6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

PICTURE: CAMILLE PISSARRO, BOULEVARD MONTMARTRE, MORNING, CLOUDY WEATHER

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning, Cloudy Weather, Wikimedia Commons

 

Exercise 32. For our warm-up, let us practice the time frames. We can do the exercise in our minds solely, as in the MIND PRACTICE. Our head verb is to work.

 

Example 1: Monsieur Sauf had worked.
Answer: {TO}, a PAST cognitive ground.
PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT(a time frame open to a reference mark in the PAST)

 

Example 2: Madame Règle will work.
Answer: {ON}, a cognitive ground for the FUTURE.
PICTURE: CLOSED TIME FRAME, FUTURE SIMPLE ARROW CUE(a time frame closed on a FUTURE time reference)

 

Please mind that our grounds for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE are the grammatical time. We do not need insight greater than for classic grammar, to talk about what happened, or to predict on our real-time future.

 

1. Monsieur Sauf worked.

 

2. Monsieur Sauf will have worked.

 

3. Madame Règle has worked.

 

4. Madame Règle works.

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One of the worst mistakes in language work is to keep vocabulary practice apart from grammar exercise. We are about avoiding it here.

 

Big dictionaries should not scare us. We do not have to memorize them. We can learn by referring to them.

 

It is good to use monolingual dictionaries and select on word sense. A monolingual dictionary has words and definitions in the same language.

 

Our brains can get the habit to choose on word sense. For example, the AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY has about 10 senses for the verb TO BE.

 

The word MAN has about 20 senses, and one of them is “a human being, a person”.

 

Women also belong with this sense of the word, as in all men are created equal, a phrase we may know from the Declaration of Independence.
FEEL WELCOME TO READ ABOUT THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

 

We may not want to worry about getting the money to buy expensive dictionaries, especially if we are just beginners. There are free dictionary resources, available over the web and in libraries.

 

For American English, there also is THE FREE DICTIONARY, or MERRRIAM-WEBSTER.

 

“Jumping into deep waters” is yet no good strategy for language, and Hispanic learners may like to compare the Spanish DICCIONARIO. People with French or German might like to use LAROUSSE or PONS, respectively.

 

All the websites have extensive free contents.

 

Our Travel in Grammar has a mirror in a Slavic language, Polish.
BUTTON: ZOBACZ PODRÓŻ W GRAMATYCE

 

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We may look up dictionary definitions, but we people naturally build own, mental lexicons for meaning. The word “mental” means “of the mind”.

 

It comes from the Latin word “mens, mentis”, signifying the mind, disposition, feeling, character, heart, as well as soul. Reading dictionaries can help us build own lexicons in our minds.

 

American English ― the same as any other language ― has formal and standard, as well as colloquial language uses. To be colloquial, a use may depart far from the standard, or even go opposite to it.

 

Colloquially, the word “mental” may refer to insanity. By standard, a “mental lexicon” is a “vocabulary of a mind”. We can decide how we use words. Free speech cannot require that we blindly follow, especially colloquial uses.

 

Let us try to reckon on word sense. The AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY says that stollen is a rich yeast bread containing dried fruit, as raisins, and candied fruit, as citron; chopped nuts, and spices.

 

In other words, stollen can be full-bodied sweetbread with fruit sweetmeats, grated or milled nuts, as well as marzipan or citron.

 

Obviously, own lexicons cannot be always a piece of cake. Let us think about COSMOS, as in the American Heritage dictionary:

 

1. The universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole.
2. An ordered, harmonious whole.
3. Harmony and order as distinct from chaos.
4. pl. cos•mos•es or cosmos Any of various mostly Mexican herbs of the genus Cosmos.

 

We do not have to agree. Human civilizations have had ideas as a “cosmogonic strife”, and the outer space observably clashes, sometimes.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

The cosmos flower grows also in the USA, up to the Olympic Penninsula in Washington (WIKIPEDIA).

 

Here is my idea for the word “cosmos”:
1. space to include the planet Earth ― we can compare the “outer space”;
2. spatial reference to be mapped on itself, as in stereometry, mathematics, information technology, and philosophy
(we can refer to the cosmos and give it attributes, we yet do not include the cosmos in any larger space, to map it);
3. American colorful garden flower to attract birds, also similar to gillyflower in color.

 

PICTURE: WHAT IS THE COSMOS, JOKE
EMOTICON: A JOKE
(Do not underestimate juniors learning, and please remember that the word “dude” is TABOO in official situations.)

 

There are a few kinds of the cosmos flower. The word “cosmos” comes from Greek. Also originally, it happened to refer to the outer space.

 

If we want to find out about the position of the Earth in space, we can visit NASA.GOV. NASA is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of America.

 

A good idea is to read a dictionary “until we get it”. If we are not sure what the “solar system” means, we open the dictionary at “solar” and “system”.

 

Sooner than later, we are going to be able to flip pages and read big dictionaries just like books. Let us try our linguistic natures with real words and big dictionaries.

 

Exercise 33. Natural languages do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds.

 

Let us mind our time frames.
Example: The goldfish awoke, hearing a croak.
Answer: a/wake, {ON} the PAST ground
PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.

 

2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.

 

3. The soybean alone outshone the legumes fair in Bayonne.

 

4. The hornbill had overlooked the rook by the brook.

 

5. The golden frog behind the chilidog overslept and wept.

 

6. The windflower withstood the rude mood in the wood.

 

7. The woodpecker has custom remade the pasquinade to treat his clade.

 

8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet.

 

9. The kinkajou understood that honey was for feel-good.

 

10. The kittiwake has shaken and partaken in casing bacon in Macon.

 

Feel welcome to further practice.
6.4. EXERCISES:
THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

BUTTON: 6.4. EXERCISES, THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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