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Human beings have evolved grammars along with perception for three-dimensional space. Speech and language belong with the estimable heights, widths, and depths or lengths, just as the human need for fresh water, air, good clothing, and a decent roof. Grammar is a basic human need. It is healthy to have a good business with grammar.

Everyone thinks, speaks, or writes in real time. Sometimes, there is not even a moment to consult a rule or definition. Language MappingTM invokes human natural capability for logic. ■→More

Copyright © Teresa Pelka
All rights reserved.
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In the first part of the language journey, feel welcome to consider a picture for
■ the grammatical Past, Present, and Future;
■ the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect;
■ infinitive, auxiliary, and head verb forms;
■ the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative;
■ irregular verbs and vowel patterns: high and low, back and front.
Third edition, 2021; ■→FREE SAMPLE.

Electronic format USD 2.99
■→SMASHWORDS
■→BARNES & NOBLE

The logic is flexible, as language is not a predetermined reality: beginning to read a book or to watch a movie, we usually have some expectation on what there is going to be; somewhere around the middle, we may look back to what has happened, and at the end we may think about things accomplished.

With other matters in life as well, our grammar will vary for things done and those prospective. Hence the Travel in Grammar: we practice a grammatical point of view, ■→THE IDEA OF TRAVEL IN GRAMMAR.

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The grammar may prove most effective step-by-step.
Content: ■→Part 1 | Part 2←■
■→Translation to Polish can help readers in Slavic languages.←■

Grammatical time is not the clock, but just as with real time, we cannot touch or see it. We can manage as in fields, with a little mind practice. ■→More

1.2. Mind Practice
Thought and language originate in the mind, and most exercises in this grammar course are to be done in thought, to encourage mind habits. ■→More

4. Aspect Cognitive Mapping
Human walking or other moving about needs place and time, yet it does not need anybody to give rules or definitions.
■→More

Sooner than later, life brings the talk about Unreal Past or Future in the Past, more, in Reported Speech. With grammatical time frames, we can get along easy. ■→More

Language form relativity (Part 2 of the journey) has nothing to do with ■→Whorfianism. It is an observation on language forms as if I were, to refer to the PRESENT though their shape is PAST. The phenomenon occurs in English as well as Polish, Russian, French, and other languages,
if I was, si j’étais, gdybym był/a, если бы я был/а, wäre ich, etc.

Grammar Off the Record

It is a fact of life that we do not graduate in linguistics before we hear or speak everyday language, or read Huck Finn. ■→The Grapevine

In Part 3 of the journey, we continue the generative endeavor for the article, noun, adjective, adverb, and preposition; some knowledge of the civics may be useful:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
My Internet Archive account has free posters, ■→archive.org/details/@teresapelka.

Part 4 tells about the phrase, the clause, time and discourse (our nodi of time), as well as vocabulary and pronunciation tips, also for people who feel stronger in other tongues. We have select Emily Dickinson and Carl Sandburg to read from. My edition and translation of Emily Dickinson’s first print is available from my Internet Archive account as well. I am working on my translation of Carl Sandburg’s select works: the book series is bilingual, for the grammar guidance in a Slavic tongue feel welcome to the ■→Netlog gramatyczny.

The American English course consists of four parts. In entirety, there comes along another framework, for flectional or synthetic (as they are called) languages. The synthetic generative framework looks to Latin and Greek, to propose cognitive variables that could be used for Polish, Russian, or other flectional tongues.

The two frameworks, ■→syntactic and ■→flexional, may help work towards particular generative grammars for most, if not all natural languages on Earth. — I do not have my framework for American for the only possibility; it is just the one I have invented looking to what works best for me (other people are obviously free to have other ideas).

The flexional is a separate book on how to make a framework; it is not a course for any particular tongue.


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Read more from the Travel in Grammar

FOUR CORNERS OF THE WORLD

To see how we could cognitively map in language, let us try a mild brainteaser. If we compare our answers with family, friends, or other people and the results are consistent, the mapping is natural for us, even if the idea has not been well known: our brain-teaser is intuitive. ■→More

4.1. THE IDEA OF TRAVEL IN GRAMMAR

We can think about the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect — together, as variables that we choose in real time. It can be good time and in truth, no effort at all. ■→More

5.1. THE LOGIC SO FAR

We sum up on the grammar logic so far, and visualize Time with Aspect — for efficient language habits with target grammatical time. ■→More

6.1. OUR LINGUISTIC GRAVITATION

Our time extents, PRESENT and PAST, do not change for punctuation. They do not change for the Aspect, Simple or Perfect, either. To continue our work on the two Aspects, we choose on the grammatical time frame. ■→More

8.1. EARTHLING BASIC COGNITIVE VARIABLE

Planet Earth has been a natural habitat for millennia. In thousands of years, people to think what there is {ON} a map, have not denied plausibility for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} them. Early childhood learning to talk has been getting along with learning to walk. Human postural control will favor one variable for the basis of all Aspects and tenses. ■→More

CHAPTER 10. FORM RELATIVITY GALORE

With theory making, the verb form “HAVE” works as a syntactic device, an anchor to close the frame on time; and all the way, the form goes a step forward, in its target grammatical time reference. ■→More


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PSYCHOLINGUISTICS, LINGUISTICS,
& TRANSLATION


■→teresapelka.com
■→teresapelka-in-polish.com

Internet Archive, the free text and image repository

■→Feel welcome to use the materials in my account
The posters are available to shop online as well.

The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
■→Free access, Internet Archive
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Hard cover, 260 pages
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