Everyone thinks, speaks, or writes in real time. There is often no time to consult rules and definitions. The more economical we are managing our grammars, the better we manage our language skills.


We need good language economy, for good grammar.


Advertisements to promise teaching the language in a few weeks or a month — are lies. Feel welcome to APPENDIX 4; it presents grammatical tenses. Can we believe all these forms might just “find their way” to human heads, during sleep, or another miraculous manner?


The idea here is not miraculous. It has proved the best, to me and quite a few other people, because it invokes human natural capability for logic. It offers a good logical economy, for speech and language.


Let us try a mild brainteaser. If we compare our results with family, friends, or other people, and get consistent results, we can consider the idea natural, even if we are not familiar with it.


Task 1. We have four patterns and four short words. We try to match the patterns and the words. Here are the four patterns:
I think.
I am thinking.
I have thought.
I have been thinking.


Here are the four short words: TO, ON, AT, IN.

One match is done for us:
TO: I have thought.


TASK 2. We think if we would match the patterns and short words differently, for phrases as,
I thought; I will think.
I was thinking; I will be thinking.
I had thought; I will have thought.
I had been thinking; I will have been thinking.


Let us try to take the tasks before we scroll down this page any further, and mind: “The more simple any thing is, the less liable it is to be disordered” (Thomas Paine, Common Sense).


Classic grammar books will tell there are four Aspects in English, the Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive. We can map these Aspects with four prepositions, ON, IN, TO, and AT, for good language economy, and remain grammatically correct.


Our short words can be our learned cognitive variables. Feel welcome to Chapter Four, for more.




Why think about cognitive variables, if tense patterns have not changed in centuries?


The term “cognitive variables” does not mean we talk only about matters that change, especially much or often. Cognitive variables are values we can apply flexibly. Here are two real-life and language facts.


There is not and there cannot be a grammar rule to tell whether we want to say that we live somewhere, we are living, have lived, or we have been living somewhere. We need to take up own resolves, to express own thought.



All along, we people live ON Earth. We usually view lands or seas as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas IN which we are. We perceive routes and ways TO places. We happen to be AT landmarks and places. Such are human natural variables for space, in English.


We can employ these variables for language.



We do not change American English at all. The idea just fits the language as it is. We can refer for examples to the

Corpus of Contemporary American English, COCA.

Corpus of US English: LOVING IT


This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.

(NBC Today Sun as in the Corpus of Contemporary American English, COCA).



Visualization is only to help work out flexible language habits. The idea is my childhood spontaneous invention. Anyway, there are four Aspects in English: why not picture them with prepositions? We do not have to stay with visualization forever.

About me


Language MappingTM is an international trademark, registered with the Irish Patents Office under No. 254074.

Lisbon Agreement

To the advanced level, the grammar venture consists of 4 parts. The work is registered with the US Library of Congress: TX 7-497-087, TX 7-648-439.

Feel welcome to the book information