Why is this grammar course a travel in grammar? Let us think about our language work up TO this stage. We can use the Present Perfect: auxiliary “have” and head 3rd form make the pattern, we think how we have worked.

The Perfect Aspect is not the only way to look back on time. We can say we made our passage with the pods of time and we traversed the river of time. We reasoned we were as on a map, we imagined ourselves as in an area, and we compared the Perfect Aspect to a way to a place.

By standard, our language use can be the same as for localities visited during a trip or journey. We use the Past Simple: our Past Simple forms are “made”, “traversed”, “saw”, “pictured”, “held”, and “were”.

It is when we want to mark activity as relative {TO} the PRESENT that we use the Present Perfect. Otherwise, we can just stay {ON} our cognitive maps.

Here in subchapter 4.1, we could say we have connected the grammatical time and aspect, or, in words more usual, that we have learned to use the fields of time with variables. Our grammatical time is the PRESENT, the same as real time.

In chapter 5, we might say we connected the grammatical time and aspect, or that we learned to use the fields with variables, about chapter 4. The chapter may belong with the grammatical PAST: we were on it last week, or another past time.

If we want to sum up on Part 1 entire, we have quite some choice on the pattern, that is, also language style. We might say we connected, we have connected, as well as that we connect the Time and Aspect, or that we used, we have used, as well as that we use the fields with variables. Our regard will depend on how relevant we think the matter is to our real-time PRESENT.

If someone is curious or wants to join the course, we might tell them — about the same language matter — that by chapter 5 we will have connected the grammatical time and aspect.

This is why the grammar course is a “travel in grammar”: we can speak about the same language matter, and the matter does not go change places in the course book or anywhere at all, whereas our use of grammar is flexible: we are able to adapt it to own regards.


People who learn isolated tenses, as the Present Simple, Present Progressive and so forth, may consider it difficult to use the Aspects to express own views. We can think about the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect — together, as cognitive variables that we choose in real time. It can be good time and in truth, no effort at all.

Exercising the Aspects, we do not have to limit our language skills to a prospect for relaxing or moving about on land solely. Bald eagles happen to sojourn in woods deep as natural language grammars.

For centuries already, people have used symbols to encourage thinking. American eagles can fly very high. The bald eagle is a national symbol of the United States; in the grammar travel, it symbolizes good language skill. Feel welcome to ■→Read about the American eagle.

Shall we follow the eagle to the Rockies?

To become high-fliers, we must learn independently to determine our extent and ground in language. Language may influence thinking, but there cannot be grammar or other rule good to regulate human thought. Our way with language and speech cannot be as in the picture below.


Feel welcome to the exercises (!)

■→This text is also available in Polish.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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Internet Archive, the free text and image repository

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The posters are available to shop online as well.