PART 2

CHAPTER 6. PAST SIMPLE OR PRESENT PERFECT?

We need to learn choosing on our own, to decide between the Present Perfect or Simple Past. We can use time frames to manage.

 

1. Jill left a few minutes ago.
{ON, the PAST},
Past Simple, a closed real-time frame.

REAL TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

1a. Jill has just left.
{TO, the PRESENT},
Present Perfect, an open real-time frame.

REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

6.1. SYNTAX FOR THE PRESENT OR PAST

Our ability to express the grammatical time depends on our syntax. We learn to keep one time reference with one sentence or clause head. Otherwise, our time frame is broken.

 

BROKEN EXTENTS

 

6.2. THE PRESENT OR PAST: THE COGNITIVE GROUND

It is our knowledge to provide for our grammar. We can get by our common sense. It allows reasonable trust in habits and approximations.

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.
(The time is 1:30. Madame Règle usually comes to lunch between 1:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m., or does not show up at all.)

 

REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

7a. I didn’t see her today.
(The time is 2:30.)

 

REAL TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

6.3. TIME FRAME AND VOCABULARY PRACTICE

We try language bigger workloads. We exercise the time frames with vocabulary, and try to be linguistically flexible.

 

A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds.

 

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.
REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME
2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.

REAL TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

6.4. MORE GRAMMAR AND WORD PRACTICE

We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles.

 

1. “He sold his vintage Chevy and nearly bought a Jeep, when he thought that his vehicle approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost portended a personality change.”

 

6.5. THE SIMPLE AND THE PERFECT IN THE PAST

We may want to focus on the Perfect and the Simple with reference to the PAST. We learn to decide on our target time frame.

 

CHAPTER 7. THE STATIVE USE OF VERBS

Many grammar resources will tell there are “stative” or “static verbs”, and enumerate words we never are to use with the Progressive. The verbs are mostly those to refer to feelings and thinking. We can reason on our grammar cognitive ground.

 

7.1. PRACTICE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS

We can view our reference for the PAST, PRESENT, or FUTURE as interconnected, and stay minds and hearts together, also with the stative use of verbs.
EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: PRESENT AND PAST VERB PATTERNS, EXERCISE 44

 

CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

We can view the Perfect Progressive as a merger of the Perfect and the Progressive.

 

8.1. THE EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

I AM__I HAVE__I HAVE BEEN LEARNING

 

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change with reference to the Time, the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE. First elements change the same in our Fields of Time, and for our value {ON}. We can have it for our earthling basic cognitive variable.

 

8.2. INTEGRATION: PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

We have only part our cues. We put verbs into the PAST, and then in the PRESENT form. We mind our Expression, the Affirmative, Negative, or Interrogative. We do not give up on a mild sense of humor.

 

“The grain of sand could think about wisdom. What was wisdom? It might be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand did not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary.”

 

CHAPTER 9. MODAL VERBS

Madame Règle can have lunch at Latimer Sauf’s restaurant every day. He always has a table for his friends and she has enough money. However, her work with Paris haute couture designers often keeps her over the lunchtime. Her coming to lunch is probable, but not certain.

 

Let us think about Monsieur Sauf’s birthday. Madame Règle will come to meet him. It is certain.

 

CHAPTER 9.1. THE MODAL SYNTAX, PRESENT OR PAST

I HAVE LEARNED__I MAY HAVE LEARNED

We focus on the auxiliary HAVE. Would it make antecedent time extents altogether? Auxiliary time extents would be relative to the head time.

 

9.2. THE MODAL TIME FRAME

It can take real time to make theory, but theoretical time could never be the same as real time. Our syntactic HAVE can bring closed-frame hypothetical time. It also can be a syntactic anchor.

 

9.3. DETAIL ON MODAL CHEMISTRY AND ECONOMY

Unless we ask a question for no reason or purpose, and expect no answer at all, we make our questions thinking about some PROBABILITY at least. Language economy may discard auxiliary time, in questions. We would ask, “didn’t you have to…”, rather than “mustn’t you have had to…”

 

9.4.MODAL VERB PRACTICE: FORM RELATIVITY

Our use of the word “relativity” is not about physics or families. It is linguistic.

 

Modal PAST forms can tell about the PAST or the PRESENT.
PRESENT Modal forms can tell about the PRESENT or the FUTURE.

 

CHAPTER 10. GRAMMATICAL FORM RELATIVITY

It is not only with Modal forms that we can observe regular relativity.

 

PRESENT verb forms can tell about the FUTURE.
PAST verb forms can tell about the PRESENT.
ANTECEDENT PAST verb forms can tell about the PAST.

 

10.1. LINGUISTIC FORM RELATIVITY AND REAL TIME

Auxiliary time can work for all target grammatical time, if we mind the frame: whether it is for real time, or hypothesis time.

 

10.2. LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY AND THE PROGRESSIVE

Progressive Modal forms with auxiliary time might give us doubt: do we need to think about virtual cognitive variables? We can resolve in favor of feature transfer: language history knows such developments.

 

10.3. WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

We can exercise Form Relativity with the Progressive and real verbs. We can make stories.

 

“I’d be reading horoscopes”, says Ms. Seges.
“That is . . . ?” (Mr. Seges does not believe Ms. Seges would ever read horoscopes.)
“This looks like a calligraphic copy of Vespucci’s letters. It was slipping out of our backyard hedge, no covers or front matter.”

 

10.4. MORE WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

For skill with Form Relativity, we need to be flexible with particles such as “if”. They happen to have more than one meaning. “If” also can mean “when” or “as”. Back with Jim Colderstone, with whom we began this part of the language journey, we can exercise Modal verbs.

*****

Part Three of the language voyage can bring
Jill’s library in plain canvas ― the speech part and the determiner manner and matter,
Chantelle’s travel to the Book Cliffs ― verbal nouns and other ways of syntax for the notional time,
as well as many, many more components of our language landscape.

Feel welcome to continue with the journey (!)

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