Exercise 64. The word “if” does not belong with Form Relativity only. We can change “if” for “whether”, when we talk about circumstances or results rather than provisions or causes.


We have the “if” we can change underlined, in the exercise.


To practice spoken comprehension, we can use abbreviated auxiliaries, reorder phrases, as well as use Inversion, for style and flexibility.


Example 1:
She did not know if she was right.


She did not know whether she was right.


Example 2:
If he hadn’t been extremely busy,
he would’ve remembered about the coffee.


Hadn’t he been extremely busy,
he would’ve remembered about the coffee.


Had he not been extremely busy,
he would have remembered about the coffee.


1. If she weren’t reading the calligraphic,
she’d be sleeping.


2. If he was writing, reading, or talking,
the colloquium had him busy all the time.


3. If he hadn’t heard from Bill then,
he’d be writing him a letter now.


4. If it weren’t such a good quality,
she’d think it a mere prank.


5. If it sustains the quality throughout,
it’ll compare with the Bodleian Horace.


6. They will / can see in the library,
if they get the Medici print.


7. If it weren’t so conscientious,
he’d throw it in that Babbitt’s garden next door.


8. If it proves necessary,
she’ll have it carbon dated.


9. If it is as good as it looks,
it might be of worth even as just a calligraphic.


10. If it hadn’t been deprived of the front matter,
it would be easier to find out who made it.


Further journey brings the Causative and the Passive, our “have it carbon dated”, in example 8, and “had been deprived”, in example 10.


Exercise 65. We can use the word “if” also in the sense of the word “when”. Grammatically, it is up to our choosing, if we speak the premise or the result first.


The exercise is not grammatically difficult. Let us think how we could say it, as in EXERCISE 33 and EXERCISE 34.


IF you provision in the condition,
may stipulation precede in position.


May stipulation precede in position,
WHEN you provision in the condition.


1. You’ll make your adage suit,
IF you toot the root in the foot.

(We can look up word stress patterns in dictionaries).


2. IF the comma won’t curse or ban,
a dot might bid the span.


3. IF the verb does not adjust,
the pronoun must never entrust.


4. IF a Modal will emend,
diction recommend a robust complement.


5. IF meanings collate and debate,
may syntax negotiate.


Exercise 66. It is most often up to ourselves to decide, if we use Form Relativity. Let us practice the choosing. The arrow cues show the target grammatical time.


As in EXERCISE 43 and EXERCISE 58, we practice holding on to our grammatical thinking even against unusual wording.


Our inspiration is a fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen,
Let us think the exercise over, as in MIND PRACTICE.


If there 1. (be) other Little Tinies, the Little Tiny 2. (can be) one of many similar beings.


Answer, with Form Relativity:
If there were other Little Tinies, the Little Tiny could be one of many similar beings.


Alternate, without Form Relativity:
If there are other Little Tinies, the Little Tiny is / can be one of many similar beings.


A. “If I 3. (be) only one of many Little Tinies, I 4. (be) actually a Little Tiny”, the Tiny hypothesized.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 3-4


B. She 5. (be) strictly an inch tall and she 6. (want) a measure for her dreams.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 5-6


C. “A cubit 7. (be) the length of your forearm right to the tip of your middle finger”, she 8. (reckon).PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 7-8


D. However, a cubit 9. (be) factually about 17.5 inches.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASK 9


E. “If you 10. (have to think) about an inch to think about a cubit”, she went on hypothesizing, “my cubit N 11. (can be) a cubit, as I 12. (be) just an inch tall.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 10-12


G. She 13. (visualize) a cube. “If you really 14. (need to consider) measures, you 15. (figure) on a cube of a dream”, she made another theory.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 13-15


H. Nothing was positively two-dimensional. “Even if you 16. (reason) on your forearm simply, you 17. (will make) it out for three-dimensional”, she 18. (speculate).PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 16-18


I. “If nothing 19. (be) truly two-dimensional, dreams 20. (be) non-two-dimensional, too.”PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 19-20


J. “You 21. (can have) a cube of a dream, if you 22. (want) to tell whether your dreams are big or small?”PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 21-22


K. She 23. (start) to entertain the theory. Once you 24. (agree) to a measure, you 25. (can add up) cubes with dreams like with anything else.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 23-25


L. Well, but a Thumbelina 26. (can have) a cube of a dream, if cubes 27. (be) cubits big, too? The Tiny 28. (sigh) with uncertainty.PICTURE: EXERCISE 66, TASKS 26-28


Exercise 67. Let us be back with the grain of sand. The word “if” is not the only word to help make hypotheses. Let us try the words “as” and “when”.


They can work as conjunctions. “As” would agree with the premise. “When” would allow an opposite sense. We can know the study of meaning as semantics.


“If I N (be) a grain of sand, I (be) more prone to be of a like mind with a westerly wind”, the grain of sand thought.


“If I were not a grain of sand, I would be more prone to be of a like mind with a westerly wind”, the grain of sand thought.


Task B gives the NODUS for the exercise. We put the thought in quotes in the grammatical PRESENT. All other phrasing is in the time of the nodus, or relative to the time of the nodus.


The exercise can help us prepare for further journey: the Reported Speech and other linguistic challenges.


A. “If wits N (be) a real thing, you (can evade) the matter of their shape”, the grain of sand (deliberate).


B. The grain of sand did eight hours of thinking about composite things a day.


C. As the eight hours N (be) immaterial, the faculty the grain of sand (employ) during the time N (can be) immaterial either, it (conclude).


D. Obviously, the faculty you (use) to ponder on composite things (have to be) the reasoning faculty.


E. Wits, whatever their quality, (have to be) of a shape, the grain of sand (feel).


F. Therefore, it (be) uncanny for a grain of sand and a wind to be of the same mind.


G. “A thought (can be) genuinely the same, when the wits (be) not?”


H. Possibly, asking the wind its opinion N (can decide) on the issue, the grain of sand (analyze).


I. Alternately, the phrase “the same thought” (may become) just a way to speak about potentially very dissimilar things.


J. Still, the phrase “the same thought” truly (exist) and (have) its real shape. “What (happen), if you (translate) it to another language?”


K. The grain of sand (wonder) for five minutes. The phrase sure (may change) in its look.


L. Then, the term “shape” N (will be) as easy to comprehend.


M. “The same thought (will render) the same shape of mind if you (give) it the look of another language?”


N. The grain of sand (immerse) in thought for another five minutes.


Exercise 68. We can join Jim Colderstone in winter Alaska. Alaska has the largest population of bald eagles in the USA. We can mark Modality with the letter M.


We do not have to use a Modal everywhere the letter M is. We can use more than one Modal where the letter M is, or is not, too. The symbol is just to encourage Modality.


We are in the grammatical PRESENT, and we include Expression, but the exercise is open-ended: no one can or may prescribe on a natural language.


When Jim ran into the office (CHAPTER 6), Jill was not there. She left him a note, before going on her Paris vacation.


We cannot demand insight into private correspondence. The exercise only renders the message, in a mystified way. We can try to guess what Jill might have written, after a minor discord.


Example: You M N 1. (have) the ambition to be the colder stone, if you M 2. (be) in winter Alaska yourself.


Answer: You would not have the ambition to be the colder stone if you could be in the winter Alaska yourself.


A. It M 3. (be) enough that you 4. (go) EPIC terrestrial and you M 5. (see) that the temperatures 6. (favor) a Colderstone for the role.


(We can go epic.noaa.gov/epic, if we want to go EPIC terrestrial ourselves.)


B. Although you M N 7. (go) to Alaska to do STEM paperwork only, you M 8. (like) the ridges of new green and the cool breeze in a shiny spring Alaskan morning.


(We can go nsf.gov for STEM programs.)


C. Space and time M 9. (become) a source of perplexity, if you 10. (think) about times outside the present.


D. Well, humans M N 11. (be) logic strictly. And temperature, for the senses to come together well, M N 12. (be) the source for all feeling.


E. If they N 13. (have) a place in a human discourse, words M N 14. (tell) anything exact. The place yet 15. (be) only hypothetical. This 16. (be) the human person to make language possible.


Let us take our story to the grammatical PAST.


Naturally, you would not have the ambition to be the colder stone, if you could be in winter Alaska yourself.



Naturally, you would not have had the ambition to be the colder stone, if you could have been in the winter Alaska yourself.


The alternate can “anchor” our discourse. The time-anchored alternate would tell about “there, then, that time, that winter: THE Alaska as we got to know it on the occasion, in the circumstance”.




FROM THE KEY: Grammar resources vary so vastly in guidance on Modal verbs and the Conditional or Unreal Past that we may feel we need a comparison on language forms.


When we work out own, independent perspectives, we become able to use our language logic consistently.


It is enough we are consistent. We do not have to follow any particular resource, to be correct.


It may / can be enough that you go EPIC terrestrial and you may / can see that the temperatures would favor a Colderstone for the role.


It could / might / would be enough that you went EPIC terrestrial and you might / would see that the temperatures might / would favor a Colderstone for the role.


If you went EPIC terrestrial, you would / might see that the temperatures might / would favor a Colderstone for the role.


It is enough that you go EPIC terrestrial and you see that the temperatures favor a Colderstone for the role.


If / When / As you go EPIC terrestrial, you see that the temperatures favor a Colderstone for the role.


Feel welcome to continue with the language story in Part Three (!)


Part Three can bring
Jill’s library in plain canvas ― the speech part and the determiner manner and matter;
Chantelle’s travel to the Book Cliffs ― verbal nouns and other ways of syntax to the notional time;
Reported speech, the Passive, and many more components of our language landscape.