2.1. MORE WORDS IN THE FIELDS

Verbs may change in shape for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE, and not all are regular in this. Most dictionaries have lists of irregular verbs, to show the first, second, and third form, for verb base or infinitive shapes.

AN IRREGULAR VERB
The infinitive: to ring;
The base form: ring.

FIRST FORM
1ST
ring

SECOND FORM
2ND
rang

THIRD FORM
3RD
rung

Regular verbs take the ending ED, in their second and third forms.

A REGULAR VERB
The infinitive: to sound;
The base form: sound.

FIRST FORM
1ST
sound

SECOND FORM
2ND
sounded

THIRD FORM
3RD
sounded

A brief note on basic and infinitive shapes of verbs can help us work with grammar resources.

We build the infinitive with the basic form of the verb and the particle “to”.

BASE FORM: ring
THE INFINITIVE: to ring.

In English, the base form is usually the first form too.
I will write home tomorrow, the FUTURE field of time;
(“write” is the first and the basic form of the verb to write).

For the verb to be, the base form is different from the first form.
I will be home tomorrow, the FUTURE field of time;
(“be” is the base form of the verb to be;
the first forms are am, is, are).

We can see these first forms in our PRESENT field of time.


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The particle “to” does not belong with the infinitive only. To tell the difference, we mind if the particle comes with a verb or a noun. The infinitive is a verb form.

I like to listen to music;
(the infinitive particle is underlined).

I often listen to music;
(there is no infinitive here, music is a noun, that is, a word that can answer the question, Who or what?)

■→APPENDIX 1 tells more about verbs. ■→APPENDIX 2 and ■→APPENDIX 3 show verb speech sound patterns. Irregular verbs are easier to learn with these language melodies.

Exercise 5. Let us put the verbs in forms proper for the indicated grammatical time.

In simple words again, let us put the verbs in the fields of time. We work as in the ■→MIND PRACTICE.

The speech sound pattern here is
I: ― e: ― e:

FIRST FORM
1ST
leave

SECOND FORM
2ND
left

THIRD FORM
3RD
left

Example: PAST (leave);
Answer: left.

1. FUTURE (leave);
2. PRESENT (mean);
3. PRESENT (meet);
4. PAST (read);
5. FUTURE (sleep);
6. PAST (sweep);
7. PAST (sleep);
8. PRESENT (read);
9. FUTURE (meet);
10. PRESENT (sweep).

Exercise 6. Another way round, we tell the field of time by the shape of the verb. We show pronunciation — that is, the way to say a word — in brackets.

Example: left;
Answer: (time first) PAST (leave).

1. meet(s); 2. read {re: d}; 3. read {rI: d}; 4. will sleep; 5. will leave; 6. met; 7. mean(s); 8. meant; 9. slept; 10. swept.

Feel welcome to further grammar journey:
■→CHAPTER 3. TIME IS LIKE A RIVER.

■→This text is also available in Polish.


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In the first part of the language journey, feel welcome to consider a picture for
■ the grammatical Past, Present, and Future;
■ the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect;
■ infinitive, auxiliary, and head verb forms;
■ the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative;
■ irregular verbs and vowel patterns: high and low, back and front.
Third edition, 2021; ■→FREE SAMPLE.

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■→Free access, Internet Archive
Electronic format $2.99
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PSYCHOLINGUISTICS, LINGUISTICS,
& TRANSLATION


■→teresapelka.com
■→teresapelka-in-polish.com

Internet Archive, the free text and image repository

■→Feel welcome to use the materials in my account
The posters are available to shop online as well.