CHAPTER 4. TIME RAMBLES DIFFERENT WITH DIFFERENT PEOPLE

PICTURE: A STOPWATCH

Even if we know very many grammar rules, it is how we do in real time to matter. We may like to set own pace, with time and language. To achieve this, we make our language thinking economical.

 

Our human minds naturally can associate time and place (CHAPTER 1). There are a few words quite often in use, to talk about places in English, as on, in, and to.

 

We have found out about three Aspects so far, the Simple, the Progressive, and the Perfect. Let us put together the Aspects and the basic ways we orientate in physical space.

 

For this, we do not need to imagine spaceships or submarines. After all, human grammars have evolved on the surface of planet Earth, and this is where we can begin. Curious or fast a learner, feel welcome to CHAPTER 8.1: we talk about the earthling basic cognitive variable.

 

Now and here, let us take a picture we could use to make a map.

 

PICTURE: A SUBURBAN AREA, AERIAL VIEW

 

Geographical maps are about particular localities, and we cannot have our grammars limited to spatial whereabouts. Let us process the picture. It is to symbolize an extent.

 

PICTURE: IMAGE OF AN AREA PROCESSED INTO AN ABSTRACT EXTENT

 

The Simple: we can use it to speak about habits, as well as feelings and thoughts — all that does not change often. We may do something usually, as well as… never. The Simple can help tell what generally existed, exists, or we think will exist ON a cognitive map.

 

We extracted the overall pattern for the Simple Aspect in Chapter 3.1.

 

TEXT: THE SIMPLE ASPECT PATTERN

 

PICTURE: LANGUAGE USE EXAMPLES, COGNITIVE VALUE ON

 

The Progressive can help tell something was, is, or will be IN progress, or IN its course. To visualize this Aspect, we may picture activity or faculties as in an area.

 

PICTURE: LANGUAGE USE EXAMPLES, COGNITIVE VALUE IN

 

We have extracted the general pattern for the Progressive, too.

 

TEXT: THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT PATTERN

 

The Perfect: we can use it to say what had taken place, has taken place, or will have taken place TO a moment in time. The moment does not have to mark the end of the state, activity, or faculty work. We may compare this to a way to a place. We know the general pattern for the Perfect Aspect.

 

TEXT: THE PERFECT ASPECT PATTERN

 

PICTURE: LANGUAGE USE EXAMPLES, COGNITIVE VALUE TO

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Grammar schools may vary on word forms such as on, in, to, or at, and these can be adverbs, sometimes. Further, adverbs may go into categories as manner or place, dependent on the grammar approach only.

 

LINK: WHAT IS LANGUAGE FORM?

Let us remember that word forms are language forms. In French, we could say sur, in German auf, and in Russian на (Latin alphabet na), in contexts we say on, in English.

 

We can resolve we use ON, IN, and TO as prepositions. Our prepositions can connect our thinking about time and language as if we had a map with language markers.

 

The idea can work just the same wherever we are and whatever the hour, and we do not have to flip grammar book pages for own grammars.

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We recognize the Aspects by their patterns. We always build the Progressive with be, and the Perfect with have. All Aspects can work with will in the FUTURE Field of Time. Chapter 5 shows the Simple with the auxiliary do.

 

PICTURE: THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT ASPECT PATTERNS

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

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At the same time, let us mind that we are not building a system. Systems need to be finite. Language is not a finite entity: it is not possible to count all phrases and collocations we people are able to produce.

 

We can have our core verbs (BE, HAVE, DO, WILL), time extents (PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE), and tense patterns (SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, PERFECT), for a logical array, or set.

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Such linguistic arrays are not merely collections. They work interconnected. Let us see on an example.

 

Jake is being mad. He is not really mad. He is really only pretending.

 

PICTURE: VALUES ON AND IN, HE IS MAD, HE IS BEING MAD

John is mad angry now. His investment has not worked.

 

The verb to be puts us ON the map. We cannot be IN an area of a cognitive map, without being ON the map.

 

If we select part an extent for our view, we mark we do not mean an entire extent:

He is being mad {IN}. He is sane {ON}.

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With classic grammars, we may learn we use the Present Progressive for things happening “now”. We may get to associate the Progressive with words as “now” or “then”.

 

We yet could not follow any such idea to speak about the way we feel or think. Even if talking about a present minute, we would hear or say,

 

I am happy now,
I think I like it now;
(Present Simple).

 

We can learn to grant extents:

I am hating you {IN}.
(It does not mean I always hate you {ON}).

 

We may notice that such extents can explain many everyday language uses. Classic grammars might discredit them, as the uses do not belong under classic explanations. Our grammar is yet concerned with American English as it is: the title of this chapter says time rambles different, though classic grammars would advise differently.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Whether American or British the English, it is the objective reality that people live ON Earth, happen to be IN geographical areas, and may learn and remember ways TO places. Relating this reality and language does not break scholarly rules.

 

Chapter 5 adds Expression to our picture. Expression regards the Affirmative, Interrogative, or Negative.

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Let us try some work with variables and extents. We can think how we have traveled so far. Here, we can use the Present Perfect. Our Present Perfect pattern is “have traveled”.

 

PICTURE: TEXT EXTENT, WE HAVE TRAVELED

 

To review what we have done TO this point in our travel in grammar, we do not have to use the Present Perfect all the time.

 

We can say we made our passage with the Stones of Time and traversed the River of Time. We could see ourselves as on a map. We pictured ourselves in an area, and we held in view our way to a place.

 

PICTURE: TEXT EXTENT, HELD, PICTURED, COULD SEE, HAVE TRAVELED

 

We may think about all those as about localities at which we were during our travel. We can use the Past Simple. Our Past Simple forms here are “made”, “traversed”, “saw”, “pictured”, “held”, and “were”.

 

PICTURE: TEXT EXTENT, WE TRAVERSED THE RIVER OF TIME

 

It is when we want to mark activity as relative to the PRESENT that we use the Present Perfect. Otherwise, we can just stay {ON} our maps.

 

For this chapter, we can say we have connected a perspective on the Fields of Time with an abstract map.

 

In Chapter 5, we might say we connected the perspective and abstract mapping in Chapter 4.

 

We also might say we have connected the perspective and mapping, if we look to the beginning of the grammar work.

 

Our follow up is to help learn independently to decide, how we view an extent and express this view.

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This is abstract, conceptual thinking to manage grammars in all languages. We need it for our American English, too. We can visualize the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect — together, as abstract variables.

 

PICTURE: 3 VARIABLES AS ABSTRACT VALUES

 

Exercising concepts, we do not have to limit our language skills to a prospect of moving on land solely. Bald eagles happen to sojourn in woods deep as natural language grammars. They know some more of the way. Shall we follow the eagle to the Rockies?

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: EAGLES ALSO SOJOURN

 

For centuries, humans have used symbols to encourage thinking. Concepts here do not come from Greek Anaximander, we yet may compare ideas.

 

PICTURE: EAGLES ROUTE IN THE ROCKIES, VALUES ON, IN, TO, AND AT

 

American eagles can fly very high. The bald eagle symbolizes good language skills, in our grammar course. The bald eagle is a national symbol of the United States of America.

 

 

To become high-fliers, we must learn independently to determine our extent and ground in language. However language may influence thinking, there cannot be grammar or other rule good to regulate human thought. Our way with language cannot be as in the picture below.

 

PICTURE: NOT THE WAY THROUGH THE RIVER OF TIME

 

Feel welcome to the exercises (!)
4.1. EXERCISES: LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE.
LINK 4.1. LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE

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