Abbreviated verb forms are really much in use in American English. It is important to learn telling them. For irregular verbs, feel welcome to ■→APPENDIX 2 and ■→APPENDIX 3. We first try the exercises in our thoughts, as in the ■→MIND PRACTICE.

Exercise 29. We can tell abbreviated “is” from “has” only by their contexts, as both get shortened to ’s. We continue practicing as in ■→EXERCISE 28.
’m: am
’re: are
’s: is
’ve: have
’s: has
’d: had

Example: They’ve clung.
Answer: cling, clang, clung.

1. We’re swimming.
2. It’s shone.
3. You’d gainsaid.
4. She’s eaten.
5. They’d woken.
6. He’s heard.
7. They’re working.
8. She’d spun.
9. It’s crowing.
10. You’ve spoken.

Exercise 30. Let us think about the three verb forms, along with the mapping variable and the target grammatical time.

Example: She’s read.
Answer: TO, the PRESENT; read, read, read

1. We’re drawing.
2. She’s sung.
3. You’d written.
4. You’ve colored.
5. They’ve painted.
6. She’s swinging.
7. It’s ringing.
8. She’s left.
9. I’m dreaming.
10. We’ve played.

Feel welcome to the second part of the language journey:

■→This text is also available in Polish.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
■→Free access, Internet Archive
Electronic format $2.99
■→E-pub | NOOK Book | Kindle
Soft cover, 260 pages, $16.89
■→Amazon | Barnes & Noble
Hard cover, 260 pages
■→Barnes & Noble | Lulu



Internet Archive, the free text and image repository

■→Feel welcome to use the materials in my account
The posters are available to shop online as well.