5.3. PRACTICE: REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

PL

Abbreviated verb forms are really much in use in American English. It is important to learn telling and using them. For irregular verbs, feel welcome to Appendix 2 and Appendix 3. Please try to take the exercises in your mind, as in the Mind practice.

Exercise 29. We continue practicing abbreviated verb forms as in EXERCISE 28.
’m: am
’re: are
’s: is
’ve: have
’s: has
’d: had

We can tell abbreviated “is” from “has” only by their contexts, as both get shortened to ’s.

Example: They’ve clung.
Answer: cling, clang, clung.
SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

1. We’re swimming.
2. It’s shone.
3. You’d gainsaid.
4. She’s eaten.
5. They’d woken.
6. He’s heard.
7. They’re working.
8. She’d spun.
9. It’s crowing.
10. You’ve spoken.

Exercise 30. Let us think about the three verb forms, along with the mapping variable and the target grammatical time.

Example: She’s read.
Answer: TO, the PRESENT; read, read, read
PRESENT PERFECT ARROW big

1. We’re drawing.
2. She’s sung.
3. You’d written.
4. You’ve colored.
5. They’ve painted.
6. She’s swinging.
7. It’s ringing.
8. She’s left.
9. I’m dreaming.
10. We’ve played.

Feel welcome to the second part of the language journey:
PART TWO, CONTENT.