8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

PICTURE: 4 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

Exercise 45. We can warm up, merging our symbolic cues. As for our MIND PRACTICE, we may just think and visualize.

 

Example:
The plain arrow symbolizes the variable {ON}. Pointed up or down, it cues for the grammatical FUTURE or PAST. Horizontally, it indicates the PRESENT. We may refer to SUBCHAPTER 5.1.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

We can merge the plain arrow, let us say for the variable {IN}, within the same grammatical time. Here, it is going to be the PRESENT.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger:
Jemma smiles.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

B. After the merger:
Jemma is smiling.
PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

*****

We are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are working on flexible habits. We may think about Jemma, as well as Bob or anyone, including ourselves, and with various verbs. It is important that we learn to merge features for grammatical variables and time.

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THE TASK
PICTURE: EXERCISE 45, TASK

 

Exercise 46. We merge features as above and think about Expression. We just think and visualize.

 

SYMBOLICS: QUESTION MARK
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger
Does Bob worry?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, BEFORE THE MERGER
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON 

B. After the merger
Is Bob worrying?
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE
(His dad is wearing a horrible tie.)
EMOTICON: A JOKE
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, AFTER THE MERGER
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, TASK

 

Exercise 47. Let us practice deciding {ON} our cognitive extents. We complete the structures and arrow cues.

 

Not everyone fancies speaking about feelings and thoughts. However, it is important that we try to represent them in language. We may think about time and change.

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When we are able to put words together well, our words represent our notions and thoughts in language. We can name this ability representation, as there is always more than one way to put words together and make sense.

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Example: I love …

Answer: I love language.
(We can answer without telling anyone;
we remember the MIND PRACTICE.)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I hate …

 

2. I thought that … was pretty.

 

3. I remembered … then.

 

4. I considered … important.

 

5. I want

 

6. I hated … when I was a child.

 

7. I think that … is stupid. [TABOO]

 

8. I remember

 

9. I consider … important.

 

10. I wanted … when I was a child.

 

Exercise 48. It is natural to follow what is good for us. Therefore, let us try to “trade” language features. We merge the features in the wording with symbolics.

 

Example: I love
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Answer: I have (always) loved language.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

Again, we can give our answers in our thoughts, envisioning situations for which we might use the phrases.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I think (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

2. I concluded
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

3. I like
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

4. I keep
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

5. I sensed
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

6. I thought (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

7. I feel (always, that)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

8. I was thinking (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

9. I learned
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

10. means a lot to me.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Exercise 49. The Perfect Progressive Aspect makes three tenses, PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE. It has an open time frame.

 

Let us practice our linguistic gravitation: we close the time frame, when we are {ON} a cognitive ground (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.1).

 

We have part the mapping cues and stay with the Affirmative. We may not want much to do, in one go.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example 1: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 10:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 18:00 P.M.

 

Answer: I had breakfast.
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

 

Example 2: have breakfast
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 8:30 A.M.
TIME NOW: 8:15 P.M.

 

Answer: I have been having breakfast.
SYMBOLICS: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 

1. work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Monday, 10:00 P.M.

 

2. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Saturday, after 19:00 P.M.

 

3. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 23:00 P.M.

 

4. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 00:15 P.M.

 

5. go to the gym
TUESDAYS 19:00 ― 20:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Wednesday, after 21:15 P.M.

 

Exercise 50. Let us practice our earthling proper egoism (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 8.1). In conversation, we cannot merely follow on grammar.

 

We decide {ON} our language extents. We ignore the cue that would not be properly egoistic.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example: She (cherish) her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: She has cherished her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, ANSWER

 

1. The book set (consist) of five parts.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 1

 

2. She (sound) like under a bad impression.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 2

 

3. Yesterday afternoon, he (recall) his school years with friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 3

 

4. She just (recognize) the handwriting now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 4

 

5. He (agree) to the new conclusion just now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 5

 

6. Now, she (appreciate) the ancient manuscript for an hour.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 6

 

7. He (want) to go to the Arctic before he went to the Antarctic.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 7

 

8. The house (belong) to the family for 10 years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 8

 

9. He usually (respect) other opinions, but not that time.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 9

 

10. This time tomorrow, she (see) her brother.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 10

*****

From the key: example 7 shows we always should consider the entire utterance, to make out the grammatical time. The verb form “went” places the stretch of speech in the PAST.

 

We also can think about the alternate language forms.

 

In example 3, a phrase as “*yesterday afternoon, he will recall his school years with friends”, could not work with our cognitive map for YESTERDAY.

 

In example 8, a phrase as “*the house will have been belonging to the family for 10 years”, would go against natural human possessiveness: we place property {ON} cognitive maps.

 

Grammar is not only about style. It is also about logic and sense.
EMOTICON: SMILE

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Exercise 51. In natural language, our real-time present allows combining the time reference. We can talk about events that took place TODAY with a PAST grammatical reference. For events that are to take place, we can use the FUTURE.

 

We remain with our healthy egoism: we stay {ON} cognitive extents, for hearts and minds, regardless of any cues.

 

Example:
TODAY, PRESENT; he, know the answer
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Answer: He knows the answer. {ON}
PRESENT SIMPLE arrow(We ignore the dot, the Progressive symbolics.)

 

1. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, believe it

 

2. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

3. TODAY, the PAST; they, see each other
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

4. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, live here for ten years
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

5. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, speak with them
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

6. YESTERDAY, the PAST; he, write for an hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

7. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; you, work here for five years
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

8. TODAY, the PAST; we, hike in the mountains
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

9. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, exercise for an hour already
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

10. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, watch television, at this hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Exercise 52. SAMSON THE AGONIST is a story of a hero who had magic hair that gave him power. Naturally, we do not have to believe everything we read, online either.

 

Our “Observations as by a grain of sand” are to help us keep grammar even against unusual wording, like in EXERCISE 42. We have only part the cues: we practice independent language skill.

 

We first put our verbs into the grammatical PAST, and then into the PRESENT. We mind our Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.

 

Example: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, 1. (think) about a proper measure for own composition.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, was thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A. Length N 2. (seem) to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum N 3. (be) the argument to the grain of sand: it 4. (bring) to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B. The grain of sand 5. (think) about wisdom. What wisdom 6. (be) ?

 

C. It 7. (may be) a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand N 8. (consider) going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary.

 

D. The grain usually 9. (rest) close to the shoreline, not entirely by own will, but by the way of life it 10. (practice) since its earliest years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASK 10

 

E. Owing to this lifestyle, it 11. (decide) to devote part its time to necessities of cognition.

 

F. Thinking about own format as a potentiality by another, it 12. (deliberate) whether it 13. (be), as a grain of sand, a fruit of ability or mere industriousness.

 

G. It 14. (can be) up to itself to conclude on own structuring. For that chance, it 15. (spend) half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the evening, to ponder on composite phenomena strictly.

 

H. It 16. (do) its daily dose of reckoning for about fifteen minutes, when a westerly 17.  (arrive) to the shore. Its habitual way, the wind 18. (make) a little eddy on the shoreside.

 

I. The grain of sand 19. (think) if that 20. (be) wise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASKS 16-17

*****

Obviously, wits cannot be something we grow on our heads.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us now put the story into the grammatical PRESENT. Our grammar journey has had some dramatic narrative already, in EXERCISE 44.

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, is thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A1. Length does not seem to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum is not the argument to the grain of sand: it brings to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B1. The grain of sand thinks about wisdom. What is wisdom?

 

C1. It may be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand does not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary…

*****

Our sense for distance and time may encourage altering the word “that” from the grammatical PAST into the word “this”, for the grammatical PRESENT.

 

Modal verbs can challenge our logic. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 9.
BUTTON: CHAPTER 9. MODAL VERBS

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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