We begin with verbs, as in natural language acquisition and learning. Some verb shapes can work as head verbs and as auxiliaries. Verb auxiliary roles are green and verb head roles are mauve.

When verbs head verb phrases, they tell the activity or faculty. When they are auxiliary, they always require another verb.

Auxiliaries help build language patterns, as the Simple, Progressive, or Perfect (see ■→SUB-CHAPTER 3.1).

We could say,
I am a learner.
The form “am” is a head verb.

We also could say,
I am learning.
The form “am” is an auxiliary verb.

We could say,
I have a grammar book.
The form “have” is an head verb.

We could say,
I have learned grammar.
The form “am” is an auxiliary.

In our language journey, pronouns and nouns are ink blue. Highlights and mapping extents are forget-me-not, blue. We avoid color red, for the prevalent and adverse associations with prescriptive opinion on language.

Feel welcome to try colorful virtual words (!)

■→This text is also available in Polish.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
■→Free access, Internet Archive
Electronic format $2.99
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Soft cover, 260 pages, $16.89
■→Amazon | Barnes & Noble
Hard cover, 260 pages
■→Barnes & Noble | Lulu



Internet Archive, the free text and image repository

■Feel welcome to use the materials in my account
The posters are available to shop online as well.