6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

Exercise 32. Our head verb is to work. We can do the exercises in our minds solely, as in the ■→MIND PRACTICE.

Example 1: Monsieur Sauf had worked.
Answer: {TO} a cognitive ground for the PAST; the time frame is open to a reference in the PAST.

Example 2: Madame Règle will work.
Answer: {ON} a cognitive ground for the FUTURE; the time frame is closed on a reference for the FUTURE.

Please mind, our grounds for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE are the grammatical time. We do not need insight greater than for classic grammar, to tell what has happened, or to predict on our real-time future.

1. Monsieur Sauf worked.
2. Monsieur Sauf will have worked.
3. Madame Règle has worked.
4. Madame Règle works.


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Exercise 33. Natural languages do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds. Let us mind our time frames.

Example: The goldfish awoke, hearing a croak.
Answer: a/wake, {ON} the PAST ground.

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.
2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.
3. The soybean alone outshone the legumes fair in Bayonne.
4. The hornbill had overlooked the rook by the brook.
5. The golden frog behind the chilidog overslept and wept.
6. The windflower withstood the rude mood in the wood.
7. The woodpecker has custom remade the pasquinade to treat his clade.
8. The spotted redshank bachelorette bewailed, and reset her buret for the bouncing bet.
9. The kinkajou understood that honey was for feel-good.
10. The kittiwake has shaken and partaken in casing bacon in Macon.

Feel welcome to further practice.
■→6.4. MORE PRACTICE:
THE GRAMMTICAL FRAME, VARIABLE, AND FORM

■→This text is also available in Polish.


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In the first part of the language journey, feel welcome to consider a picture for
■ the grammatical Past, Present, and Future;
■ the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect;
■ infinitive, auxiliary, and head verb forms;
■ the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative;
■ irregular verbs and vowel patterns: high and low, back and front.
Third edition, 2021; ■→FREE SAMPLE.

Electronic format USD 2.99
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The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
■→Free access, Internet Archive
Electronic format $2.99
■→E-pub | NOOK Book | Kindle
Soft cover, 260 pages, $16.89
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Hard cover, 260 pages
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PSYCHOLINGUISTICS, LINGUISTICS,
& TRANSLATION


■→teresapelka.com
■→teresapelka-in-polish.com

Internet Archive, the free text and image repository

■→Feel welcome to use the materials in my account
The posters are available to shop online as well.