GRAMMAR EXTRAS

COLORS CAN HELP READ AND LEARN

Some verb forms can work as head verbs as well as auxiliaries. Our head verbs tell the activity or faculty. Auxiliaries always require another verb. We can use a color code to make learning easier.

 

APPENDIX 1. VERBS

Verbs tell activities, faculties, or states, as to work, to think, or to be. They may do this in four Aspects. The Appendix also tells about the three verb forms, verb irregularity, the infinitive, the participle, and Modal verbs.

 

APPENDIX 2. IRREGULAR VERBS: HIGH AND LOW VOWEL QUALITIES

Irregular verbs are easier to remember, when we think about vowel patterns. Here, we mind high and low vowels.

 

begin

began

begun

sing

sang

sung

spring

sprang / sprung

sprung

 

APPENDIX 3. IRREGULAR VERBS: BACK AND FRONT VOWEL QUALITIES

We can think about back and front vowel qualities too, learning irregular verbs. We can also regard regional American English.

 

choose

chose

chosen / chose

shine

shone / shined

shone / shined

wake

woke / waked

woken / woke / waked

 

APPENDIX 4. PATTERNS FOR ALL ASPECTS

We can visualize language forms and use a color code.

VISUALS: THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVETHE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Have I been writing?

 

LANGUAGE MAPPING SUMMARY

PICTURE: 4 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNSWe can associate grammar and human natural mapping, as with geography and travel.

 

We humans live on Earth. We usually view land or seas as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas in which we are. We perceive routes and ways to places. We happen to be at landmarks and places.

 

Such are natural human variables for space, in English.
We can use them for the grammatical Aspect.

 

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