8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

Exercise 45. We may warm up, merging our symbolic cues. As for our ■→MIND PRACTICE, we can just think and visualize.

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Example:
The plain arrow symbolizes the variable {ON}. Pointed up or down, it cues for the grammatical FUTURE or PAST. Horizontally, it indicates the PRESENT. We may refer to ■→SUBCHAPTER 5.1.

Let us merge the plain arrow with the provided cue, and stay within the same grammatical time. Here, the head verb is to smile, the variable is to be {IN}, and the grammatical time the PRESENT.

SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

Answer:
A. Before the merger:
Jemma smiles.

{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

B. After the merger:
Jemma is smiling.

{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

We are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are working on flexible habits. We may think about Jemma, as well as Bob or anyone, including ourselves, and with various verbs. It is important that we learn to merge features for grammatical variables and time. ■→APPENDIX 2 and ■→APPENDIX 3 have many verbs to choose from.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 45, TASK

Exercise 46. We merge features as above and think about Expression. We may just think and visualize. Our example head verb is to worry.

SYMBOLICS: QUESTION MARK
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

Answer A.
Before the merger
Does Bob worry?

{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

Answer B.
After the merger
Is Bob worrying?

{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

(His dad is wearing a horrible tie.)

PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, TASK

Exercise 47. Let us practice deciding {ON} our cognitive extents. We complete the language structures and provide the arrow cues.

Not everyone fancies speaking about feelings and thoughts, but after all, we do not have language only to talk with people. We use it to read, write, and think as well. It is important that we try to represent feelings and thoughts in language. We may think about time and change.

When we are able to put words together well, our words represent what we think and feel. We can name this ability representation, as there is always more than one way to put words together and make sense.

Example: I love …

Answer: I love language.
(We can answer without telling anyone,
we remember the ■→MIND PRACTICE.)

1. I hate…
2. I thought that… was pretty.
3. I remembered… then.
4. I considered… important.
5. I want
6. I hated… when I was a child.
7. I think that… is stupid. [TABOO]
8. I remember
9. I consider… important.
10. I wanted… when I was a child.

Exercise 48. It is natural to follow what is good for us. Therefore, let us try to “trade” language features. We merge the features in the wording with symbolics.

Example: I love

Answer: I have (always) loved language.

We can give the answers in our thoughts, envisioning situations where we might use the phrases.

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

1. I think (about)

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

2. I concluded

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

3. I like

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

4. I keep

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

5. I sensed

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

6. I thought (about)

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

7. I feel (always, that)

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

8. I was thinking (about)

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

9. I learned

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

10. means a lot to me.

Exercise 49. The Perfect Progressive Aspect makes three tenses, PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE. It has an open time frame.

Let us practice our linguistic gravitation: we close the time frame, when we are {ON} a cognitive ground (please compare ■→SUB-CHAPTER 6.1).

We have part the mapping cues and stay with the Affirmative. We may not want much to do, in one go.

Example 1: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 10:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 18:00 P.M.

PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

Answer: I had breakfast.

SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN

Example 2: have breakfast

EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 8:30 A.M.
TIME NOW: 8:15 P.M.

SYMBOLICS: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

Answer: I have been having breakfast.

SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN

1. work

MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Monday, 10:00 P.M.

2. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Saturday, after 19:00 P.M.

SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN

3. read

EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 23:00 P.M.

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

4. read

EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 00:15 P.M.

5. go to the gym
TUESDAYS 19:00 ― 20:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Wednesday, after 21:15 P.M.

Exercise 50. Let us practice our earthling proper egoism (please compare ■→SUB-CHAPTER 8.1). In conversation, we cannot merely follow on grammar

We decide {ON} our language extents. We ignore the cue that would not be properly egoistic.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, EXAMPLE

Example: She (cherish) her friends.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, ANSWER

Answer: She has cherished her friends.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 1

1. The book set (consist) of five parts.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 2

2. She (sound) like under a bad impression.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 3

3. Yesterday afternoon, he (recall) his school years with friends.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 4

4. She just (recognize) the handwriting now.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 5

5. He (agree) to the new conclusion just now.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 6

6. Now, she (appreciate) the ancient manuscript for an hour.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 7

7. He (want) to go to the Arctic before he went to the Antarctic.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 8

8. The house (belong) to the family for 10 years.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 9

9. He usually (respect) other opinions, but not that time.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 10

10. This time tomorrow, she (see) her brother.

From the key: example 7 shows we always should consider the entire utterance, to make out the grammatical time. The verb form “went” places the stretch of speech in the PAST.

We also can think about the alternate language forms.

In example 3, a phrase as “*yesterday afternoon, he will recall his school years with friends”, could not work with our cognitive map for YESTERDAY.

In example 8, a phrase as “*the house will have been belonging to the family for 10 years”, would go against natural human possessiveness: we place property {ON} cognitive maps.

Grammar is not only about style. It is also about logic and sense.

Exercise 51. In natural language, our real-time present allows combining the time reference. We can talk about events that took place TODAY with a PAST grammatical reference. For events that are to take place, we can use the FUTURE.

We remain with our healthy egoism: we stay {ON} cognitive extents, for hearts and minds, regardless of any cues.

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

Example:
TODAY, PRESENT; he, know the answer

PRESENT SIMPLE arrow

Answer: He knows the answer. {ON}
(We ignore the dot, the Progressive symbolics.

1. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, believe it

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

2. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, work

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

3. TODAY, the PAST; they, see each other

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

4. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, live here for ten years

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

5. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, speak with them

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

6. YESTERDAY, the PAST; he, write for an hour

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

7. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; you, work here for five years

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

8. TODAY, the PAST; we, hike in the mountains

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

9. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, exercise for an hour already

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

10. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, watch television, at this hour

Exercise 52. ■→SAMSON THE AGONIST is a story of a hero who had magic hair that gave him power. Naturally, we do not have to believe everything we read, online either.

Our “Observations as by a grain of sand” are to help us keep grammar even against unusual wording, like in ■→EXERCISE 42. We have only part the cues: we practice independent language skill.

We first put our verbs into the grammatical PAST, and then into the PRESENT. We mind our Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative

PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, EXAMPLE

Example: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, 1. (think) about a proper measure for own composition.

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, was thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

A. Length N 2. (seem) to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum N 3. (be) the argument to the grain of sand: it 4. (bring) to mind limitation rather than weight.

B. The grain of sand 5. (think) about wisdom. What wisdom 6. (be) ?

C. It 7. (may be) a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand N 8. (consider) going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASK 10

D. The grain usually 9. (rest) close to the shoreline, not entirely by own will, but by the way of life it 10. (practice) since its earliest years.

E. Owing to this lifestyle, it 11. (decide) to devote part its time to necessities of cognition.

F. Thinking about own format as a potentiality by another, it 12. (deliberate) whether it 13. (be), as a grain of sand, a fruit of ability or mere industriousness.

G. It 14. (can be) up to itself to conclude on own structuring. For that chance, it 15. (spend) half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the evening, to ponder on composite phenomena strictly.

H. It 16. (do) its daily dose of reckoning for about fifteen minutes, when a westerly 17.  (arrive) to the shore. Its habitual way, the wind 18. (make) a little eddy on the shoreside.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASKS 16-17

I. The grain of sand 19. (think) if that 20. (be) wise.

Obviously, wits cannot be something we grow on our heads.

Let us now put the story into the grammatical PRESENT. Our grammar journey has had some dramatic narrative already, in ■→EXERCISE 44.

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, is thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

A1. Length does not seem to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum is not the argument to the grain of sand: it brings to mind limitation rather than weight.

B1. The grain of sand thinks about wisdom. What is wisdom?

C1. It may be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand does not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary…

Our sense for distance and time may encourage altering the word “that” from the grammatical PAST into the word “this”, for the grammatical PRESENT.

Modal verbs may challenge our logic. Feel welcome to ■→CHAPTER 9.