4.1. LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE

Exercise 13. Imagined or psychological maps can enhance our thinking for grammar. Imagination can be quite common sense, as an ability to envision, to form an image.

 

If we never imagined anything, we would be unable to prefigure on things, to predict what happens, before we do something.

 

Let us draw abstract maps for our direct environment, our every day, and our lives. Our maps do not have to be exact.

 

We only move gradually from an imagination of space into an imagination of time. Maps of direct environments would be mostly about space. Maps of lives would be about time more.

 

Here we have a few examples. Please do draw your own maps, put on them as many associations as possible, all in English.

 

A. My direct environment: the map does not have to be exact. It should show the physically nearest objects.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

 

B. My everyday life: the places do not have to be physically close; it is important we associate them with our routine, frequent, and preferred experiences. This makes them psychologically close.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

C. My life: we may feel like going into the future a little.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK C, LIFE AND FUTURE

EMOTICON: A JOKE 

Exercise 14. We can recognize language inner framework and content. The framework is not about style only. It helps put thought into comprehensible patterns.

 

We use the verbs to be and to have, to build the Progressive or Perfect Aspects. When be and have help build a pattern, they map our thinking about time and activity.

 

The mapping can be an approximation; it does not have to be 100% exact, as there even might be differences among people, on how to view things.

 

When they map, to be and to have belong with the language framework.

 

When they bring talk about existence (being) or ownership, to be and to have are head verbs. They can head verb phrases, and belong with the content.

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs.
BUTTON, APPENDIX 1: THE VERB

 

Let us decide, where be and have belong with the framework, and where with the content. In the example, the answer is underlined.

 

F: language framework
C: language content

 

Example:
I have brought this for you.
This is a chart for our journey.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

Answer:
have      F or C (framework)
be          F or C (content)

 

1. Mary’s lamb was white as snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

2. As I was going to St. Ives, I was talking with a man of seven wives.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

3. A little nut tree I do have, it has borne silver nutmeg and golden pears.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

4. The north wind has blown, we will have snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

5. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown.
be          F or C

 

Exercise 15. Let us exercise our symbolics for time. We can match a language marker (ON, IN, or TO) with a picture. The simple activity may help more advanced brainwork.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 15, INTRODUCTION

 

Example: {TO}, the PRESENT Field
Answer: have

 

Our purely symbolic behavior can be illustrated as follows.
PICTURE, EXERCISE 15 SYMBOLICS

 

As in our MIND PRACTICE, if we decide to write the answers, we do it after we have thought over the entire exercise.

 

Regarding the symbolics, we can print the picture below (click to enlarge). We also can think about the answers, merely looking at the picture.

 

1. {IN}, the PAST Field     2. {ON}, the PAST Field     3. {ON}, the FUTURE Field     4. {TO}, the FUTURE Field     5. {IN}, the FUTURE Field     6. {ON}, the PRESENT Field     7. {IN}, the PRESENT Field     8. {TO}, the PAST Field

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We are about to progress into verbal guidance more. Language Mapping does not require that we abandon classic grammar books.

 

We may feel we want to be able to talk about grammar, and awareness of classic grammar terms can be useful for that. Exercises 16-21 are to help the ends meet.

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Exercise 16. We do not have to feel bound to fields and land travel, to think about grammatical time.

 

We can perceive abstractly, as in our eagle route. If we know the tenses well, we can have this exercise for a mild brainteaser.

 

PICTURE: EAGLE ROUTE WITH ASPECT PATTERNS

 

The eagle route has four mapping forms. All English languages in the world (American, British, Irish, or any other) have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive.

 

The fourth mapping form is have been ING (AT). We can think about it more in Part Two.

 

Let us use our virtual bimo. The examples involve the grammatical person (I, you, we, they, he, she, it).

BUTTON: SEE THE COLOR CODE AND VIRTUAL WORDS

 

Our inner language does not need to be “fixed”. We can change our connotation from exercise 15. Now it can be PAST reference.

 

Example: have, PAST reference, he

 

Answer: He had bimoed; the Past Perfect.

 

As in our exercises for ASPECT PATTERNS IN 3.4, we work minds first: we think the entire exercise over, and we write the answers only if we decide to do so.

 

Grammatical time

Aspect

 

The Simple

The Progressive

The Perfect

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FUTURE FIELDThe Future

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE FUTURE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PRESENTThe Present

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PRESENT

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PASTThe Past

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PAST FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PAST FIELD

 

1. , PRESENT reference, they

 

2. be, FUTURE reference, you

 

3. , PAST reference, we

 

4. have, PRESENT reference, it

 

5. be, PAST reference, she

 

6. , FUTURE reference, we

 

7. have, FUTURE reference, I

 

8. be, PRESENT reference, he

 

Exercise 17. Time for some work after all the leisure (!)

EMOTICON: A JOKE

We can use Aspect classic names with Fields of Time. Grammar books may differ on Aspect labeling: some will have Progressive tenses for Continuous tenses. Travelers in Grammar stay by the name Progressive.

 

Our connotation now can be “in the Field of the FUTURE.

 

Example: Perfect in the Field of the FUTURE, she

 

Answer: She will have bimoed. (Future Perfect)

 

Minds first: we think the answers over, as in MIND PRACTICE (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

1. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, I

 

2. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, you

 

3. Progressive in the Field of the FUTURE, he

 

4. Progressive in the Field of the PAST, she

 

5. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, it

 

6. Perfect in the Field of the PAST, you

 

7. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, we

 

8. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, she

 

Exercise 18. Let us put our skills to an ultimate test. We can try to gather our verb forms from pieces. Speaking with someone in a noisy room happens to require such “gathering from pieces”.

 

Again, we may remain by thinking the answers, without writing them or saying out.

 

Example: ING, it, the PAST Field

 

Answer: It was bimoing.

 

1. 3RD, he, the FUTURE Field

 

2. ING, she, the PAST Field

 

3. ING, they, the PRESENT Field

 

4. 3RD, we, the PAST Field

 

5. 3RD, you, the FUTURE Field

 

6. ING, I, in the PAST Field

 

7. 3RD, it, the PRESENT Field

 

8. ING, we, the PRESENT Field

 

9. 3RD, I, the FUTURE Field

 

10. ING, you, the PAST Field

 

11. 3RD, she, the PRESENT Field

 

12. ING, he, the PAST Field

 

13. 3RD, they, the FUTURE Field

 

14. ING, we, the FUTURE Field

 

Exercise 19. We can try real verbs. All verbs here refer to moving about. Let us remember to use APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3, for irregular verbs.

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 2
BUTTON, APPENDIX 3

 

Example 1: walk, HAVE in the PRESENT

 

Answer: Present Perfect, have/has walked

 

We “gather from pieces” as above, we only include the Simple Aspect. We mark it as the indeterminate or infinity.
PICTURE: THE INFINITY SYMBOL

The infinity is to symbolize that it is impossible to calculate all phrases and sentences humans can make, or even words.

 

There is no way to count even irregular verb uses alone, as they may vary from one geographical area to another, from person to person, or even the same people change in verb regularity.

 

The Simple pattern can use head verbs to map thought about time, in language. Progressive and Perfect patterns use auxiliary verbs for that.

 

Example 2: go, , in the PAST

 

Answer: went, Past Simple

 

1. hike, BE in the PRESENT

 

2. trek, , in the FUTURE

 

3. stride, HAVE in the PAST

 

4. ramble, HAVE in the FUTURE

 

5. move, BE in the PAST

 

6. stroll, , in the PAST

 

7. tread, , in the PRESENT

 

8. step, BE in the FUTURE

 

9. roam, HAVE in the PAST

 

10. rove, BE in the PRESENT

 

Exercise 20. Now our real verbs refer to thinking. Let us use the Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect, with the grammatical person (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).
We may fancy our BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS.

 

Example 1:
think, Progressive, in the PAST Field

 

Answer:
was thinking (I, he, she, it),
were thinking (you, we, they)

 

Example 2:
consider, Simple, in the PAST Field

 

Answer:
considered (I, you, we, they, he, she, it: all persons)

 

1. reason, Perfect, in the FUTURE Field

 

2. imagine, Simple, in the FUTURE Field

 

3. expect, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

 

4. figure, Perfect, in the PAST Field

 

5. reckon, Progressive, in the PRESENT Field

 

6. surmise, Simple, in the PAST Field

 

7. mediate, Simple, in the PAST Field

 

8. cogitate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

 

9. review, Progressive, in the PAST Field

 

10. anticipate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

 

Exercise 21. Our thinking and inner language are the fastest and most capable to manage our inner grammars.

 

Linguistically, abstract thinking is not about anything unreal. It extracts from experience. It integrates the essentials.

 

Let us try a few hat tricks. The hat, ^ , is a symbol we may use for our language reference. Let us see, if we can take language tasks “at the drop of the hat”, that is, fast and without effort. Below, we can see an extract or essence for our observations so far.

 

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

All verbs here relate to comprehension and learning. We can have our language connotation TO^PRESENT for saying TO a moment with a PRESENT reference. Everyone may write up own language notation.

 

Example: gather, TO^PRESENT, she

 

Answer: She has gathered.

 

1. understand, ON^PRESENT, I

 

2. learn, IN^FUTURE, we

 

3. notice, TO^FUTURE, he

 

4. think, IN^PAST, you

 

5. study, ON^PAST, they

 

6. interpret, IN^PRESENT, he

 

7. discern, TO^PRESENT, she

 

8. comprehend, ON^FUTURE, we

 

Our language markers ON, IN, TO (and later also AT) grammatically are prepositions. We can have these function words for cognitive variables in inner management of integrated patterns of language.

 

We do not need to be ashamed of the idea in front of school professors (!)

 

Let us mind, we use our markers for the language inner framework. We can compare classic grammars: we do not have to say we are using the Present Simple, whenever we speak or write with the Present Simple pattern.

 

Matters are the same with Language Mapping: we do not have to say or write the prepositions, to use them for mapping.

 

Another way round, we do not have to employ the Progressive, Simple, or Perfect tense patterns to use the words progress, simple, or perfect. Likewise, we can use prepositions for our content regardless of the mapping framework.

 

A little nut tree I do have, says example 3 in exercise 14. Our Simple pattern can have auxiliaries, too. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 5.

BUTTON, CHAPTER 5. THE AFFIRMATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, NEGATIVE, AND NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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