LANGUAGE MAPPING SUMMARY

The grammar course refers to the notion of the human language faculty, not the Language Acquisition Device. Our devices are strictly linguistic and symbolic implements.

 

Everyone has one PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE really. Three fields or extents can symbolize this reality, for the grammatical time (CHAPTER 1).
PICTURE: THE THREE FIELDS OF TIME; PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

 

In the Fields of Time, we observe on the verb form “will” mapping on the FUTURE already in the PRESENT grammatical form (CHAPTER 2).

 

We perceive and extract three Aspect patterns,
in CHAPTER 3 and SUBCHAPTER 3.1.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT PATTERNS, THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

 

We symbolize the first element in the Simple pattern with the Greek lemniscate, that is, the INDETERMINATE OR INFINITY: it can be any verb.

 

We associate grammar and human natural mapping, as with geography and travel, in CHAPTER 4.

 

We people live on Earth. We usually view lands or waters as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas in which we are. We perceive routes and ways to places. We happen to be at landmarks and places.

 

Such are human natural variables for space, in English. We can use them for the grammatical Aspect.
PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

Arrows are very familiar symbols to show or indicate the way. We combine our mapping and arrow symbols, to exercise our target grammatical time, in CHAPTER 5.

 

The ability will be vital with Modal verbs. Their forms may not tell directly what time the talk is about.

 

We make a color palette, and combine language components for the Affirmative, Negative, or Interrogative (SUB-CHAPTER 5.1).

 

VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

 

To expand our syntax, we learn to keep the head time (CHAPTER 6). We use time frames. We keep the real-time frame open for the Perfect, and we close it for the Simple or Progressive: Perfect tenses can make more than one reference in real time.

 

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND, AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

All along, we mind we use concepts, inventions, and symbols. We do not claim there is anything like time frames or time extents in human heads.

 

Common sense, if we can make a wheel, it does not mean we have wheels in our heads.

 

We compare our mapping variables {ON} and {IN} in CHAPTER 7. In classic terms, we compare the Simple and the Progressive, for the stative use of verbs as to love, to hate, to think.

 

We merge our mapping variables {IN} and {TO} for the Perfect Progressive, in CHAPTER 8.
PICTURE: THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE MERGER

We get a mapping variable {AT}, to manage all Aspects as we want.
PICTURE: 4 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

We do not change language. The following examples come from the Corpus of Contemporary American English, COCA:
This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
I’ve been loving it. But I want to keep doing different things.

 

We consider the variable {ON} for an earthling basic variable in SUB-CHAPTER 8.1. Astronauts also have learned language on Earth.

 

Modal verbs challenge us on the target time in CHAPTER 9.

 

We make relative time frames for Modal forms, and learn to keep the earthling basic variable, in SUBCHAPTER 10.1.

 

But the obstacles, she would have made progress.
(She did not make or has not made progress.)
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

*****

Despite the obstacles, she would have made progress.
(She has made progress.)
SYMBOLICS: MODAL MEDIATIONPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Feel welcome.
EMOTICON: SMILE

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10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE

We would not have progress for something hypothetical only. We might question the making of Progressive auxiliary forms.

 

Do we need to shift our variables to a hypothetical time span, to make patterns as,
“If we were lazy,
we would have BEEN doING
something else for the past hour” (10.1)?

 

Our Modal relativity extent always keeps the variable {ON}. We do not say “*we are maying”, “*we are mighting”, or “*we are musting”.

 

We can picture the relative, auxiliary extent as expanding from the variable {ON}, our earthling basic variable (SUB-CHAPTER 8.1).

 

PICTURE: MODALITY VARIABLE ON

 

We noted on feature transfer for our anchor HAVE, in SUB-CHAPTER 10.1. Auxiliary time may net or ignore duration; possibly, it would not merely repeat the variables we have with our real-time cognitive map.

 

Syntax yet might carry the Progressive feature to activate with the auxiliary rather than main time, when we decide.

 

PICTURE: FEATURE SYNTACTIC TRANSFER, WOULD HAVE BEEN DOING

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In English, we happen to use the same word forms for nouns, as well as verbs, or adjectives.

I am reading a book (SPEECH PART: NOUN);

I have booked (SPEECH PART: VERB) tickets;
It is good to use book (SPEECH PART: ADJECTIVE) knowledge reasonably.

 

It even must be that our minds can make language information pools, for that. Feature transfer would be possible within an information pool.

 

We can symbolically picture a feature pool as below, and use it for fun, as a “wheel of fortune”.

PICTURE: A SYMBOLIC POOL OF LANGUAGE FEATURES

Sometimes, a feature would exclude another. We do not say “*have mayed” or “*have musted”, for example. We have the features on opposite sides.

 

Features also can merge, as the ING for the Perfect Progressive, or add up, as our head and syntactic forms of “HAVE”.

 

Have fun (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE
10.3. FORM RELATIVITY: WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK
BUTTON: 10.3. FORM RELATIVITY, WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

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9.4. MODAL RELATIVITY PRACTICE

Exercise 53. We can warm up with arrow cues. Especially for Modal verbs, the cues indicate the target grammatical time, not the verb form. Here, both PRESENT and PAST forms can render a PRESENT grammatical target. For all of this exercise, our Modal time frame remains open.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

PICTURE: MODAL RELATIVITY

Example: may

SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Answer: may be learning, or

 

might be learning

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 53, TASK

 

Exercise 54. We can try other verbs with the task from exercise 53. Let us remember about the stative use of verbs. We can use the variable {ON} for it, regardless of a Progressive cue.

 

Example: read, may
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Answer: may be reading, or
might be reading

 

1. write; 2. have (a good memory); 3. work; 4. know; 5. love; 6. think; 7. recall; 8. consider; 9. joke; 10. play.

 

Exercise 55. Let us try “jumping” time extents. We can view the flow of time as on a symbolic line.

SYMBOLICS, LINEAR FLOW OF TIME

 

Our cues mean,

SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD“One time extent forward”,

 

SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD“One time extent backward”.

 

Example: In Washington D.C., you WILL BE ABLE TO visit the Library of Congress.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

We give the target time cue and relative frame, for the underlined forms.
Answer: In Washington D.C., you can / may visit the Library of Congress.
SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROWSYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

1. After a day of a hop-on and hop-off the Washington trolley, you MAY feel you should have bought a two-day ticket.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

2. In Washington, we were renting right on the Potomac. The area was lovely. You just HAD TO take a walk along the river.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

3. You MUST book your seats in the Lisner Auditorium. The American Air Force jazz ensemble may perform live.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

4. You NEED TO give up on wading in the waterfalls of the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial Park. It is not allowed.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT BACKWARD

 

5. You MAY enter the National Gallery of Art on first-come basis.
SYMBOLICS, ONE EXTENT FORWARD

 

*****

 

From the key: natural language happens to involve text rich interpretation. The “Washington trolley” will be the Washington trolley tour, for example.

 

Kids or adults, students or teachers, everybody uses rich interpretation of text. It would be cumbersome to provide all details every time we speak, whatever the language.

 

We can learn to check on facts and trivia. Here is a sample search over Google. We just type Washington trolley in the search field.
https://www.google.ie/search?q=Washington+trolley&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b&gws_rd=cr&ei=Af2dV4bSOqLFgAa-vZrABQ

 

Example 1 has the Modal phrase “MAY feel” for a nodal reference. The phrase “SHOULD have bought” is a subordinate. We may have a peek at SUB-CHAPTER 10.1.

 

HAVE TO can be a real-time closed frame and the infinitive. A phrase as, “We had to have worked hard”, would tell about facts, not theory.

 

Many grammars will tell we can use BE ABLE TO rather than MAY, to refer to the FUTURE. However, if we resolve on example 3 as, “the ensemble will be able to perform”, we imply the ensemble might have difficulty playing, and the matter is about probability, not ability.

 

We can think about MAY with an open relative frame, to suggest prospect: “(Tomorrow) the American Air Force jazz ensemble MAY perform live”.

 

In example 5, we talk about permission. We may choose to say, “We will be able to / We will be allowed to…”

 

Exercise 56. We try “targeting” time extents. Our target time extent is the one in which we “land”.

 

We can refer for examples to American literature. These here invoke the ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN by Mark Twain. Let us be flexible, especially with examples 3 and 5.

 

Example: I thought I WOULD behave a while, if I COULD.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- PRESENT

 

Answer: I think I WILL behave a while, if I CAN.

OR

I think I WOULD behave a while, if I COULD.
(We mind the grammatical Relativity.)

 

1. But how CAN we do it, if we don’t know what it is?
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- PAST

 

2. The widow rung a bell for supper, and you HAD TO come to time.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- FUTURE

 

3. And more ― they‘VE GOT TO (HAVE TO) waltz that palace around over the country wherever you want it, you understand.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- PAST

 

4. It fetched us a dollar a day apiece, all the year round ― more than a body COULD tell what to do with.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- FUTURE

 

5. Well, three or four months run along, and it was well into the winter, now. I had been to school most all the time, and COULD spell, and read, and write just a little, and COULD say the multiplication table up to six times seven is thirty-five, and I don’t reckon I COULD ever get any further than that if I was to live forever.
SYMBOLICS: EXERCISE 56, TARGET -- PRESENT

*****

From the key: The phrases “you understand” (example 3), or “I don’t reckon” (example 5), tell the time of the narrator, the character that tells the story.

 

Human lives are not just stories, but the narrator time can help comprehend the notional time, the time of the person who speaks.

 

There is no universal notional time. We have to learn to keep own notional times. We can have our notional time for our psychological time, too.

 

The phrase “if I was to live forever” is an example of figurative thinking. CHAPTER 10 has more. Part Three expands on parts of speech, as in “three or four months run along”.

*****

Exercise 57. Let us try to choose our Modals. We can stay on associations with Huckleberry for the while.

 

Example: He MAY / WILL be in the woods now.
(I know that he is in the woods.)

 

Answer: He WILL be in the woods now.

 

1. Let us not worry about it. There WILL / CAN be no advantage to it.
(It is certain that there is going to be no advantage.)

 

2. They HAD TO go / MAY HAVE gone out to the woods.
(The woods are not the only way.)

 

3. You SHOULD learn / SHOULD HAVE learned the way through the woods.
(Now is the time to learn.)

 

4. You MAY / WILL get lost in these woods.
(It is certain.)

 

5. They HAD TO get / MAY HAVE gotten lost in the woods.
(We are looking for them. The only way is through the woods.)

 

6. You SHOULDN’T/ CAN’T get lost in these woods.
(It is impossible. You know the way very well.)

 

7. He DIDN’T HAVE TO get / COULDN’T HAVE gotten lost in the woods.
(He knew the way.)

 

8. They MUST HAVE / MAY HAVE gotten lost in the woods.
(They took the way through the woods.)

 

9. You MAY / HAVE TO avoid the way through the woods.
(It is not safe.)

 

10. You WOULD HAVE / SHOULD HAVE gotten lost in the woods.
(That was certain.)

*****

From the key: In example 4, the Modal verb WILL tells about CERTAINTY for the PRESENT and the FUTURE. The FUTURE is usually an open context, the way life on Earth has been.

 

We use WILL when we are sure or resolved about something. We may compare example 3 in Exercise 55, and try to avoid the cumbersome, soothsayer style that would result from using WILL for all FUTURE forms.

*****

Exercise 58. Our story is now about general POTENTIALITY and PROBABILITY, in the grammatical PAST. We do not need the auxiliary time here. Our hypothetical frame remains open.

 

We can be back with the dayfly from EXERCISE 43. As in exercise 42, we keep our grammatical thinking even when words are unusual.

 

Example: The dayfly (can think) about physical matter, without butterflies.

 

Answer: The dayfly was able to think about physical matter, without butterflies.

 

1. The dayfly (consider) it somewhat rude of the butterfly to make reservations on the wings. They (may differ), but there (be) no reason for the remark. Anyway, now the butterfly (have to be) far away, with its wings.

 

2. The dayfly (start) to think about infinity. If there (be) infinity, the word “infinite” (can) only denote it. You (need) five letters to write the word. The letters and the word (be) undeniably finite.
(NEED can be a head verb. Compare APPENDIX 1.)

 

3. There (have to be) some matter to the alphabet, the dayfly thought. Five letters (can make) an eight-letter word (!) You just (need to compose) them.

 

4. The number of possible words you (can make) with the alphabet (have to be) innumerable. That (be) the closest approximation to infinity the dayfly (may envision).

 

5. Letters also (can express) numbers. The dayfly (think) about other alphabets.

 

6. If there (will be) anything universal about all letters in the world, that (can be) the essence of writing. Nothing as universal readily (occur) to the dayfly, however.

 

7. Letters (may take) various shapes. Only language (may give) writing its matter.

 

8. The dayfly (start musing) if there (may be) universal thoughts.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

From the key: in example 1, the phrase “might differ” tells about holding to an opinion. We can give it an open frame. It is up to our choosing if and what opinions we hold. Further journey has more detail on Modal frames and nodal time.

 

We can be back with the westerly from EXERCISE 44.

*****

Exercise 59. The westerly is in the mountains. So far, our Modal time frames were ready for us: we only adapted the verb. Now, we have to decide if we open the frame or close it.

 

Generally, we are in the grammatical PAST. On top of everything, we think about Expression: we learn to manage big, real-life language information pools.

 

Example: The westerly (can gambol) on the shore a little longer, but it (gather) to go see the future: the mountains.

 

Answer: The westerly COULD HAVE gamboled on the shore a little longer, but it gathered to go see the future: the mountains.

 

1. What (will happen) about the present time ? The westerly (can perceive) something indivisible and intermediate about time. Time (be) in a way continuous. It (have to consist) of parts, however.

 

2. The present (have to border) on the past and the future. The present (be) somehow intermediary between the past and the future. However, how long (will) the present (be)? Sometimes, you (can view) the present as lasting as long as a day. Sometimes, it (will last) a split second.

 

3. Well, you (can) N (exist) only in the future or only in the past. With this regard, there always (will be) a present moment that (will be) the only present. There (will be) N anything of the past or the future, in the present?

 

4. The wester (get) to the mountains. They (be) its present now. The wester (can) N (think) about a more beautiful present. It (need) N the ocean to see something beautiful anymore.

 

5. How these beautiful mountains (can emerge)? The wester (speculate) if  winds (may shape) part their structure.

*****

From the key: With example 4, if we say the wester “COULDN’T think about a more beautiful present”, we place the situation in the mountains.

 

Alternately, if we say the wind “COULDN’T HAVE thought about a more beautiful present”, we close the frame on the time before the wind came to the mountains, when it was on the shore, in exercise 44.

*****

 

Grammar books will have much advice on Modal verbs with patterns named the Unreal Past or Conditional. For a comparison, let us try a grammar theory of relativity.

 

Our use of the word “relativity” is not about physics or families. It is linguistic. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 10.
BUTTON: CHAPTER 10, FORM RELATIVITY GALORE

*****

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9.3. DETAIL ON MODAL STRUCTURES

Modal Expression, especially the Interrogative or Negative, can give us some trouble, unless we approach the matter as science in a field: we analyze the molecules, see how they are doing, and make a model.

EMOTICON: SMILE

We can recur to CHAPTER 5, as well as compare APPENDIX 4.

 

54. We CANNOT skip the exercises.

 

55. We MAY NOT skip the exercises.

 

56. We WILL NOT skip the exercises.

 

57. We SHOULD NOT skip the exercises.

 

58. We OUGHT NOT TO skip the exercises.

 

59. We SHALL NOT skip the exercises.

 

60. We MUST NOT skip the exercises.

 

The form SHALL NOT may imply a conclusion, a decision ― more often in British English than in American, however. American English has the Modal WILL for resolves.

 

The Modal CAN attracts the particle NOT directly. They become one word, CANNOT. We may come upon the form CAN NOT in historic texts, as the GETTYSBURG ADDRESS.

 

PICTURE: ABRAHAM LINCOLN BY BYERS

 

President Abraham Lincoln gave the speech at the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in 1863.

 

The form “can not” is rarely used today. Feel welcome to read the ADDRESS as well as to do the VOLUNTARY EXTRA PRACTICE.

 

In the Affirmative, MUST NOT can mean that something is forbidden or strongly discommended. NEED can take on the regular negative. The auxiliary is the verb to do.

 

61. We DO NOT NEED to memorize dictionaries.

 

We can use the short form DON’T, when our contexts are not formal.
61a. We DON’T NEED to memorize dictionaries.

 

NEED can take a Modal negation, too. The Modal form may be more emphatic.

 

61b. We NEEDN’T memorize dictionaries.
(There is definitely no need to memorize dictionaries.)

 

HAVE TO takes the regular negative.

 

62. We DO NOT HAVE TO memorize dictionaries.
62a. We DON’T HAVE TO memorize dictionaries.

 

Our paths can diverge for NEED in the auxiliary PAST.

 

63. You DIDN’T NEED to do this.
(Something didn’t need to be done and it was not done.)

 

63a. You NEEDN’T HAVE done this.
(You did, but you COULD HAVE left it alone ― the thinking is about a hypothesis.)

 

Let us tackle the Interrogative. This is the Modal to move here.
CHAPTER 5 shows Inversion, along with the Negative Interrogative.

 

64. We CAN work a lot.
CAN we work a lot?

 

65. We MAY work a lot.
MAY we work a lot?

 

66. We WILL work a lot.
WILL we work a lot?

 

67. We SHOULD work a lot.
SHOULD we work a lot?

 

68. We OUGHT TO work a lot.
OUGHT we TO work a lot?

 

69. We SHALL work a lot.
SHALL we work a lot?

 

70. We MUST work a lot.
MUST we work a lot?

 

In Negative questions, the linguistic chemistry may depend on the form we use, short or full.

 

71. CAN we NOT work a lot?
71a. CAN’T we work a lot?

 

72. MAY we NOT work a lot?
72a. MAYN’T we work a lot?

 

73. WILL we NOT work a lot?
73a. WON’T we work a lot?

 

74. SHOULD we NOT work a lot?
74a. SHOULDN’T we work a lot?

 

75. OUGHT we NOT TO work a lot?
75a. OUGHTN’T we TO work a lot?

 

76. SHALL we NOT work a lot?
76a. SHAN’T we work a lot?

 

In questions, MUST NOT may ask about the proper course of things.

 

77. MUST we NOT work a lot?
77a. MUSTN’T we work a lot?

 

HAVE TO takes the regular Negative Interrogative.

 

78. DO we NOT HAVE TO work a lot?
78a. DON’T we HAVE TO work a lot?

 

Let us catch on to the Modal NEED in the grammatical PAST. It behaves more and more like a regular verb, in contemporary American.

 

79. DID you NOT NEED to work a lot?
79a. DIDN’T you NEED to work a lot?

 

Please compare,
80. NEEDN’T you HAVE worked a lot?

 

Expression 80 would be so rare that an American might consider it incorrect. Why is this? Asking questions involves making hypotheses.

 

Unless we ask a question for no reason or purpose and expect no answer at all, we make our questions thinking about some PROBABILITY at least.

 

Beside inversion, we can use the question mark or intonation alone, to make a question.

 

Let us regard language economy. In a language information pool, we may not need to provide information more than once.

 

80a. DIDN’T you NEED / HAVE TO work a lot?

 

An American could consider an alternate incorrect,
80b. *MUSTN’T you HAVE worked a lot?

 

NEED and MUST express a high degree of CONTINGENCY or CERTAINTY. Hypotheses with them might vary from those with other Modals: so many things SHOULD BE DONE, and they never are (!)

 

With high CONTINGENCY or CERTAINTY, we can net the hypothetical time: we have a strong hypothesis in the Modal alone. Here is our model (click to enlarge).

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: MODAL ECONOMY

MODAL ECONOMY; CLICK TO ENLARGE

 

Please compare the absolutely correct in American,
81. SHOULDN’T you HAVE read this all?

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

There is a structure close to the Modal verbs MUST, NEED, OUGHT TO or SHOULD. It is TO BE (SUPPOSED) TO.

 

82. You WEREN’T (SUPPOSED) TO get the gizmos.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can recur to the structure later in the grammar journey. Let us now exercise our brains in
9.4. MODAL RELATIVITY PRACTICE
BUTTON: 9.4. MODAL RELATIVITY PRACTICE

*****

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CHAPTER 9. TO TELL THE FASHION IN VALUABLE TIME

With Modal verbs, our view on time may become as with two hour glasses. Modal verbs do not narrate the real time. Their manner is relative to real time.

 

We also could say that Modal verbs mediate between the grammatical Time and Aspect. The name “modal” comes from the Latin word “modus”, meaning an extent or measure.

 

In CHAPTER 2, we viewed the verb form “will” in our Fields of Time. The form did not belong clearly with the grammatical PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE. The same is true about all Modal verbs.

 

The PRESENT form of the verb WILL can map on the FUTURE.

The PAST form can tell about the PRESENT, as well.

“We will be hiking” (FUTURE);
“We would like to have some tea now” (PRESENT).

 

Some grammars will have Modals for defective verbs. They do not have all the three forms. Let us compare other verbs.

 

REGULAR VERB: TO TRAVEL
INFINITIVE to travel
1ST FORM travel     2ND FORM traveled     3RD FORM traveled
DYNAMIC PARTICIPLE traveling     STATIVE PARTICIPLE traveled

 

IRREGULAR VERB: TO WRITE
INFINITIVE to write
1ST FORM write     2ND FORM wrote     3RD FORM written
DYNAMIC PARTICIPLE writing     STATIVE PARTICIPLE written

 

MODAL VERB FORMS:

MAY
1ST FORM may     2ND FORM might

CAN
1ST FORM can     2ND FORM could

SHALL
1ST FORM shall     2ND FORM should

NEED
1ST FORM need     2ND FORM (needed)     3RD FORM (needed)

MUST
1ST FORM must      2ND FORM (must)

WILL
1ST FORM will     2ND FORM would

*****

Modal verbs can be truly unlike other verbs.

 

They do not have infinitive forms.
We do not say * “to may”.

 

They do not have participle forms.
We do not say * “mayed” or * “maying”.

 

They do not use will for their grammatical FUTURE.
We do not say * “will may”.

 

Their forms can have more than one grammatical time reference.
We could say,
“You might think about reading this all”.
MIGHT is the PAST form of the verb MAY, yet it refers to the grammatical PRESENT here.

 

We also could say,
“As children, they loved the old library,
where they might read as well as play.”

 

MIGHT is the PAST form of the verb MAY,

and it refers to the grammatical PAST.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

We may envisage Modals in logical categories.

 

POTENTIALITY    PROBABILITY    CONTINGENCY    CERTAINTY

 

POTENTIALITY:
Our potential is what we are actually able to do, or something we have real prospects to become able to do. Something potential is something that actually might come into existence.

 

PROBABILITY:
It belongs mostly with guesswork. Humans happen to consider probability in theory making. Possibility is a close synonym. We can have it for equivalent with probability, in grammar.

 

Let us think about Madame Règle. She has the potential to have lunch at Latimer Sauf’s restaurant every day. He always has a table for his friends, and she has enough money.

 

However, her work with Paris haute couture designers happens to keep her over the lunchtime. Her coming to lunch is probable, but not certain.

 

PICTURE: MADAME RÈGLE

 

CERTAINTY:
It requires both potentiality and probability. Let us think about Monsieur Sauf’s birthday. Madame Règle WILL come to meet him. It is certain.

 

CONTINGENCY:
Some books will have something contingent for something likely, and some will say it is something unlikely to happen. We tend to tell likelihood by how often something takes place.

 

Madame Règle has a resolve here. Words have etymologies. The adjective “contingent” comes from the Latin words “tangere, tangens”. The words meant “to touch”, “touching”.

 

Madame Règle has contingency for something touching on, dependent on something else. Let us mind that cause and effect may not depend on simple factors.

*****

Contingency needs a potential for something to happen. What is certain has to be probable.

 

When we speak about own POTENTIAL, we mostly say what we are able to do. To tell own resolves, we most often use the verbs CAN or MAY.

 

We are able to do things only in probable circumstances, even if our abilities are outstanding. CAN and MAY are our most prominent words for PROBABILITY, too.

 

MAY is going to sound a bit more formal. CAN is going to be more colloquial. CAN happens to express probability greater than MAY.

 

CONTINGENCY may require that we adapt own resolves to circumstances. Our Modal verbs to express the extent of that requirement are NEED, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, and HAVE TO.

 

We always use OUGHT TO with the infinitive: “we ought to learn”, “we ought to work”.

 

American English differs from British much, on the verb SHALL. In American, the verb serves to prefigure resolves for potential circumstances:

 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

 

Feel welcome to
GRAMMAR NOTES ON THE US CONSTITUTION.

 

We are not likely to use the Modal verb WILL for CONTINGENCY, if we love independence (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

We people yet can be CERTAIN about own perception and volition. The Modal verbs WILL and MUST can express a strong prediction or resolve.

*****

Let us now think about Modal verbs and the grammatical time. So far, all our contexts allowed second forms, as COULD or MIGHT, to work for the PAST grammatical time.

 

However, is it enough to put a Modal verb into its second form, to express the grammatical PAST?

 

21. You MIGHT use the phone;
(a tentative suggestion in the PRESENT.)
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

21a. You COULD use the phone;
(a tentative suggestion in the PRESENT.)
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Modal second forms may express polite offers and yet stay in the grammatical PRESENT.

*****

Modal forms generally, PAST or PRESENT, influence the language register. The register concerns the styles we use when we speak or write on various occasions. In simple words, it has a lot to do with being polite.

 

CAN is very colloquial in its register for suggestions. It could be rude for a suggestion, when we directly address someone we do not know.

 

Let us imagine we ask,
22. CAN I open the window?
The answer might be
22a. You certainly are capable of that,
but you are not allowed to.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

CAN is not offensive when we simply state on POTENTIAL or provide information — in other words, we talk about an objective circumstance, rather than a subjective resolve.

 

23. Bald eagles CAN fly above clouds.

 

We might use the verb can as in example 23, during formal talks. Modal mediation is important in American English.

 

If we want to negotiate or provide guidance, we should not misinterpret Modal verbs for uncertainty or passiveness.

PICTURE: A BUSINESS TEAM

Modal verbs are a matter of good style, tact, and logic, not only in business talks. When we say something would not work for us, we are as assertive as when we say it is not going to work.

 

Please mind, content as here is not a form of address: I am not writing specifically to any person or persons.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us see how Modal verbs can make us sound more objective.

 

23a. Bald eagles fly above clouds.
(We would be likely to say this about a specific area where bald eagles live and fly above clouds, and most likely when we are in that area.)

 

24. Modal verbs CAN express varying degrees of potential, probability, contingency, and certainty.
(The guidance applies generally, about whatever Modal context).

 

In American as well as British English, we mind the Negative Interrogative. Requests with forms as CAN’T or COULDN’T imply that consent is expected.
(We would not readily assume approval from someone like a never-possibly-happy-person, would we?)
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

25. COULDN’T I use your car?
(I expect you are going to allow it.)

 

When someone is not a never-possibly-happy-person, we can ask,
26. COULD I use your car (please)?
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

PAST forms may change the degree of Modality we express. Let us mark this degree in cubes. We can think about mountaineering.

 

PICTURE: A QUICKDRAW

27. Careful with this handle, it MAY break.
SYMBOLICS: 2 CUBES

 

27a. Careful with this handle, it MIGHT break.
SYMBOLICS: 1 CUBE

 

28. Careful with this handle, it CAN break.
SYMBOLICS: 4 CUBES

 

28a. Careful with this handle, it COULD break.
SYMBOLICS: 3 CUBES

*****

We could name the handle in the picture above a quickdraw. We yet can use the examples here to learn flexibility. Modal forms will require that we are flexible.

 

We can begin with simple words. There are multifarious handles in this world. We may need one to break a can of food open, when hiking.

 

PICTURE: A CAN HANDLE

A can, the noun, may mean a metal container. The verb to can may mean putting goods in cans. The auxiliary can is a Modal verb form.

 

Words always can have more than one meaning.
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us compare other Modal verbs for their degrees of CONTINGENCY or CERTAINTY, respectively.

 

29. The can WILL / HAS TO / MUST break open.
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

30. The can SHOULD / OUGHT TO break open.
SYMBOLICS: 3 CUBES

 

31. The can NEEDS to break open.
SYMBOLICS: 4 CUBES

*****

Modal forms HAVE TO and MUST differ in sense, not in degree of Modality.

 

32. You HAVE TO take care of the handle;
(such are the circumstances).
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

33. You MUST take care of the handle;
(my common sense says so).
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

Colloquial American English has phrases as
GOTTA TO
HAVE GOT TO
or
HAS GOT TO,
for CERTAINTY as well as CONTINGENCY.

 

Let us remember that colloquial uses are colloquial because they depart from the standard. We have a note on human mental lexicons in SUB-CHAPTER 6.3. We keep away from informal uses in official contexts.

 

If we are not in a formal situation, and we want to talk common sense, we can say,

34. You GOTTA take care of the handle.

 

Common sense does not mean we should not have any sense of humor.

 

34a. That HAS TO / GOTTA be the handle.PICTURE: THIS HAS TO BE THE HANDLE

 

Colloquial language is mostly banned from schools. We may need some acquaintance with it to comprehend everyday speech, however.

 

Informally, the word “stuff” may mean “talk”, “matter”.

34b. We HAVE TO / GOTTA learn to handle the Modal stuff.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

Much of the above is a strong challenge on our arrow cues: how do we use them with Modal verbs?

 

We can think about the target grammatical time.
35. Alice COULD read when she was five.

PICTURE: ALICE

36. Ten years ago, he got a loan, and COULD start his new business.

PICTURE: MONSIEUR SAUF

For the target grammatical time, we think about the context, not only the language forms. Linguistically, our time reference can be tacit.
Please compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.2.

7. I haven’t seen her today.
PICTURE: THE PRESENT PERFECT ARROW CUE AND AN OPEN TIME FRAME
7a. I didn’t see her today.
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME
The time reference is tacit, as the word “today” does not decide on grammar.

*****

American English, as any natural language, allows paraphrase. Let us see our target time and frame with paraphrased Modal verbs.
35a. She was able to read.
36a. He was able to open his new business.

PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

*****

What strategy can we develop for the Modal PAST? We can use syntactic structures. Feel welcome.
CHAPTER 9.1. MODAL SYNTAX, GRAMMATICAL PRESENT OR PAST
BUTTON: 9.1. MODAL SYNTAX, GRAMMATICAL PRESENT OR PAST

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

Exercise 45. We can warm up, merging our symbolic cues. As for our MIND PRACTICE, we may just think and visualize.

 

Example:
The plain arrow symbolizes the variable {ON}. Pointed up or down, it cues for the grammatical FUTURE or PAST. Horizontally, it indicates the PRESENT. We may refer to SUBCHAPTER 5.1.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

We can merge the plain arrow, let us say for the variable {IN}, within the same grammatical time. Here, it is going to be the PRESENT.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger:
Jemma smiles.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

B. After the merger:
Jemma is smiling.
PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

*****

We are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are working on flexible habits. We may think about Jemma, as well as Bob or anyone, including ourselves, and with various verbs. It is important that we learn to merge features for grammatical variables and time.

*****

THE TASK
PICTURE: EXERCISE 45, TASK

 

Exercise 46. We merge features as above and think about Expression. We just think and visualize.

 

SYMBOLICS: QUESTION MARK
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger
Does Bob worry?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, BEFORE THE MERGER
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON 

B. After the merger
Is Bob worrying?
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE
(His dad is wearing a horrible tie.)
EMOTICON: A JOKE
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, AFTER THE MERGER
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, TASK

 

Exercise 47. Let us practice deciding {ON} our cognitive extents. We complete the structures and arrow cues.

 

Not everyone fancies speaking about feelings and thoughts. However, it is important that we try to represent them in language. We may think about time and change.

*****

When we are able to put words together well, our words represent our notions and thoughts in language. We can name this ability representation, as there is always more than one way to put words together and make sense.

*****

Example: I love …

Answer: I love language.
(We can answer without telling anyone;
we remember the MIND PRACTICE.)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I hate …

 

2. I thought that … was pretty.

 

3. I remembered … then.

 

4. I considered … important.

 

5. I want

 

6. I hated … when I was a child.

 

7. I think that … is stupid. [TABOO]

 

8. I remember

 

9. I consider … important.

 

10. I wanted … when I was a child.

 

Exercise 48. It is natural to follow what is good for us. Therefore, let us try to “trade” language features. We merge the features in the wording with symbolics.

 

Example: I love
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Answer: I have (always) loved language.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

Again, we can give our answers in our thoughts, envisioning situations for which we might use the phrases.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I think (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

2. I concluded
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

3. I like
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

4. I keep
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

5. I sensed
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

6. I thought (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

7. I feel (always, that)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

8. I was thinking (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

9. I learned
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

10. means a lot to me.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Exercise 49. The Perfect Progressive Aspect makes three tenses, PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE. It has an open time frame.

 

Let us practice our linguistic gravitation: we close the time frame, when we are {ON} a cognitive ground (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.1).

 

We have part the mapping cues and stay with the Affirmative. We may not want much to do, in one go.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example 1: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 10:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 18:00 P.M.

 

Answer: I had breakfast.
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

 

Example 2: have breakfast
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 8:30 A.M.
TIME NOW: 8:15 P.M.

 

Answer: I have been having breakfast.
SYMBOLICS: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 

1. work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Monday, 10:00 P.M.

 

2. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Saturday, after 19:00 P.M.

 

3. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 23:00 P.M.

 

4. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 00:15 P.M.

 

5. go to the gym
TUESDAYS 19:00 ― 20:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Wednesday, after 21:15 P.M.

 

Exercise 50. Let us practice our earthling proper egoism (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 8.1). In conversation, we cannot merely follow on grammar.

 

We decide {ON} our language extents. We ignore the cue that would not be properly egoistic.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example: She (cherish) her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: She has cherished her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, ANSWER

 

1. The book set (consist) of five parts.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 1

 

2. She (sound) like under a bad impression.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 2

 

3. Yesterday afternoon, he (recall) his school years with friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 3

 

4. She just (recognize) the handwriting now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 4

 

5. He (agree) to the new conclusion just now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 5

 

6. Now, she (appreciate) the ancient manuscript for an hour.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 6

 

7. He (want) to go to the Arctic before he went to the Antarctic.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 7

 

8. The house (belong) to the family for 10 years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 8

 

9. He usually (respect) other opinions, but not that time.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 9

 

10. This time tomorrow, she (see) her brother.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 10

*****

From the key: example 7 shows we always should consider the entire utterance, to make out the grammatical time. The verb form “went” places the stretch of speech in the PAST.

 

We also can think about the alternate language forms.

 

In example 3, a phrase as “*yesterday afternoon, he will recall his school years with friends”, could not work with our cognitive map for YESTERDAY.

 

In example 8, a phrase as “*the house will have been belonging to the family for 10 years”, would go against natural human possessiveness: we place property {ON} cognitive maps.

 

Grammar is not only about style. It is also about logic and sense.
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Exercise 51. In natural language, our real-time present allows combining the time reference. We can talk about events that took place TODAY with a PAST grammatical reference. For events that are to take place, we can use the FUTURE.

 

We remain with our healthy egoism: we stay {ON} cognitive extents, for hearts and minds, regardless of any cues.

 

Example:
TODAY, PRESENT; he, know the answer
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Answer: He knows the answer. {ON}
PRESENT SIMPLE arrow(We ignore the dot, the Progressive symbolics.)

 

1. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, believe it

 

2. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

3. TODAY, the PAST; they, see each other
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

4. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, live here for ten years
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

5. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, speak with them
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

6. YESTERDAY, the PAST; he, write for an hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

7. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; you, work here for five years
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

8. TODAY, the PAST; we, hike in the mountains
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

9. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, exercise for an hour already
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

10. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, watch television, at this hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Exercise 52. SAMSON THE AGONIST is a story of a hero who had magic hair that gave him power. Naturally, we do not have to believe everything we read, online either.

 

Our “Observations as by a grain of sand” are to help us keep grammar even against unusual wording, like in EXERCISE 42. We have only part the cues: we practice independent language skill.

 

We first put our verbs into the grammatical PAST, and then into the PRESENT. We mind our Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.

 

Example: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, 1. (think) about a proper measure for own composition.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, was thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A. Length N 2. (seem) to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum N 3. (be) the argument to the grain of sand: it 4. (bring) to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B. The grain of sand 5. (think) about wisdom. What wisdom 6. (be) ?

 

C. It 7. (may be) a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand N 8. (consider) going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary.

 

D. The grain usually 9. (rest) close to the shoreline, not entirely by own will, but by the way of life it 10. (practice) since its earliest years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASK 10

 

E. Owing to this lifestyle, it 11. (decide) to devote part its time to necessities of cognition.

 

F. Thinking about own format as a potentiality by another, it 12. (deliberate) whether it 13. (be), as a grain of sand, a fruit of ability or mere industriousness.

 

G. It 14. (can be) up to itself to conclude on own structuring. For that chance, it 15. (spend) half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the evening, to ponder on composite phenomena strictly.

 

H. It 16. (do) its daily dose of reckoning for about fifteen minutes, when a westerly 17.  (arrive) to the shore. Its habitual way, the wind 18. (make) a little eddy on the shoreside.

 

I. The grain of sand 19. (think) if that 20. (be) wise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASKS 16-17

*****

Obviously, wits cannot be something we grow on our heads.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us now put the story into the grammatical PRESENT. Our grammar journey has had some dramatic narrative already, in EXERCISE 44.

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, is thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A1. Length does not seem to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum is not the argument to the grain of sand: it brings to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B1. The grain of sand thinks about wisdom. What is wisdom?

 

C1. It may be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand does not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary…

*****

Our sense for distance and time may encourage altering the word “that” from the grammatical PAST into the word “this”, for the grammatical PRESENT.

 

Modal verbs can challenge our logic. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 9.
BUTTON: CHAPTER 9. MODAL VERBS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY,
PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.

 

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.

 

As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.

 

In the auxiliary role, the verb to HAVE works for the framework. We mark it green. As a content verb, it can tell about ownership. We mark it mauve then, as all content verbs.

*****

Madame Règle speaks excellent American English. Her friendship with Jill Smith started over a website forum discussing philosophy and linguistics.

 

They agreed that Latin had had {TO} influence over English and French thought, although the languages belonged to diverse language groups.

 

*****

 

This is one of the reasons for some French reference in our grammar voyage. Latin has affected {TO} both English and French languages.

 

On the other hand, English and French have {ON} very dissimilar shapes. English is a Germanic language, and French belongs with the Romance language group. Some American insignia have {ON} Latin mottos.

 

We could hear or read sometimes that American English is an international language. There are no international languages really. Esperanto does not have {ON} many features of a natural language.

 

We can say that American English is a lingua franca, that is, a tongue spoken worldwide.

 

By origin of the phrase, we can associate a lingua franca with free speech. In Latin, the adjective “francus” also meant someone exempt from service, someone at liberty.

 

The Roman Empire rule over the present-day territory of France collapsed early, and ancient Romans knew the local people as Franks, READ IN WIKIPEDIA.

 

America and France have had {TO} historic ties. The French were American allies in the WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. The Statue of Liberty is a memorial to American independence and alliance with the French.

 

PICTURE: STATUE OF LIBERTY

 

There are many Statues of Liberty. The most famous statues are those in New York and Paris. A French sculptor, FRÉDÉRIC BARTHOLDI, designed the Statue.

 

Bartholdi patented it as Liberty Enlightening the World (La Liberté éclairant le monde, in French). The American statue stands on the Liberty Island, in New York Harbor.

 

PICTURE: LIBERTY ISLAND

*****

 

Madame Règle has {ON} a small book of poetry with her today. She has finished {TO} the book about Descartes. At home, she has {ON} a big volume about influences between French and English thinkers.

 

She has been reading {AT} two book series, poetry or philosophical commentary, one at a time, all this week.

 

Latimer Sauf is not surprised at her reading habit. The special edition of Larousse Gastronomique he got from her last Christmas has {ON} an elevated and celebrated place in his restaurant main hall.

 

The guests have turned {TO} many of the pages so far. He has had {TO} another copy to read at home. He has been studying {AT} it to detail. He has {ON} extra Larousse dishes on his menu.

*****

Let us focus on the grammatical time and cognitive variable.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE been reading; {AT}

 

PRESENT
He HAS been reading; {AT}

 

PAST
He HAD been reading. {AT}

 

We can compare the beginning of our language journey, the Fields of Time (CHAPTER 1).

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO HAVE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

How does the Perfect Progressive change for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE? It is the verb to have to change.

 

The verb to have changes the same as in our Fields of Time, for our cognitive variable {ON}, the Simple Aspect.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE a book; {ON}

 

PRESENT
He HAS a book; {ON}

 

PAST
He HAD a book. {ON}

 

Let us compare the cognitive variable {IN}. In the content role, the verb to have can also tell about eating. Madame Règle likes the extra Larousse dishes by Monsieur Sauf.

 

FUTURE
Tomorrow at this hour, Madame Règle
WILL BE having her extra Larousse and reading a book; {IN}

 

PRESENT
Madame Règle
IS having her extra Larousse and reading a book now; {IN}

 

PAST
When Jill walked into the restaurant yesterday, Madame Règle
WAS having her extra Larousse and reading a book.{IN}

 

Let us compare the variable {ON}. Here are our Fields of Time, again.

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

FUTURE
She WILL BE at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PRESENT
She IS at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PAST
She WAS at the restaurant. {ON}

 

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change for the grammatical time. It changes the same in our Fields of Time, the same as for our variable {ON}.

 

Let us compare all Aspects. The elements that adapt for the grammatical time are underlined.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FIRST ELEMENT

 

We can view the value {ON} as a basis for other Aspects.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM A LEARNER, I HAVE A GRAMMAR BOOK

 

We also can focus on the value {ON} and view other Aspects as syntactic expansion.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM -- I HAVE -- I HAVE BEEN LEARNING

 

Please mind that finding a basic value does not impose any particular order to use the values, especially if we come to the resolve that our {ON, IN, TO} and {AT} can be our learned cognitive variables.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us turn to American English as it is really. We do not intend to invent a new language.

This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
(NBC Today Sun as in the CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH, COCA.)

TEXT EXTENT: THIS IS A DREAM
SYMBOLICS: SYNTACTIC EXPANSE

The Simple Aspect can tell what we have {ON} our cognitive map. What we perceive does not have to take up an entire extent.

 

Even if we regard an entire cognitive extent, it does not have to imply that we are preoccupied. Another way round, we live on planet Earth, and none of us could preoccupy it.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

TEXT EXTENT: I AM LOVING IT

The Progressive Aspect, the value {IN}, can help mark a matter as different from the regular and basic {ON}.

 

To compare space, we may feel as IN an area, rather than ON a regular cognitive map, for matters we perceive as irregular or EMPHATIC.

 

The Progressive can help delineate in time, on something out of the ordinary, as a dream come true: dreams coming true are not anything regular.

*****

In this view, we can have the value {AT} for the most divergent from the regular, basic {ON}.
PICTURE: ASPECT SYNTACTIC EXPANSION

 

Could we have a natural feeling to return to the basic variable, after we “go away”? The following example looks spontaneous and shows our matter well.

 

{AT} I’ve been loving it. But {ON} I want to keep doing different things.
(People magazine as in COCA.)

TEXT EXTENTS: HAVE BEEN LOVING -- WANT TO DO

Some classic grammars might not agree to have verbs as “to love” or “to hate” in the Progressive at all. However, if to let anybody PRESCRIBE what language should be like, we might have to recur to MIDDLE ENGLISH.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

American English is a live language, and live languages also change. Thinking about free speech, let us consider a cognitive difference, for the two forms:
“I hate you”,
or
“I am hating you”.

 

We can compare human perception on physical space.
TEXT EXTENT: I AM HATING YOU

“I am hating you” is {IN} an area only.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HATE YOU

“I hate you” is {ON} the entire extent.

 

Our grammar is correct when it properly renders how we feel and think.

 

To speak American freely, we should choose independently if we say that we are hating or loving something, or that we hate or love it.

 

This can be our earthling proper egoism: we have our inner grammars work for our minds, rather than adapt our minds to rules that cannot be universal, anyway.

 

The variable {ON} can be our earthling and basic variable. Who knows, maybe the ancient Latin rules, from which classic grammars derive, emerged owing to human variables, only they were not called variables then, hence the “stative use of verbs”?

 

Naturally, classicist or generativist, we do not have to be always gravely serious about everything we say.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

VARIABLES OR OPTIONS?

We may come across presentations of language as features.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FEATURES, A CHART

 

An Aspect both Perfect and Progressive would be the Perfect Progressive. An Aspect neither Perfect nor Progressive would be the Simple.

 

Some approaches might attempt a picture for language as made of options. However, our brains are live structures and have simultaneous processes.

 

When we use the Present Simple, our paths for the Perfect Progressive for example do not become “switched off”. If we use the Progressive, we do not exclude a possibility for the same thing to happen also in a manner we describe in the Simple:

“I‘m loving you”,

would not mean

“I don’t love you”.

 

Planet Earth is our natural habitat. When we people think what there is {ON} a geographical map, we do not exclude possibilities for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} places.

 

Humans are likely to learn languages {ON} a planet for an indeterminate future. Even astronauts learn {ON} Earth.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Associating language, thinking, feeling, and generally space is natural. What would feelings, thoughts, or works be — without room?

 

Finally, our variable {ON} does not correspond with an option as OFF. We do not turn our brains off, also when we go to sleep.

 

We can conclude that Aspects are not options. Options can be mutually exclusive. To take one option, we would have to exclude other choices. Variables work together, also simultaneously.

 

Feel welcome to practice.

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS
BUTTON, 8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

*****

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CHAPTER 8. ALCHEMY OF TIME FOR BEGINNERS

Most grammar resources agree that we have four Aspects in English, the Simple, the Progressive (or Continuous), the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive (or Perfect Continuous).

 

By the label, we can say the Perfect Progressive should have features of the Perfect and the Progressive.

 

We extracted general patterns for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect in SUB-CHAPTER 3.1.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT PATTERNS, THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

 

We can compare Perfect Progressive examples, as online or in books, and note a general pattern for it, too.
FUTURE:
I will have been reading.

 

PRESENT:
I have been reading.

 

PAST:
I had been reading.

 

PICTURE: THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ASPECT PATTERN

 

Let us think how to build this pattern. We can reckon the verb to be from the Progressive takes the place for the head verb in the Perfect pattern.

 

PICTURE: THE MERGER OF THE PROGRESSIVE AND THE PERFECT

 

The verb to have in the Perfect attracts the third form. The Progressive auxiliary be takes on the third form, within the Perfect pattern.

 

PICTURE: THE VERB TO BE TAKES ON THE 3RD FORM

 

We can have the Perfect Progressive for a merger of the Perfect and the Progressive. Our alchemy makes room for the head verb in the merged, Progressive pattern.

 

PICTURE: ROOM FOR THE HEAD VERB IN THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 

We have correlated the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect Aspects with cognitive mapping values, {ON}, {IN}, and {TO}.
Please compare CHAPTER 4.

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

We can use the Perfect to say what has progressed TO a time.

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE TO

 

We can use the Progressive to tell what is progressing IN a time.

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

The two combined, the Perfect Progressive can help tell what has been progressing IN a stretch of time we refer TO another time.

 

PICTURE: THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE MERGER

 

What language marker (preposition) could we choose for our merged variable? We could think about “into”, to join the “in” and “to”.

 

However, “into” may mean the same as “in” or “to” alone, dependent on the context. The westerly wind frolicked into eddies, in exercise 44 (SUB-CHAPTER 7.1).

 

“Into” may make an impression more formal or emphatic than “in” or “to” on their own.

 

Let us think about the preposition AT.

Something has been progressing AT this time.

PICTURE: PERFECT PROGRESSIVE MAPPING VALUES COMBINED

 

If our moment in time belongs with the FUTURE, we can say,
AT a time, something will have been progressing.

 

If our moment belongs with the PAST, we can say,
AT a time, something had been progressing.

 

Some grammar books will associate our feature {TO} with the Aspect we also can name the Perfect Simple. Some may have the name Perfect Continuous, for our variable {AT}.

 

Psycholinguistics says that naming processes do not change the ways language forms can work for brains. Book authors are people, and people happen to differ in approaches. Language forms can work regardless of grammar labels.

 

Our visualization is not to fix a picture for language. We do not have to stay with the same visuals for all time. We can present our mapping on one extent, as well as a few extents.

 

PICTURE: 4 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

SYMBOLICS: MANY MAPS WITH VARIABLES

 

We can merge our Progressive and Perfect arrow cues (please refer to SUB-CHAPTER 5.1).

 

Perfect tenses have an open time frame: they connote another, simultaneous reference in time.

 

Let us think about the Perfect Simple. The PRESENT Perfect Simple can embrace some time with reference TO the PRESENT.

 

17. Madame Règle has lived in Paris for fifteen years.

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

The open frame here looks TO the PRESENT, regarding a time fifteen years ago.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: LIVES IN PARIS -- MOVED TO PARIS

 

The PAST Perfect Simple can refer one time in the PAST TO another time in the PAST.

 

17a. Before moving to Paris, Madame Règle had lived and worked in Lyon, the silk capital of France, for five years.

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

The open time frame looks TO the PAST, regarding a time five years before.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: MOVED TO PARIS -- LIVED IN LYON

 

The FUTURE Perfect Simple may look to a time span from the PRESENT TO the FUTURE. Our basic or nodal time reference is the PRESENT, but we can think about the PAST as well.

 

17b. Tomorrow, Madame Règle will have lived and worked in France for twenty years.
(Altogether, in France, she has lived in Lyons and Paris.)

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

TEXT EXTENTS: WILL BE 20 YEARS -- LIVES IN PARIS

 

Madame Règle is an avid reader. She never really reads one book only. She usually has a small book with her, tied to her bag with a colorful scarf like with a string. She says that actually being able to look at a book makes it more present to her mind. At the same time, there is always another, bigger book she reads at home.

 

PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S THINKTIONARY

 

The practiced school habit of stringing books together might have had its advantages. Jill shares the behavior sometimes.

 

The Perfect Progressive makes a dual time reference and has an open time frame, the same as Perfect Simple. The Perfect Progressive can highlight a process, its time span or dynamism.

 

Let us think about the verb to read. We write the verb to read identically in the first, second, and third form. We say it differently.

 

1st form     2nd form     3rd form

 

read     read     read

 

[rI:d]     [re:d]     [re:d]

 

The verb to have takes the third form.

 

17c. Madame Règle has read [re:d] a book about a French thinker, René Descartes.
(She has finished.) {TO}

 

When we merge the Perfect and the Progressive, our pattern has room for the head verb in the Progressive.

 

PICTURE: HAS BEEN READING, FORM MERGER

 

17d. She has been reading [rI:dI Ƞ] a series of philosophical commentary books.
(Her reading is still in progress, she has not finished yet.) {AT}

 

We do NOT use the third form twice, and we do not add the ING to it. The following example shows the potential error.

17e. She has been * [re:dI Ƞ].

 

Let us return to our variable {ON}. Could we have it for our basic cognitive reference? Feel welcome to further journey.
8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE
BUTTON: 8.1 EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

*****

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7.1. PRACTICE FOR THE HEART AND THE MIND

Exercise 39. Let us provide synonyms for stative and dynamic senses of the verbs below. We can use the Infinitive also with the Progressive.

 

SUB-CHAPTER 2.1. presents the Infinitive.
APPENDIX 1 lays out the basics about verbs.

 

Example: to think

 

Answer:
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ONstative, variable {ON}
to consider, to believe
*****
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE INdynamic, variable {IN}
to be cerebrating, to be pondering

 

1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.

 

Exercise 40. We paraphrase the verbs and tell where we could take the ING, and where we would mostly stay {ON} our cognitive extents. Our answers do not have to be identical. Humans differ in stative verb use.

 

1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.

 

Exercise 41. Let us think over the various impressions that phrases as “I’m loving it” or “I’m hating it” might give.

 

Exercise 42. It happens in conversations: our grammar is good, but we do not know a particular word, or we know the words, but we are not familiar with the way someone puts words together, and confused about the words, we get confused about grammar, too.

 

Language about thinking and feeling can be elaborate. Here, we learn to keep our grammar against even unusual wording.

 

We continue comparing the mapping variables {ON} and {IN}, for the grammatical Aspect. We have only part the arrow cues (see SUB-CHAPTER 5.1.). We are staying in the grammatical PAST.

 

Our story is about the GREENSHANK’S closest relative, the GREATER YELLOWLEGS, meeting the LESSER YELLOWLEGS.

 

PICTURE: GREATER YELLOWLEGS

GREATER YELLOWLEGS, PHOTO BY MIKE BAIRD, WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

 

The tale is a little inspired with ARISTOTLE and intended to be mildly humorous. Regarding criticism on Aristotle, feel welcome to the BOOK INFORMATION.

 

A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs.

 

Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs 1. (hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser 2. (chirp) mighty out of tune (!)
CUES

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, EXAMPLE TASK

 

Answer: heard, variable {ON}; was chirping, variable {IN}

 

A. The Greater 3. (fly) up to the path and 4. (think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature 5. (give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet 6. (can be) a huge enterprise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 3-6

 

B. The Greater 7. (ponder) on some of the particulars, when he 8. (see) the Lesser Yellowlegs by the seashore.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 7-8

 

C. The Lesser Yellowlegs 9. (can try) the three-note whistle, it N 10. (be) in violation of the laws of physics, 11. (argue) the Greater Yellowlegs. The Lesser Yellowlegs 12. (appear) very similar in size.

 

D. “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser 13. (retort). The two-note 14. (be) the only melody he 15. (know) by heart.

 

E. The Greater Yellowlegs 16. (expect) the refutation. However, there always 17. (exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds.

 

F. Rare sounds 18. (feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (observe). Education 19. (mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever 20. (import) worse individually.

 

G. The uncouth absurd of the situation 21. (consist) in being out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs 22. (declare).

 

H. The Lesser Yellowlegs 23. (deem) that impossible. One place 24. (involve) one place, however negative the relation.

 

I. The two 25. (meditate) steadily, when the Lesser 26. (sigh). Elaborating on the two-note 28. (chance) the common sense.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25
EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

From the key: the variable {ON} can tell an activity that got on a cognitive map or extent when something else was in its course: the two were meditating steadily, when the Lesser sighed. There are more examples in exercises that follow.

*****

Exercise 43. We compare the variables {ON} and {IN} within all grammatical time, the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. As there is more language logic to manage, we have all arrow cues.

 

Our next story is about a creature from the Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly. The inspiration for the story comes from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, see over INTERNET ARCHIVE.

 

Example: According to a legend, it is around the summer solstice that dayflies 1. (come) to exist in the Cimmerian Bosporus. A dayfly 2. (begin) its life in the morning, and 3. (die) before the second day sunset.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 1-3

 

Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}

 

A. It 4. (be) early morning. The dayfly 5. (flutter) its wings in the sunrise light. “I 6. (be) a day-fly”, it 7. (think). The circumstance 8. (give) it its name.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 4-8

 

B. The morning 9. (be) very bright and fresh. The dayfly 10. (wonder) over the water and the air, the green and the colorfulness of vegetation, when it 11. (see) a dry leaf.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 9-11

 

C. It 12. (see) how water 13. (come) from the earth and the air. It 14. (cogitate) if dry leaves 15. (belong) with green leaves.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 12-15

 

D. It 16. (fly) past a vividly red rose flower when a butterfly 17. (stop) it for a little conversation. “You 18. (seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, the butterfly 19. (say).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 16-19

 

E. “Right, I 20. (name) myself a dayfly”, the dayfly 21. (respond). “Living for a day 22. (form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that 23. (become) can be eternal, anyway.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 20-23

 

F. This 24. (be) very interesting”, the butterfly 25. (remark). “I sure also 26. (become).” — “I 27. (think) about it when I 28. (see) that dry leaf over there”, the dayfly 29. (reply).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 24-29

 

G. “I 30. (contemplate) if the becoming of dry leaves 31. (happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and… butterflies.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 30-31

 

H. The butterfly 32. (disapprove). “I sure N 33. (will answer) this! You 34. (can see) that we 35. (differ). Our wings 36. (be) dissimilar.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 32-36

 

I. “Nobody 37. (deny) this”, the dayfly 38. (concede). “It 39. (be) the becoming that I 40. (distrust).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 37-40

 

J. This morning 41. (become) broad daylight, and this day 42. (become) a night. However, the day and the night 43. (can inhere) in disparate matters, I 44. (feel). One of them 45. (may be) the light.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 41-45

 

K. The butterfly 46. (shrug) its wings and 47. (fly) away.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 46-47PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25

*****

From the key: We can perceive the verb WILL as referring to the PRESENT or the FUTURE.

 

THE PRESENT
“I sure will not answer this!”
We can make a close synonym, saying,
“I have no wish to answer this.”

 

THE FUTURE
“This morning is becoming broad daylight,
and this day will become a night.”
We would make a close synonym, saying,
“This is what is going to happen.”

 

The verb to become has had a role in language history. We may get to know it better, further in the grammar journey.

 

We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. I hope you do your dictionary work (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

 

Exercise 44. We focus on the grammatical Time and Expression. To deny something, we can use the Negative. In our notes, we may distinguish the Negative with the letter N. To ask a question, we can use the Interrogative. We give it the question mark, (?).

 

First, we place our story mostly in the PRESENT. This manner to tell a story is the dramatic narrative. Then, we take the story to the PAST.

 

This should help us see how language logic can work together, for the grammatical time. Further in the journey, we may learn the Reported Speech.

 

Our story is about the westerly, the kind of wind that happens to rise in oceans. Westerlies influence the weather. Some scientists have blamed record temperatures, hot or cold, on splits in westerly currents.

 

Some observers even suspected extraterrestrial or supernatural influences over the weather, while it was… a westerly.

 

We have only part the arrow cues. We keep them, to work out a sense for target time. It can be very useful with Modal verbs.

 

Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.

 

A. It 3. (come) to the land and 4. (feel) a difference. Now, the high ocean 5. (be) the past and the land 6. (become) the present.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK A

 

B. The shore 7. (delineate) the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter, and 10. (frolic) into eddies.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK B

 

C. The wester 11. (swirl), when the thought about the future 12. (come) to it. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shoreland N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK C

 

D. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK D

 

E. The shoreland 20. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past. Then, there 21. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, when the wester 23. (get) there.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK E

 

We take our story into the grammatical PAST. The verb WILL takes on another form, WOULD.

 

Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.

 

A1. It came to the land and felt a difference. Now, the high Ocean was the past and the land had become the present.

 

B1. The shore delineated the past and the present. It was the limit for both. The wind was playing with the matter and frolicking into eddies.

 

Please mind: we can use the variable {ON} for an activity that gets on the map, while something else is happening: The wester was swirling, when the thought about the future came to it.

 

TEXT EXTENT: THE WESTERLY WAS SWIRLING -- WHEN THE THOUGHT CAME

 

We can envision our grammatical logic as interconnected.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: PRESENT AND PAST, THE WESTERLY SETS -- SET -- ITS COURSE

 

Our logic for grammatical time can work in connected sets. Could we connect or merge our variables {IN} and {TO}? Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

*****

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CHAPTER 7. TIME IN THE MIND AND HEART

When it comes to talk about hearts and minds, we might picture the difference between the Simple and the Progressive as above, one face being joyous, the other unhappy.

 

Saying, “I am hating you”, could be a joke.
Saying, “I hate you”, could declare hatred.

 

Most grammar books tell about “stative” or “static verbs”. The books enumerate such “stative verbs” to remember and never to use with the Progressive.

 

According to those books, we should never come across phrases as “I am loving you”, or “I am hating you”.

 

The fact is such phrases do occur, and we cannot expect of life to be as a grammar book.

 

Let us try things the classic way. Most grammars group the “stative” or “static verbs”. We may collect a few samples and reckon.

 

Our senses:
to feel, hear, look, perceive, see, sense, smell, sound, taste.

 

Our feelings:
to admire, adore, appreciate, cherish, cost, desire, detest, disdain, dislike, esteem, fear, feel, hate, like, loathe, love, prefer, regard, relish, respect, revere, want, wish.

 

Our minds:
to admit, appreciate, appear, assume, believe, belong, choose, cost, disapprove, esteem, expect, feel, hope, know, mean, object, perceive, prefer, realize, recall, recognize, recollect, regard, relish, remember, see, sense, stipulate, suppose, think, understand.

 

Property (things or animals owned):
to belong, charge, have, hold, owe, own, possess, retain, vest.

 

Properties (characteristics, attributes, features):
to appear, appertain, befit, concern, consist, contain, emerge, hold, inhere, keep, matter, seem, show, signify, sound.

 

PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S HABIT
We may be happy with own notes on words.

 

When we want more words, we can use a thesaurus, as at the THESAURUS.COM.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Progressive, using our cognitive variables. We can maintain the infinity symbol for the Simple.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity is not eternity or uncertainty. It is to mind that natural language is not a finished set.

 

 

We can begin with our senses. We have correlated the Simple with the variable {ON}, and the Progressive with the variable {IN}.

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

8. She feels cold. {ON}
Her body feels cold. {ON}

 

We can use ING when we use our sense of touch:

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

8a. She is feeling her temperature. {IN}
She is using palpation to feel the temperature. {IN}

 

We may reflect on our sense of touch:

8b. The wind feels cold (right now). {ON}

 

Our moods happen to be dynamic. We could ask,

8c. How are you feeling? {IN}
(How are you taking your own condition, mood?) {IN}

 

To convey the same meaning as in 8c, we also could ask,
8d. How do you feel? {ON}
(How are you taking your own condition, mood?) {IN}

 

The form may not refer to the sense of touch and well, the way we feel about answering can depend on who asks the question.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Our feelings are worth thinking about. We can use introspection.

 

PICTURE: JIM THINKING

 

We probably never say about someone shivering,
8e. She / he *is feeling cold. {IN}

 

This could sound hard-hearted, as if we would be saying someone is just exercising his or her senses, when his or her body temperature is low.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

 

People naturally develop group language use. Our language may vary, dependent on who we speak with: a close friend or a stranger, for example. Grammars usually do not prescribe on group language use. However, we mostly say,

8f. She / he feels cold. {ON}
8g. She / he is cold. {ON}

 

In everyday language, we often use the Modal verb can, to tell about our senses. It may not change the meaning at all,

9. I can feel something strange. ~ I feel something strange. {ON}
9a. I can see something. ~ I see something. {ON}

 

The Modal yet may bring another connotation,
9b. Things can look better. {ON}
(They do not; it needs to stop raining.)

 

Verbs may become phrasal verbs. Their meanings may change then, as with to see about, or to look for.

 

Contemporary American English uses phrasal verbs extensively. We have a few phrasal verbs in our grammar guidance.

 

We can say we catch on a bit of language, when we get to hear or see it. We may catch on to a bit of language and learn it.

 

If we come across something or someone, we meet or find them, often by chance. When we look up dictionaries, we read them. If we look to something, we consider it.

 

We can get to know phrasal verbs better in Part Four.

 

Let us give some more time to eyesight.

10. What are you looking at? {IN}
(What are you viewing?) {IN}

 

10a. What are you looking for? {IN}
(What are you seeking?) {IN}

 

10b. She is seeing him tomorrow. ~ She is meeting him tomorrow. {IN}
10c. She is seeing about getting the new house. ~ She is arranging the purchase of the house. {IN}

 

Let us look to a few more examples about our senses. The meaning may change, if we change the variable.

11. I can hear some strange noise. ~ I hear some strange noise. {ON}
11a. They are hearing new candidates now. {IN}
(They are interviewing or auditioning them.)
11b. You are hearing things. {IN}
(Your nervous system is producing delusions.)

 

The meaning will always depend on the context and the speaker’s intentions. We can call it the locutionary intent, in linguistics.

12. You look great now! {ON}
(I like your appearance now.) {ON}

 

English is as honest as any other language ― in fact, it terms an innocent lie a “white lie”. Imagine a boss wearing a horrible suit. What might others say?
“Interesting, boss”. “Chic.”’
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE

 

“White lies” are usually brief utterances. There is always the hazard of praising the boss while he or she would be deliberately wearing something awful, to tell friends from foes.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can speak about our senses with an open time frame (please compare CHAPTER 6),

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

13. I have not heard from him in years. {TO}
(He hasn’t contacted me in years.) {TO}

 

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND, AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

Please compare,
13a. She has never seen anything like this. {TO}
(This is the first time she can see such a strange thing.) {ON}
13b. He has never felt so good. {TO}
(He is now very comfortable.)

 

Our noses are quite a regular sense. We can speak about smell with an open time frame, use the verb can, as well as balance our variables.

14. She has never smelled anything more portending savor. {TO}
(An irresistible scent is coming from the kitchen.) {IN}
14a. I can smell something nice. ~ I smell something nice. {ON}

 

PICTURE: VEG AND A BOWL OF HERBS

 

Fresh herbs can make food healthier and irresistible.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

14b. The roses smell beautiful. {ON}
14c. She is smelling the roses. {IN}
(She is using her sense of smell.) {IN}

 

PICTURE: 101 ROSES

How could 101 roses smell?

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Psycholinguistics says there is always an emotional component in human learning and thinking.

 

Naturally, learning something does not mean automatically loving or hating it. However, if we choose to learn something, it is good to think about the advantages.

 

We humans remember pleasurable experiences much better than unpleasant impressions. Our senses are not our feelings directly, yet human emotionality may require some diplomacy about perception.

 

However tolerant to the verb can, our noses happen to be delicate. We may say,
15. It smells here. {ON}
Actually, we are going to be close to saying,
15a. It stinks here. {ON} TABOO

 

As this could be an ugly and unpleasant thing to say, we can mark this socially uncertain expression as TABOO.

 

We may be more socially agreeable, if we take some responsibility for our perception,
(as liable as we get to be).

EMOTICON: A JOKE

15b. I (think I can) smell something. {ON}

 

We may want our taste buds to make sense, too:
16. I can taste some nice flavor in this. ~ I taste some nice flavor in this. {ON}

 

Same as with other senses, we can use ING to say that we are using our taste buds. When it is our sense of taste to be telling us something, we can simply stay ON our cognitive extent.
16a. The drink tastes sweet. {ON}
(This is what our taste buds are telling.) {IN}
16b. He is tasting the drink. {IN}
(He is trying it.) {IN}

 

Let us think about our variables and recur to CHAPTER 4. If we select part an extent for our view, we may mark we do not mean an entire extent.

 

PICTURE: VALUES ON AND IN, HE IS MAD, HE IS BEING MAD

 

When we use our senses or act on appearance, we can have this for an activity in progress, the same as any other actions we take or carry out. We can follow the dynamic use of verbs, that is, use ING.

 

When we perceive, feel, or think, we may want our linguistic gravitation (compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.2). Our senses, feelings, and thoughts belong with our cognizance. We can stay ON our notional grounds.

 

Let us compare two forms,
What are you hoping for? {IN}
What do you hope for? {ON}

 

The latter form, hope for, would make an impression broader than the form hoping for. To discuss this, we need to talk about…

 

FEELINGS!

We cannot really speak a language if we are unable to speak about our feelings in it. We can present a few stative uses of verbs for feelings, in pairs of antonyms, that is, words of opposite meanings.

 

Thesauruses (or thesauri) mostly abbreviate antonyms as ant, and synonyms as syn.

 

Psycholinguistics says we are all language users. We can use words without carrying out any action about them. Never leaving home, we can speak about space flight, climbing Mount McKinley, or diving in the Milwaukee Deep.

 

Mount McKinley (or Denali) is the highest peak in the USA and North America entire. It is about 20,300 feet above the sea level. Denali is the third most prominent summit in the world. It neighbors on the Wonder Lake.

 

PICTURE: MOUNT DENALI

 

The Milwaukee Deep is the most profound depth in the Atlantic. It belongs with the Puerto Rico trench and is about 27,500 feet. USS Milwaukee discovered it. The USA has borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the east and on the Pacific in the west.

 

PICTURE: MILWAUKEE DEEP

 

Language users as we are, we can present words about feelings in antonyms, without any emotional disturbance or distress.

EMOTICON: SMILE

admire, adore, cherish ~#~ detest, disdain
appreciate, esteem ~#~ disregard
benefit, favor ~#~ cost
dare ~#~ fear
desire, relish ~#~ abhor, reject
like ~#~ dislike
love ~#~ hate, loathe
prefer ~#~ reject
respect, revere ~#~ disparage
want, wish ~#~ have no relish in / taste for

 

PICTURE: DELLA AND THE GLOBE

Could the value ON be our earthling basic variable?
SUB-CHAPTER 8.1 has an idea.

 

We can try pairs of synonyms with our stative uses for thinking. Synonyms are words close in meaning. We yet cannot always use synonyms interchangeably.

accede, agree ~#~ admit, consent
appreciate ~#~ realize
assume ~#~ presume, stipulate
believe ~#~ consider, suppose
expect ~#~ think likely, count upon
feel ~#~ hold, think
forget ~#~ become oblivious of, overlook
know ~#~ be aware of, remember
mean ~#~ intend
object ~#~ disapprove
perceive, sense ~#~ consider, recognize
see ~#~ comprehend, understand
think ~#~ cerebrate

 

PICTURE: DELLA AND OLLIE

 

Human potential for language is inborn. However, ― with each and every language ― we all need to learn speaking and writing. Chatting with minors can be a clever thought (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

We people are language users with regard to thinking and other processes, activities, or experiences. We can speak about Benjamin Franklin, the wave theory of light, or a Pulitzer Prize author, never getting to all the details of the lives, theories, and works.

 

Let us put our words for property together with synonyms and antonyms for us, sometimes rich and sometimes not-so-affluent people who learn.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

belong ~#~ be part of, pertain to  ~#~ be exclusive of
have, hold, own ~#~ possess, retain ~#~ be devoid of
owe ~#~ be indebted ~#~ be creditor to
vest ~#~ charge ~#~ cost

 

Properties happen to come and go. Let us put our stative uses for properties together with their synonyms. When a property (feature, characteristic) is gone, we can use negation.

appear ~#~ look, seem
concern ~#~ be of interest to, relate to
consist ~#~ be composed of, be made up of
consist ~#~ exist
contain ~#~ hold or include within
hold ~#~ remain (valid, true)
matter ~#~ be of importance
signify ~#~ imply, mean
sound, look ~#~ convey an impression

 

*****

 

The above provides quite a thorough analysis of verbs for feeling and thought. To feel is a very interesting verb.

 

We might say, “I feel fresh”, to speak about our senses. We could say, “I feel love”, to speak about our emotions. We also could say, possibly in another context, “I feel this is stupid” [TABOO], to say what we think.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Natural language does associate feelings and thoughts with spatial variables. “High on emotion” or “in the deepest of our thoughts”, we require some of the notions for space, to think about time and feelings.

 

Cognitive variables naturally can help manage our expression on that.

 

PICTURE: JAMES MADISON, THE 4TH PRESIDENT OF THE USA

 

The advice nearest to my heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the States be cherished and perpetuated,
James Madison, the 4th President of the United States.

 

We can find resources about American presidents at WHITEHOUSE.GOV, the website of the President’s home. It is enough that we type “presidents” in the search field.

 

*****

 

Classing verbs as stative and grouping them in categories befits behaviorist analyses more. Our perspective is psycholinguistic: we stay with cognitive variables.

 

We can agree there might be stative uses of verbs, but we do not list special verbs never to use with the Progressive.

 

If we go WORDNET.PRINCETON.EDU, we get a project with the US National Science foundation, WordNet. It is free to download and use, according to the license. Resources like WordNet help view vocabulary in a connected way.

 

Feel welcome to the practice for the mind and the heart.
7.1. EXERCISES: THE SIMPLE OR THE PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: 7.1. EXERCISES, THE SIMPLE OR THE PROGRESSIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH