5.2. PRACTICE: SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

Exercise 22. Ability to use symbols is very important at school tests and exams. Let us combine the Aspect and Time, to exercise our logical arrows. We try to form our answers solely in our minds: this is where true learning takes shape.

 

Example:
generally {ON} the map in the PAST,
{ON} a PAST time extent
Answer:
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. IN a spot within the FUTURE time extent

2. TO a time within the PAST time extent

3. ON the PRESENT time extent

4. TO a time within the FUTURE time extent

5. TO a time within the PRESENT time extent

6. ON the FUTURE time extent

7. IN a spot in the PAST time extent

8. IN a spot in the PRESENT time extent

 

Exercise 23. Let us now gather from elements, as in PRACTICE 4.2. Let us focus on our symbolic cues.

 

Example: {TO}, 3RD, the PRESENT
Answer:
SYMBOLICS, PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

1. {IN}, ING, the PAST

2. {TO}, 3RD, the PAST

3. {ON}, the FUTURE

4. {IN}, ING, the PRESENT

5. {ON}, the PAST

6. {TO}, 3RD, the FUTURE

7. {ON}, the PRESENT

8. {IN}, ING, the FUTURE

 

Exercise 24. Let us try our language natures another way round. We begin with our arrow cue, to think about language elements.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: be, ING, in the PAST

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 24, TASK

Exercise 25. We can think about Bob and Jemma, along with the task from the previous exercise. Our head verb can be to learn.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: Jemma was learning.

*****

Please mind, we are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are about developing flexible habits. It does not matter in the exercise here, if we say Jemma learns, or Bob learns. It matters to mind we say Bob and Jemma learn, if we want to speak about both of them.

*****

Exercise 26. Let us now try our arrows with Expression. We can mark negative questions as ? N. We leave the affirmative unmarked.

 

Example 1:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, EXAMPLE 1
Answer: Will Bob and Jemma not have earned their credits?

 

Example 2:
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE PERFECT, ARROW
Answer: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, TASK

 

Exercise 27. Let us try our language logic for the Interrogative and Negative, within the PAST time extent only. To learn may remain our head verb. We also can choose to visit APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3, and try other verbs.

VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, EXAMPLE

Answer: Was Jemma learning?

We are staying in the PAST Field of Time.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, TASK

 

Exercise 28. Let us focus on our cognitive values for grammatical time. We use the symbolic cues, too.

 

If the same head verb, to learn, brings monotony, let us remember that APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3 can give us plenty of other verbs.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Example: Had Bob learned?
Answer:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, EXAMPLE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, ANSWER

 

Everyday language has abbreviated forms as doesn’t, hadn’t, and won’t, in everyday language. Let us think about the full forms, for our answers, exercising as in the MIND PRACTICE.

 

1. Jemma doesn’t worry.

2. Bob and Jemma hadn’t worried.

3. Is Jemma smiling?

4. Hasn’t Bob learned?

5. Bob didn’t worry.

6. Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?

7. Will Bob and Jemma smile?

8. Was Bob learning?

9. Bob won’t have failed.

10. Will Jemma be smiling?

 

Please mind, our arrow cues have no reference to weapons. They are the symbols people widely use for guidance. Feel welcome to some more guide exercise.
REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS


5.3. BUTTON, REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

Advertisements

5.1. THE LOGIC SO FAR

Let us sum up on the logical capacities for language we have recognized so far. We can visualize them as extents.

 

The grammatical Time: Present, Past, or Future. We can recur to CHAPTER 1, for our Fields of Time.

PICTURE: THE THREE FIELDS OF TIME; PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

 

We can envision grammatical time as one extent, which becomes PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE, when we make a particular reference.
PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

We can have a peek into SUBCHAPTER 6.1.

5c. He says (that) he met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

__LOGIC__PAST AND PRESENT EXTENTS OVERLAP

 

The grammatical Aspects: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. We have given them mapping values {ON}, {IN}, and {TO}. The same as with grammatical time, we can think about one extent we choose from, in context.

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

For our speaking and writing, we combine the Aspect and grammatical time.
PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative, or Negative Interrogative. We have separate extents here, as there is no “Affirmative Interrogative” or “Negative Affirmative” syntax.

 

Let us picture all our extents together.
VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

 

The colors here can form part a custom palette. Azure, vert vivant, aqua clair, spring bud green, and smooth marble river stone can help us mark our concepts. Obviously, everyone is welcome to choose own colors.

PICTURE: LOGICAL EXTENTS AND A COLOR PALETTE

*****

We happen to say the FUTURE brings the things that are BEFORE us. We also happen to say that PAST things are BEHIND us.

 

For a good grammar, it is important that we perceive our target grammatical time. Arrows have been widely known symbols to indicate a flow or direction.

 

PICTURE: AN ARROW SIGN

 

Arrow symbols can be especially useful with Modal verbs, as their forms alone never show one target time.

 

The Simple Aspect can work without an auxiliary. We can represent it with a plain arrow. We begin with the grammatical PRESENT.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

We have pictured the Progressive Aspect as being in a spot, a place in a map. We can represent it with a dot.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

The Perfect Aspect has showed our way to a place or time. We can represent it with an arrow or spearhead added to our simple dart.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE TO

 

Let us try to see our logic as in a chart.

 

PICTURE: TIME AND ASPECT SYMBOLICS, ARROW CHART

 

Please mind that our arrows are not shooting arrows. They are just to help find own way with grammar forms. If we make models to play, we make big models of soft material, as plush, especially if there should be little children around.

 

We can mark our arrows for Expression. The question mark and the letter N can do for the Interrogative and the Negative; we can join the letter and the mark, for the Negative Interrogative; the Affirmative can remain unmarked.

 

The arrows can prove very useful with Modal verbs. Modal forms do not show the target grammatical time. Let us compare.
You might do the exercises tomorrow.

 

The target grammatical time here is the FUTURE. We can use our plain arrow.
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE SIMPLE, ARROW

 

The same form of the Modal verb, might, can tell about the PRESENT.
You might do the exercises now.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

We may try some practice now; we also can look it up when we find fit.
EMOTICON: SMILE
5.2. SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

5.2. BUTTON, EXERCISES WITH SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH