle. It does not require absolute certainty about things coming true, or confirmation in events, for the thought to be real and for the structure to be grammatical.

*****

Do we need to resolve between labels as “Unreal Past” or “Conditional”? Let us mark individual verbs for grammatical form, in these words by Franklin Delano Roosevelt:

 

“No group and no Government CAN (FORM: PRESENT) properly prescribe precisely what SHOULD (FORM: PAST) constitute the body of knowledge with which true education is (FORM: PRESENT) concerned.”

 

It is obvious there must be a relative interpretation for grammatical from, and the extent for this relativity embraces the verb phrase.

 

A verb phrase can be one verb, or a verb structure, as with auxiliary HAVE.

 

Classing entire stretches of language as Conditional or Unreal Past, we might feel lost for the main time. We can stay by terms as “a relative verb form”, or “verb form relativity”.

 

Verb forms would be relative to the main grammatical time, the reference we make for the real time.

*****

Well, we may have worked out some logic. If we were lazy, we would have been doing something else for the past hour.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

For a competent insight into our syntax, let us consider the Progressive. Feel welcome.
10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: 10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

CHAPTER 10. FORM RELATIVITY GALORE

With Modal verbs and patterns as the Conditional or Unreal Past, we may feel about language form more as a reflection.

 

Let us see if we could apply our MODAL TIME FRAME to guidance on the Unreal Past or the Conditional.

*****

There has been much dispute over the Conditional. Some grammarians reject it altogether.

 

Let us remember that labeling does not change the objective language reality. It cannot decide on how linguistic forms may work within human discourse.

*****

Let us use Conditional patterns, to compare language forms. We mind our target grammatical time, the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

We can practice with the verb TO HAVE. It can mean keeping, tolerating, or eating something.

 

As a syntactic verb, HAVE may provide the auxiliary time for Modal verbs. Let us look to the syntax and negotiation of meaning: how do we eat a cookie and have it?

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Our cookie is perfectly digestible. To choose on the word sense, we can underline the HAVE to mean keeping, tolerating, or eating.

 

We look to the premise (if you eat the cookie) and the consequent (you do not have it).

 

In PRACTICE 9.4. we viewed time as on a symbolic line.
SYMBOLICS: LINEAR FLOW OF TIME

 

ZERO CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PRESENT
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT

83. If you eat the cookie, you DO NOT have it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: PRESENT

If you eat {PRESENT}, you DO {PRESENT} NOT have
PICTURE: LANGUAGE FORM, PRESENT -- TARGET TIME, PRESENT, NO RELATIVITY

*****

1ST CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE FUTURE
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

84. If you eat the cookie, you WILL NOT have it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: PRESENT

If you eat {PRESENT}, you WILL {PRESENT} NOT have
PICTURE: RELATIVITY, LANGUAGE FORM, PRESENT -- TARGET TIME, FUTURE

We began our journey viewing the verb form “WILL” in the Fields of Time.

 

PICTURE: THE VERB FORM ‘WILL’ IN THE FIELDS FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

We noted there is not really a FUTURE shape for the verb form WILL.
We do not say *will will.

 

The verb form WILL maps on the FUTURE already in the PRESENT grammatical shape.

PICTURE: THE VERB FORM ‘WILL’ MAPPING ON THE FUTURE

We can compare Modal uses of WILL
85. She WILL be reading now.
(I am sure she is reading now.)

*****

2ND CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PRESENT
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT

86. If you ate the cookie, you WOULD NOT have it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: PAST

If you ate {PAST}, you WOULD {PAST} NOT have
PICTURE: RELATIVITY, LANGUAGE FORM, PAST -- TARGET TIME, PRESENT

*****

3RD CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PAST
VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

87. If you had eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT have had it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: ANTECEDENT PAST

If you had eaten {ANTECEDENT PAST},
you WOULD NOT have {ANTECEDENT PAST} had
PICTURE: RELATIVITY, LANGUAGE FORM, ANTECEDENT PAST -- TARGET TIME, PAST

*****

4TH (MIXED) CONDITIONAL

 

TARGET GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PAST and PRESENT

VISUALS: FIELDS OF TIME, THE PAST AND THE PRESENT

 

88. If you had eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT have it.

 

LANGUAGE FORM: ANTECEDENT PAST and PAST

If you had eaten {ANTECEDENT PAST},
you WOULD {PAST} NOT have
PICTURE: RELATIVITY, MIXED

*****

We have marked our HAVES: If you HAD eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT HAVE had it then.

 

The syntactic HAVE is green. The head verb, the notional HAVE is mauve and underlined. It may mean keeping, tolerating, or. . . eating something.

 

We may compare examples about Chantelle Règle having her extra Larousse, in SUB-CHAPTER 8.1.

 

Syntax can make us prone to interpret the notional HAVE as keeping something, in examples as 91a―d, though we can eat meals as well as have them.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Do we have to adopt the Conditional, to use Conditional patterns? Let us compare ideas.

 

Some grammars will say we use the First Conditional when the probability of something is high, and we use the Second for things more probable than those in the Third.

 

Grammars that reject the Conditional may support structures they name the Unreal Past. Let us consider the probability for saying,

 

89. If I WERE you, I WOULD . . .
(Please find the comment on the use of WERE also in exercise 62.)

*****

Skimming can be part an effective learning strategy. We can go backward and forward in our study guides, to get a picture of the language itself. The more study guides, the better.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

The PROBABILITY to become another human individual literally and ever really is ZERO, for everyone.

 

90. *I AM you . . . / *You ARE me . . . ?
(There is zero probability, even if someone pretends another person.)

 

Example 92 could be the Second Conditional or Unreal Past. Regardless of the label, it conveys zero probability, for the PRESENT, PAST, as well as FUTURE.

 

What would be if he were …

PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE

… if he were her … and if she were him …?

 

PICTURE: ALICE, AUTUMN STROLL

 

Bob says an unreal past could not exist without an unreal present or future, and he really wants to go to the Himalayas.

 

Alice says there never could be literally such a time as unreal time; just as well, you could try to have a cat for an unreal dog.

 

She pretends she is seeing bubbles, when it comes to unreal reality, and practices that too, sometimes.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Feel welcome to the GRAMMAR GRAPEVINE.

 

Chantelle says the world’s worst advice she ever got always came with someone saying, “If I were you…”

 

She skips the phrase owing to her language economy, also when she listens. She feels different about saying or hearing, “If I were in your shoes…”

 

PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S KITCHEN TALK

 

“I’d have fresh veg every morning.”
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Bob is not thinking about the high Himalaya: he is too small. It is not only in highest mountainous areas we may want to manage, however.

 

PICTURE: QUICKDRAW

 

91. If you HAD NOT taken care of it, this handle WOULD HAVE broken off.

 

PICTURE: WOMAN ON A CLIFF WAVING THE FLAG

 

Within the probability approach, example 91 is the 3rd Conditional, which tells about the least probable events. The example yet might be telling about a prevented thing.

 

Let us think about probability a little further.

 

92. If you take care of this handle now, it still MIGHT work.
(The probability is low.)
SYMBOLICS: 1 CUBE

 

We can transform the example and say,

92a. If you take care of this handle now, it WILL work.
(The probability is very high.)
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

Both 92 and 92a could receive the same label — of the First Conditional — and they differ in PROBABILITY very much.

 

In 92, taking care of the handle is probable to result in its working.

 

In 92a, the probability amounts to CERTAINTY. Taking care of the handle is sure to bring a working condition.

 

PROBABILITY is not going to explain on the use of forms. Let us try LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY.

 

PICTURE: PRESIDENT FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT

 

“It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something.”
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, American President

 

Let us sum up. For theory or guesswork, we can use

 

PRESENT verb forms to speak about the FUTURE,
PAST forms to speak about the PRESENT,
and
ANTECEDENT PAST forms to speak about the PAST.

 

Feel welcome to
10.1. THE CONDITIONAL OR UNREAL PAST: REAL TIME.
BUTTON: 10.1. THE CONDITIONAL OR UNREAL PAST: REAL TIME

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

9.2. THE MODAL TIME FRAME

Neither the Modal verb form alone, as COULD or MIGHT, nor Modal syntax alone, as COULD HAVE or MIGHT HAVE, is capable of telling the target grammatical time.

 

However, in all natural languages, we always speak or write in context. This means that our linguistic activity always has a cognitive ground.

 

We may recur to SUB-CHAPTER 6.2. Our example was Madame Règle, coming to lunch between 1.00 and 2.00 p.m., or not showing up at all.
At 1:30, Latimer Sauf might say,

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

At 2:30, Monsieur Sauf might say,
7a. I didn’t see her today.

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

It was his knowledge of the context to give him the cognitive ground.

 

So far, our verbs have been regular or irregular, but the patterns they made showed the grammatical PRESENT from PAST or FUTURE directly.

 

We have had green extents to symbolize their target grammatical time.
Very often, the target grammatical time in what we say is the same as real time.
We may recur to SUB-CHAPTER 5.1.

 

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

Modal patterns are not so clear. We might say,
46. We have the time, we COULD go for a walk today;
46a. We are going to have the time, we COULD go for a walk tomorrow;
or
46b. We had the time yesterday and we COULD go for a walk.

 

The pattern alone, “We could go for a walk”, does not tell the target grammatical time and makes no difference for the real-time today, tomorrow, or yesterday.

 

We can grant Modal forms an extent of a different color. Let it be tea rose.

 

SYMBOLICS: TEA ROSE, MODAL RELATIIVTY EXTENT

 

Let us try a different color also for our time frames. To see how the frames could work with Modal verbs, let us think up a possible context.

 

Let us say, Jill lives on the West Coast. Her place has a large lounge with a view to the ocean. When you come to visit, you can sit down and look to the Pacific.

 

PICTURE: ESTATE

 

Madame Règle has visited Jill a few times so far. We may think about her most recent visit.

 

47. “You could sit down in the lounge, Chantelle. I‘ll make us some tea”, says Jill, greeting Madame Règle.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

(Chantelle is Madame Règle’s first name. We may know she is not a systematic person, also from SUB-CHAPTER 6.2)

*****

 

The USA is not a monolingual country. Millions of people speak Spanish, Chinese, French, German, and other languages, in America. French is widely spoken in Louisiana, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, for example. Could Chantelle Règle be an American?
(Names do not prescribe on personalities or citizenships.)
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Our Modal time frame is open, though we are not using the auxiliary HAVE, in the phrase “you COULD sit down”.

 

For our real time, only Perfect tenses have an open frame, and they always use the auxiliary HAVE. We can compare our example above,
7. I haven’t seen her today.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Why have an open frame for the Modal form “COULD”?

We have an open frame for Perfect tenses, as they always make more than one reference to time.

 

If we have written, the activity started some time before our speaking about it. If we will have written, we expect the activity will be taking place some time before a FUTURE moment.

 

Modal verbs also make more than one reference to time. Let us focus on the Modal verb CAN.

 

I CAN see.
(The ability does not belong with the PRESENT, only.)

 

I CAN see an opportunity for this to be actually working.
(The specific instance does belong with the PRESENT, but the ability to see opportunity does not.)

 

The Modal form COULD is capable of all grammatical time, as we have noted above:
We COULD go for a walk today, or tomorrow;
If we were able to find some time yesterday,
We COULD and DID go for a walk.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us view the real-time and Modal frames together. The main time is the PRESENT. Our green frame is closed on the PRESENT.

 

SYMBOLICS: YOU COULD SIT DOWN -- SHE SAYS

 

We can think about the open Modal frame for things generally offered, allowed, or possible, also in the PAST.

 

48. When you visited Jill, you always could sit down in the lounge and look to the ocean.

SYMBOLICS: YOU COULD SIT DOWN -- SHE REMEMBERED

 

The Modal form is the same for the PRESENT and the PAST.

 

Let us focus on the auxiliary HAVE and the frame, open or closed.
We can think about a phrasing as,
“You might have learned”.

 

We might view the above as correspondent with the Present Perfect,
Maybe you have learned;
our open time frame.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Our theory would look the same about a phrase as
Maybe you learned,
a Past Simple form,
our closed time frame.

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

There is no difference in the Modal form,
“You might have learned”,
whether we view it as corresponding with the phrase,
“maybe you have learned”
(PRESENT Perfect),
or the phrase
“maybe you learned”
(PAST Simple).

 

Modal forms do not tell what actually happened, has happened, happens, or is going to happen. They give theory, guesswork, or hypotheses. Their time is not the real-time. It is the theory time.

 

To compare the Perfect Aspects, the auxiliary HAVE can help map and talk like about real paths and environments.

 

For theory, we do not have to come up with “theoretical paths”. We can think about the hypothesis open or closed time frame. The syntactic HAVE can work as a time anchor, then.

 

49. I thought the handle MIGHT HAVE / COULD HAVE broken off.
(I was not there. It turned out it was still in place.)

SYMBOLICS: ORANGE 'HANDLE'

 

The time frame for the hypothesis is closed.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Our syntactic HAVE will look still more of a device, when we think about knowledge of what happens.

 

50. You COULD HAVE been more careful with the handle.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

We could be looking at a broken handle and hear,

 

50a. I was. Someone else MUST HAVE broken it off.

 

To recur to our examples with a walk: if we close a Modal frame, we may suggest that something did not happen.

 

51. We had the time yesterday, and we COULD go for a walk; it was lovely.

 

51a. We COULD HAVE gone for a walk yesterday, we had enough time, but Jim came in, and we stayed to study.

 

However, we cannot have Modal syntax for merely equivalent with the Negative, and there is no universal rule for Modal frames.
We also could say,

 

51b. We had plenty of time yesterday, and we COULD go to the movies, we COULD go for a walk, or we COULD go see Jill.

 

But Jim came in and brought those books we didn’t have, and we stayed in to study. Jill joined in.

*****

Modal verbs do not tell what really happens, has happened, happened, or is going to happen. Their forms may not differ for real-time today, yesterday, or tomorrow.

 

We can say their time is relative to real time, and economize on our real-time cognitive variables.

 

52. Maybe we HAVE learned something good. {TO}

52a. Maybe we learned something good. {ON}

 

A Modal phrase as
52b. We MIGHT HAVE learned something good,
does not tell between the real-time variables {TO} and {ON}.

 

Modal phrases yet will tell our value {IN}.

 

53. Maybe we were learning something good. {IN}
53a. Maybe we HAVE been learning something good. {AT}

 

We can make a hypothesis:
53b. We MIGHT HAVE been learning something good.

 

The Modal phrase retains the variable {IN}.

 

For relative time, we may just balance the variables {ON} and {IN}, and mind if our relative time frame is open or closed: hypothetical time anyway cannot the same as real duration.

 

We can call this our Modal net. We net (nullify as non-essential) the Perfect, our variable {TO}, for Modal forms. Our Modal phrases will become much simpler to make, and we remain correct according to classic grammars (!)

 

This is why we had all the practice with the word “handle”, in SUB-CHAPTER 9.1. We cannot be “fixed” on word forms. We need to learn to net them, sometimes.

 

Part Four has the nodi of time. Jemma says it is vital to have good gimmicks to make those, and the Modal net with relative frames is such a good gizmo.

 

PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES

Please note that our devices are linguistic tools. We do not follow the term of the “language acquisition device”, for human brains. We stay with human language faculties.

 

We keep our auxiliary HAVE always green, whether it brings an open or closed time frame. We retain only the basic distinction between auxiliary and head verbs. Grammar anyway requires thinking, and it would not be a good idea to get dependent on crayons.
EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us get to a few details on Modal structures, before we exercise.
9.3. DETAIL ON MODAL STRUCTURES
BUTTON: 9.3. DETAIL ON MODAL STRUCTURES

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

9.1. MODAL SYNTAX, GRAMMATICAL PRESENT OR PAST

Let us think about the two clocks pictured above. They show different hours. Let us say we ask what has happened, trying to explain why the clocks show different times.

 

Forms as below might address the question,
“What has happened?”
The question is in the grammatical PRESENT, and the target grammatical time of the responses also is the PRESENT.

 

Let us say both clocks should have a small handle at the back.

 

38. The handle MAY HAVE broken off.

 

38a. It MIGHT HAVE broken off.

 

39a. It COULD HAVE broken off.

*****

We may wonder if a form as “the handle can have broken off” would be possible as well. CHAPTER 9 shows the Modal verb CAN for objective and general contexts.

 

23. Bald eagles CAN fly above clouds.

 

A form as CAN HAVE and in a context as particular as here might be awkward, in American. The form MAY HAVE would be natural.

23b. It MAY HAVE been a bald eagle.

*****

Which of the above forms might address a question in the grammatical PAST, as “What happened?”

 

38. The handle COULD HAVE broken off.

 

39a. The handle MIGHT HAVE broken off.

 

This means that forms as 38a and 39a can address both the grammatical PRESENT and the grammatical PAST.

 

Let us compare some more Modal syntax, PRESENT or PAST.

 

CERTAINTY

40. The handle MUST HAVE broken off.

 

CONTINGENCY

41. You SHOULD HAVE checked on the handle.
42. The handle OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN checked.

43. You NEEDN’T HAVE manipulated the handle.

 

Well, the verb TO HAVE can be quite a handle itself. Not only in American English, the verb TO HAVE may occur with Modal patterns, the Passive, and the infinitive.

 

To work out the verb TO HAVE, we may begin visualizing the infinitive and the head time. Our head time is mauve. The infinitive is underlined.

44. I remember to exercise.

TEXT EXTENT: I REMEMBER -- TO EXERCISE

If we recall our exercise as something prior, ANTECEDENT, we might say:

 

44a. I remember to have exercised.

TEXT EXTENT: I REMEMBER -- TO HAVE EXERCISED

With the verb TO HAVE, our main grammatical time could be the PAST, PRESENT, as well as FUTURE. Let us think about the effect of our exercise on ourselves. The exercise makes us happy.

TEXT EXTENT: I WAS HAPPY -- TO HAVE EXERCISED
TEXT EXTENT: I WILL BE HAPPY -- TO HAVE EXERCISED

MAIN GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PRESENT
I am happy to have exercised;

 

MAIN GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE FUTURE
I will be happy to have exercised;

 

MAIN GRAMMATICAL TIME: THE PAST
I was happy to have exercised.

 

Would the auxiliary HAVE generally make an antecedent reference in time?

 

If we say we have learned something, we say we began learning some time before speaking about it, that is, the PRESENT.

 

If we will have learned, or we had learned something, respectively, we begin learning some time before a FUTURE or PAST time.

*****

Whether a thing is fact or theory, the verb TO HAVE brings an antecedent reference to grammatical time, and it does not mean the time is PAST.

*****

Let us recur to our main grammatical time and syntax.

 

45. Where is the handle? It MAY HAVE broken off.
(Finding the handle is much of an open question.)
PICTURE: AN ORANGE WITH A STEMWould oranges have handles?

 

45a. I thought the handle MIGHT HAVE / COULD HAVE broken off.
(Finding the handle was not much of an open question, in the case.)
PICTURE: ORANGE, THE STEM NOT SHOWING

 

Let us focus on the Modal form alone.

 

45b. The handle MIGHT HAVE / COULD HAVE broken off.

 

Finding the handle
IS NOT
or
WAS NOT
much of an open question.

 

The Modal form alone does not give enough guidance. We need the main grammatical time or the context, to tell the target grammatical time.

 

We can venture our time frames. Feel welcome.
9.2. THE MODAL TIME FRAME
BUTTON: 9.2. THE MODAL TIME FRAME

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

CHAPTER 9. TO TELL THE FASHION IN VALUABLE TIME

With Modal verbs, our view on time may become as with two hour glasses. Modal verbs do not narrate the real time. Their manner is relative to real time.

 

We also could say that Modal verbs mediate between the grammatical Time and Aspect. The name “modal” comes from the Latin word “modus”, meaning an extent or measure.

 

In CHAPTER 2, we viewed the verb form “will” in our Fields of Time. The form did not belong clearly with the grammatical PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE. The same is true about all Modal verbs.

 

The PRESENT form of the verb WILL can map on the FUTURE.

The PAST form can tell about the PRESENT, as well.

“We will be hiking” (FUTURE);
“We would like to have some tea now” (PRESENT).

 

Some grammars will have Modals for defective verbs. They do not have all the three forms. Let us compare other verbs.

 

REGULAR VERB: TO TRAVEL
INFINITIVE to travel
1ST FORM travel     2ND FORM traveled     3RD FORM traveled
DYNAMIC PARTICIPLE traveling     STATIVE PARTICIPLE traveled

 

IRREGULAR VERB: TO WRITE
INFINITIVE to write
1ST FORM write     2ND FORM wrote     3RD FORM written
DYNAMIC PARTICIPLE writing     STATIVE PARTICIPLE written

 

MODAL VERB FORMS:

MAY
1ST FORM may     2ND FORM might

CAN
1ST FORM can     2ND FORM could

SHALL
1ST FORM shall     2ND FORM should

NEED
1ST FORM need     2ND FORM (needed)     3RD FORM (needed)

MUST
1ST FORM must      2ND FORM (must)

WILL
1ST FORM will     2ND FORM would

*****

Modal verbs can be truly unlike other verbs.

 

They do not have infinitive forms.
We do not say * “to may”.

 

They do not have participle forms.
We do not say * “mayed” or * “maying”.

 

They do not use will for their grammatical FUTURE.
We do not say * “will may”.

 

Their forms can have more than one grammatical time reference.
We could say,
“You might think about reading this all”.
MIGHT is the PAST form of the verb MAY, yet it refers to the grammatical PRESENT here.

 

We also could say,
“As children, they loved the old library,
where they might read as well as play.”

 

MIGHT is the PAST form of the verb MAY,

and it refers to the grammatical PAST.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

We may envisage Modals in logical categories.

 

POTENTIALITY    PROBABILITY    CONTINGENCY    CERTAINTY

 

POTENTIALITY:
Our potential is what we are actually able to do, or something we have real prospects to become able to do. Something potential is something that actually might come into existence.

 

PROBABILITY:
It belongs mostly with guesswork. Humans happen to consider probability in theory making. Possibility is a close synonym. We can have it for equivalent with probability, in grammar.

 

Let us think about Madame Règle. She has the potential to have lunch at Latimer Sauf’s restaurant every day. He always has a table for his friends, and she has enough money.

 

However, her work with Paris haute couture designers happens to keep her over the lunchtime. Her coming to lunch is probable, but not certain.

 

PICTURE: MADAME RÈGLE

 

CERTAINTY:
It requires both potentiality and probability. Let us think about Monsieur Sauf’s birthday. Madame Règle WILL come to meet him. It is certain.

 

CONTINGENCY:
Some books will have something contingent for something likely, and some will say it is something unlikely to happen. We tend to tell likelihood by how often something takes place.

 

Madame Règle has a resolve here. Words have etymologies. The adjective “contingent” comes from the Latin words “tangere, tangens”. The words meant “to touch”, “touching”.

 

Madame Règle has contingency for something touching on, dependent on something else. Let us mind that cause and effect may not depend on simple factors.

*****

Contingency needs a potential for something to happen. What is certain has to be probable.

 

When we speak about own POTENTIAL, we mostly say what we are able to do. To tell own resolves, we most often use the verbs CAN or MAY.

 

We are able to do things only in probable circumstances, even if our abilities are outstanding. CAN and MAY are our most prominent words for PROBABILITY, too.

 

MAY is going to sound a bit more formal. CAN is going to be more colloquial. CAN happens to express probability greater than MAY.

 

CONTINGENCY may require that we adapt own resolves to circumstances. Our Modal verbs to express the extent of that requirement are NEED, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, and HAVE TO.

 

We always use OUGHT TO with the infinitive: “we ought to learn”, “we ought to work”.

 

American English differs from British much, on the verb SHALL. In American, the verb serves to prefigure resolves for potential circumstances:

 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

 

Feel welcome to
GRAMMAR NOTES ON THE US CONSTITUTION.

 

We are not likely to use the Modal verb WILL for CONTINGENCY, if we love independence (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

We people yet can be CERTAIN about own perception and volition. The Modal verbs WILL and MUST can express a strong prediction or resolve.

*****

Let us now think about Modal verbs and the grammatical time. So far, all our contexts allowed second forms, as COULD or MIGHT, to work for the PAST grammatical time.

 

However, is it enough to put a Modal verb into its second form, to express the grammatical PAST?

 

21. You MIGHT use the phone;
(a tentative suggestion in the PRESENT.)
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

21a. You COULD use the phone;
(a tentative suggestion in the PRESENT.)
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Modal second forms may express polite offers and yet stay in the grammatical PRESENT.

*****

Modal forms generally, PAST or PRESENT, influence the language register. The register concerns the styles we use when we speak or write on various occasions. In simple words, it has a lot to do with being polite.

 

CAN is very colloquial in its register for suggestions. It could be rude for a suggestion, when we directly address someone we do not know.

 

Let us imagine we ask,
22. CAN I open the window?
The answer might be
22a. You certainly are capable of that,
but you are not allowed to.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

CAN is not offensive when we simply state on POTENTIAL or provide information — in other words, we talk about an objective circumstance, rather than a subjective resolve.

 

23. Bald eagles CAN fly above clouds.

 

We might use the verb can as in example 23, during formal talks. Modal mediation is important in American English.

 

If we want to negotiate or provide guidance, we should not misinterpret Modal verbs for uncertainty or passiveness.

PICTURE: A BUSINESS TEAM

Modal verbs are a matter of good style, tact, and logic, not only in business talks. When we say something would not work for us, we are as assertive as when we say it is not going to work.

 

Please mind, content as here is not a form of address: I am not writing specifically to any person or persons.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us see how Modal verbs can make us sound more objective.

 

23a. Bald eagles fly above clouds.
(We would be likely to say this about a specific area where bald eagles live and fly above clouds, and most likely when we are in that area.)

 

24. Modal verbs CAN express varying degrees of potential, probability, contingency, and certainty.
(The guidance applies generally, about whatever Modal context).

 

In American as well as British English, we mind the Negative Interrogative. Requests with forms as CAN’T or COULDN’T imply that consent is expected.
(We would not readily assume approval from someone like a never-possibly-happy-person, would we?)
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

25. COULDN’T I use your car?
(I expect you are going to allow it.)

 

When someone is not a never-possibly-happy-person, we can ask,
26. COULD I use your car (please)?
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

PAST forms may change the degree of Modality we express. Let us mark this degree in cubes. We can think about mountaineering.

 

PICTURE: A QUICKDRAW

27. Careful with this handle, it MAY break.
SYMBOLICS: 2 CUBES

 

27a. Careful with this handle, it MIGHT break.
SYMBOLICS: 1 CUBE

 

28. Careful with this handle, it CAN break.
SYMBOLICS: 4 CUBES

 

28a. Careful with this handle, it COULD break.
SYMBOLICS: 3 CUBES

*****

We could name the handle in the picture above a quickdraw. We yet can use the examples here to learn flexibility. Modal forms will require that we are flexible.

 

We can begin with simple words. There are multifarious handles in this world. We may need one to break a can of food open, when hiking.

 

PICTURE: A CAN HANDLE

A can, the noun, may mean a metal container. The verb to can may mean putting goods in cans. The auxiliary can is a Modal verb form.

 

Words always can have more than one meaning.
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us compare other Modal verbs for their degrees of CONTINGENCY or CERTAINTY, respectively.

 

29. The can WILL / HAS TO / MUST break open.
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

30. The can SHOULD / OUGHT TO break open.
SYMBOLICS: 3 CUBES

 

31. The can NEEDS to break open.
SYMBOLICS: 4 CUBES

*****

Modal forms HAVE TO and MUST differ in sense, not in degree of Modality.

 

32. You HAVE TO take care of the handle;
(such are the circumstances).
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

33. You MUST take care of the handle;
(my common sense says so).
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

Colloquial American English has phrases as
GOTTA TO
HAVE GOT TO
or
HAS GOT TO,
for CERTAINTY as well as CONTINGENCY.

 

Let us remember that colloquial uses are colloquial because they depart from the standard. We have a note on human mental lexicons in SUB-CHAPTER 6.3. We keep away from informal uses in official contexts.

 

If we are not in a formal situation, and we want to talk common sense, we can say,

34. You GOTTA take care of the handle.

 

Common sense does not mean we should not have any sense of humor.

 

34a. That HAS TO / GOTTA be the handle.PICTURE: THIS HAS TO BE THE HANDLE

 

Colloquial language is mostly banned from schools. We may need some acquaintance with it to comprehend everyday speech, however.

 

Informally, the word “stuff” may mean “talk”, “matter”.

34b. We HAVE TO / GOTTA learn to handle the Modal stuff.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

Much of the above is a strong challenge on our arrow cues: how do we use them with Modal verbs?

 

We can think about the target grammatical time.
35. Alice COULD read when she was five.

PICTURE: ALICE

36. Ten years ago, he got a loan, and COULD start his new business.

PICTURE: MONSIEUR SAUF

For the target grammatical time, we think about the context, not only the language forms. Linguistically, our time reference can be tacit.
Please compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.2.

7. I haven’t seen her today.
PICTURE: THE PRESENT PERFECT ARROW CUE AND AN OPEN TIME FRAME
7a. I didn’t see her today.
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME
The time reference is tacit, as the word “today” does not decide on grammar.

*****

American English, as any natural language, allows paraphrase. Let us see our target time and frame with paraphrased Modal verbs.
35a. She was able to read.
36a. He was able to open his new business.

PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

*****

What strategy can we develop for the Modal PAST? We can use syntactic structures. Feel welcome.
CHAPTER 9.1. MODAL SYNTAX, GRAMMATICAL PRESENT OR PAST
BUTTON: 9.1. MODAL SYNTAX, GRAMMATICAL PRESENT OR PAST

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

Exercise 45. We can warm up, merging our symbolic cues. As for our MIND PRACTICE, we may just think and visualize.

 

Example:
The plain arrow symbolizes the variable {ON}. Pointed up or down, it cues for the grammatical FUTURE or PAST. Horizontally, it indicates the PRESENT. We may refer to SUBCHAPTER 5.1.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

We can merge the plain arrow, let us say for the variable {IN}, within the same grammatical time. Here, it is going to be the PRESENT.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger:
Jemma smiles.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

B. After the merger:
Jemma is smiling.
PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

*****

We are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are working on flexible habits. We may think about Jemma, as well as Bob or anyone, including ourselves, and with various verbs. It is important that we learn to merge features for grammatical variables and time.

*****

THE TASK
PICTURE: EXERCISE 45, TASK

 

Exercise 46. We merge features as above and think about Expression. We just think and visualize.

 

SYMBOLICS: QUESTION MARK
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger
Does Bob worry?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, BEFORE THE MERGER
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON 

B. After the merger
Is Bob worrying?
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE
(His dad is wearing a horrible tie.)
EMOTICON: A JOKE
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, AFTER THE MERGER
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, TASK

 

Exercise 47. Let us practice deciding {ON} our cognitive extents. We complete the structures and arrow cues.

 

Not everyone fancies speaking about feelings and thoughts. However, it is important that we try to represent them in language. We may think about time and change.

*****

When we are able to put words together well, our words represent our notions and thoughts in language. We can name this ability representation, as there is always more than one way to put words together and make sense.

*****

Example: I love …

Answer: I love language.
(We can answer without telling anyone;
we remember the MIND PRACTICE.)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I hate …

 

2. I thought that … was pretty.

 

3. I remembered … then.

 

4. I considered … important.

 

5. I want

 

6. I hated … when I was a child.

 

7. I think that … is stupid. [TABOO]

 

8. I remember

 

9. I consider … important.

 

10. I wanted … when I was a child.

 

Exercise 48. It is natural to follow what is good for us. Therefore, let us try to “trade” language features. We merge the features in the wording with symbolics.

 

Example: I love
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Answer: I have (always) loved language.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

Again, we can give our answers in our thoughts, envisioning situations for which we might use the phrases.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I think (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

2. I concluded
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

3. I like
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

4. I keep
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

5. I sensed
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

6. I thought (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

7. I feel (always, that)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

8. I was thinking (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

9. I learned
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

10. means a lot to me.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Exercise 49. The Perfect Progressive Aspect makes three tenses, PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE. It has an open time frame.

 

Let us practice our linguistic gravitation: we close the time frame, when we are {ON} a cognitive ground (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.1).

 

We have part the mapping cues and stay with the Affirmative. We may not want much to do, in one go.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example 1: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 10:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 18:00 P.M.

 

Answer: I had breakfast.
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

 

Example 2: have breakfast
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 8:30 A.M.
TIME NOW: 8:15 P.M.

 

Answer: I have been having breakfast.
SYMBOLICS: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 

1. work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Monday, 10:00 P.M.

 

2. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Saturday, after 19:00 P.M.

 

3. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 23:00 P.M.

 

4. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 00:15 P.M.

 

5. go to the gym
TUESDAYS 19:00 ― 20:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Wednesday, after 21:15 P.M.

 

Exercise 50. Let us practice our earthling proper egoism (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 8.1). In conversation, we cannot merely follow on grammar.

 

We decide {ON} our language extents. We ignore the cue that would not be properly egoistic.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example: She (cherish) her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: She has cherished her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, ANSWER

 

1. The book set (consist) of five parts.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 1

 

2. She (sound) like under a bad impression.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 2

 

3. Yesterday afternoon, he (recall) his school years with friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 3

 

4. She just (recognize) the handwriting now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 4

 

5. He (agree) to the new conclusion just now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 5

 

6. Now, she (appreciate) the ancient manuscript for an hour.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 6

 

7. He (want) to go to the Arctic before he went to the Antarctic.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 7

 

8. The house (belong) to the family for 10 years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 8

 

9. He usually (respect) other opinions, but not that time.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 9

 

10. This time tomorrow, she (see) her brother.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 10

*****

From the key: example 7 shows we always should consider the entire utterance, to make out the grammatical time. The verb form “went” places the stretch of speech in the PAST.

 

We also can think about the alternate language forms.

 

In example 3, a phrase as “*yesterday afternoon, he will recall his school years with friends”, could not work with our cognitive map for YESTERDAY.

 

In example 8, a phrase as “*the house will have been belonging to the family for 10 years”, would go against natural human possessiveness: we place property {ON} cognitive maps.

 

Grammar is not only about style. It is also about logic and sense.
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Exercise 51. In natural language, our real-time present allows combining the time reference. We can talk about events that took place TODAY with a PAST grammatical reference. For events that are to take place, we can use the FUTURE.

 

We remain with our healthy egoism: we stay {ON} cognitive extents, for hearts and minds, regardless of any cues.

 

Example:
TODAY, PRESENT; he, know the answer
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Answer: He knows the answer. {ON}
PRESENT SIMPLE arrow(We ignore the dot, the Progressive symbolics.)

 

1. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, believe it

 

2. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

3. TODAY, the PAST; they, see each other
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

4. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, live here for ten years
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

5. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, speak with them
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

6. YESTERDAY, the PAST; he, write for an hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

7. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; you, work here for five years
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

8. TODAY, the PAST; we, hike in the mountains
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

9. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, exercise for an hour already
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

10. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, watch television, at this hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Exercise 52. SAMSON THE AGONIST is a story of a hero who had magic hair that gave him power. Naturally, we do not have to believe everything we read, online either.

 

Our “Observations as by a grain of sand” are to help us keep grammar even against unusual wording, like in EXERCISE 42. We have only part the cues: we practice independent language skill.

 

We first put our verbs into the grammatical PAST, and then into the PRESENT. We mind our Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.

 

Example: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, 1. (think) about a proper measure for own composition.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, was thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A. Length N 2. (seem) to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum N 3. (be) the argument to the grain of sand: it 4. (bring) to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B. The grain of sand 5. (think) about wisdom. What wisdom 6. (be) ?

 

C. It 7. (may be) a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand N 8. (consider) going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary.

 

D. The grain usually 9. (rest) close to the shoreline, not entirely by own will, but by the way of life it 10. (practice) since its earliest years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASK 10

 

E. Owing to this lifestyle, it 11. (decide) to devote part its time to necessities of cognition.

 

F. Thinking about own format as a potentiality by another, it 12. (deliberate) whether it 13. (be), as a grain of sand, a fruit of ability or mere industriousness.

 

G. It 14. (can be) up to itself to conclude on own structuring. For that chance, it 15. (spend) half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the evening, to ponder on composite phenomena strictly.

 

H. It 16. (do) its daily dose of reckoning for about fifteen minutes, when a westerly 17.  (arrive) to the shore. Its habitual way, the wind 18. (make) a little eddy on the shoreside.

 

I. The grain of sand 19. (think) if that 20. (be) wise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASKS 16-17

*****

Obviously, wits cannot be something we grow on our heads.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us now put the story into the grammatical PRESENT. Our grammar journey has had some dramatic narrative already, in EXERCISE 44.

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, is thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A1. Length does not seem to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum is not the argument to the grain of sand: it brings to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B1. The grain of sand thinks about wisdom. What is wisdom?

 

C1. It may be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand does not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary…

*****

Our sense for distance and time may encourage altering the word “that” from the grammatical PAST into the word “this”, for the grammatical PRESENT.

 

Modal verbs can challenge our logic. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 9.
BUTTON: CHAPTER 9. MODAL VERBS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY,
PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.

 

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.

 

As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.

 

In the auxiliary role, the verb to HAVE works for the framework. We mark it green. As a content verb, it can tell about ownership. We mark it mauve then, as all content verbs.

*****

Madame Règle speaks excellent American English. Her friendship with Jill Smith started over a website forum discussing philosophy and linguistics.

 

They agreed that Latin had had {TO} influence over English and French thought, although the languages belonged to diverse language groups.

 

*****

 

This is one of the reasons for some French reference in our grammar voyage. Latin has affected {TO} both English and French languages.

 

On the other hand, English and French have {ON} very dissimilar shapes. English is a Germanic language, and French belongs with the Romance language group. Some American insignia have {ON} Latin mottos.

 

We could hear or read sometimes that American English is an international language. There are no international languages really. Esperanto does not have {ON} many features of a natural language.

 

We can say that American English is a lingua franca, that is, a tongue spoken worldwide.

 

By origin of the phrase, we can associate a lingua franca with free speech. In Latin, the adjective “francus” also meant someone exempt from service, someone at liberty.

 

The Roman Empire rule over the present-day territory of France collapsed early, and ancient Romans knew the local people as Franks, READ IN WIKIPEDIA.

 

America and France have had {TO} historic ties. The French were American allies in the WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. The Statue of Liberty is a memorial to American independence and alliance with the French.

 

PICTURE: STATUE OF LIBERTY

 

There are many Statues of Liberty. The most famous statues are those in New York and Paris. A French sculptor, FRÉDÉRIC BARTHOLDI, designed the Statue.

 

Bartholdi patented it as Liberty Enlightening the World (La Liberté éclairant le monde, in French). The American statue stands on the Liberty Island, in New York Harbor.

 

PICTURE: LIBERTY ISLAND

*****

 

Madame Règle has {ON} a small book of poetry with her today. She has finished {TO} the book about Descartes. At home, she has {ON} a big volume about influences between French and English thinkers.

 

She has been reading {AT} two book series, poetry or philosophical commentary, one at a time, all this week.

 

Latimer Sauf is not surprised at her reading habit. The special edition of Larousse Gastronomique he got from her last Christmas has {ON} an elevated and celebrated place in his restaurant main hall.

 

The guests have turned {TO} many of the pages so far. He has had {TO} another copy to read at home. He has been studying {AT} it to detail. He has {ON} extra Larousse dishes on his menu.

*****

Let us focus on the grammatical time and cognitive variable.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE been reading; {AT}

 

PRESENT
He HAS been reading; {AT}

 

PAST
He HAD been reading. {AT}

 

We can compare the beginning of our language journey, the Fields of Time (CHAPTER 1).

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO HAVE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

How does the Perfect Progressive change for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE? It is the verb to have to change.

 

The verb to have changes the same as in our Fields of Time, for our cognitive variable {ON}, the Simple Aspect.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE a book; {ON}

 

PRESENT
He HAS a book; {ON}

 

PAST
He HAD a book. {ON}

 

Let us compare the cognitive variable {IN}. In the content role, the verb to have can also tell about eating. Madame Règle likes the extra Larousse dishes by Monsieur Sauf.

 

FUTURE
Tomorrow at this hour, Madame Règle
WILL BE having her extra Larousse and reading a book; {IN}

 

PRESENT
Madame Règle
IS having her extra Larousse and reading a book now; {IN}

 

PAST
When Jill walked into the restaurant yesterday, Madame Règle
WAS having her extra Larousse and reading a book.{IN}

 

Let us compare the variable {ON}. Here are our Fields of Time, again.

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

FUTURE
She WILL BE at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PRESENT
She IS at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PAST
She WAS at the restaurant. {ON}

 

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change for the grammatical time. It changes the same in our Fields of Time, the same as for our variable {ON}.

 

Let us compare all Aspects. The elements that adapt for the grammatical time are underlined.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FIRST ELEMENT

 

We can view the value {ON} as a basis for other Aspects.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM A LEARNER, I HAVE A GRAMMAR BOOK

 

We also can focus on the value {ON} and view other Aspects as syntactic expansion.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM -- I HAVE -- I HAVE BEEN LEARNING

 

Please mind that finding a basic value does not impose any particular order to use the values, especially if we come to the resolve that our {ON, IN, TO} and {AT} can be our learned cognitive variables.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us turn to American English as it is really. We do not intend to invent a new language.

This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
(NBC Today Sun as in the CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH, COCA.)

TEXT EXTENT: THIS IS A DREAM
SYMBOLICS: SYNTACTIC EXPANSE

The Simple Aspect can tell what we have {ON} our cognitive map. What we perceive does not have to take up an entire extent.

 

Even if we regard an entire cognitive extent, it does not have to imply that we are preoccupied. Another way round, we live on planet Earth, and none of us could preoccupy it.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

TEXT EXTENT: I AM LOVING IT

The Progressive Aspect, the value {IN}, can help mark a matter as different from the regular and basic {ON}.

 

To compare space, we may feel as IN an area, rather than ON a regular cognitive map, for matters we perceive as irregular or EMPHATIC.

 

The Progressive can help delineate in time, on something out of the ordinary, as a dream come true: dreams coming true are not anything regular.

*****

In this view, we can have the value {AT} for the most divergent from the regular, basic {ON}.
PICTURE: ASPECT SYNTACTIC EXPANSION

 

Could we have a natural feeling to return to the basic variable, after we “go away”? The following example looks spontaneous and shows our matter well.

 

{AT} I’ve been loving it. But {ON} I want to keep doing different things.
(People magazine as in COCA.)

TEXT EXTENTS: HAVE BEEN LOVING -- WANT TO DO

Some classic grammars might not agree to have verbs as “to love” or “to hate” in the Progressive at all. However, if to let anybody PRESCRIBE what language should be like, we might have to recur to MIDDLE ENGLISH.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

American English is a live language, and live languages also change. Thinking about free speech, let us consider a cognitive difference, for the two forms:
“I hate you”,
or
“I am hating you”.

 

We can compare human perception on physical space.
TEXT EXTENT: I AM HATING YOU

“I am hating you” is {IN} an area only.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HATE YOU

“I hate you” is {ON} the entire extent.

 

Our grammar is correct when it properly renders how we feel and think.

 

To speak American freely, we should choose independently if we say that we are hating or loving something, or that we hate or love it.

 

This can be our earthling proper egoism: we have our inner grammars work for our minds, rather than adapt our minds to rules that cannot be universal, anyway.

 

The variable {ON} can be our earthling and basic variable. Who knows, maybe the ancient Latin rules, from which classic grammars derive, emerged owing to human variables, only they were not called variables then, hence the “stative use of verbs”?

 

Naturally, classicist or generativist, we do not have to be always gravely serious about everything we say.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

VARIABLES OR OPTIONS?

We may come across presentations of language as features.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FEATURES, A CHART

 

An Aspect both Perfect and Progressive would be the Perfect Progressive. An Aspect neither Perfect nor Progressive would be the Simple.

 

Some approaches might attempt a picture for language as made of options. However, our brains are live structures and have simultaneous processes.

 

When we use the Present Simple, our paths for the Perfect Progressive for example do not become “switched off”. If we use the Progressive, we do not exclude a possibility for the same thing to happen also in a manner we describe in the Simple:

“I‘m loving you”,

would not mean

“I don’t love you”.

 

Planet Earth is our natural habitat. When we people think what there is {ON} a geographical map, we do not exclude possibilities for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} places.

 

Humans are likely to learn languages {ON} a planet for an indeterminate future. Even astronauts learn {ON} Earth.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Associating language, thinking, feeling, and generally space is natural. What would feelings, thoughts, or works be — without room?

 

Finally, our variable {ON} does not correspond with an option as OFF. We do not turn our brains off, also when we go to sleep.

 

We can conclude that Aspects are not options. Options can be mutually exclusive. To take one option, we would have to exclude other choices. Variables work together, also simultaneously.

 

Feel welcome to practice.

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS
BUTTON, 8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH