Grammar extras

Color code

In our language journey, pronouns and nouns are ink blue. Highlights and mapping extents are forget-me-not, blue. We avoid color red, for the adverse associations that prescriptive opinion on language may bring.More

Language form

We always need to know the language and the context, to see what the language form denotes: a picture of a cat is not a cat. To work on language form and syntax, we can use virtual words. We have two invented verbs, bimmo and thimo, and two invented nouns, phimmo and rheemo. We use them only if and when we like. ■More

Appendix 1, The verb

Verbs tell activities, faculties, or states, for example to think, to work, or to be. They may do this in four Aspects, the Simple, the Progressive, the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive. ■More

Appendix 2, Irregular verbs, vowels high and low

Most dictionaries list irregular verbs alphabetically. We list them looking to speech sound patterns. This can make remembering irregular forms easier. ■More

Appendix 3, Irregular verbs, vowels back and front

American English is not a monolith: it has regional varieties, and these have 2nd and 3rd forms of the same shape more often. ■More

Appendix 4, Patterns for all Aspects

We can use splotches of color or take to paints and hues as well, while thinking about language. Grammar free visuals have a creative pack; we may also browse the Internet for free draw paint software if we like, to make and check up on language patterns for all Aspects. ■More