Konstytucja USA

The translation regards John Carter typeset
Przekład uwzględnia czcionkę Johna Cartera

 

Feel welcome to the Carter typescript

 

WE, the PEOPLE of the UNITED STATES, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

 

MY, NARÓD ZJEDNOCZONYCH STANÓW, by tworzyć unię tym doskonalszą, zaprowadzić sprawiedliwość, zapewnić krajowy pokój, zadbać o wspólną obronę, wspierać ogólny dobrobyt, oraz zapezbieczać błogosławieństwa wolności sobie i swemu potomstwu, zarządzamy ustanowienie tej Konstytucji dla Stanów Zjednoczonych Ameryki.

 

ARTICLE I.

 

Sect. 1. ALL legislative powers, herein granted, shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

 

ARTYKUŁ I.

 

Dział 1. WSZELKIE moce ustawodawcze, niniejszym nadawane, przyznane są Kongresowi Stanów Zjednoczonych, który będzie się składał z Senatu i Izby Reprezentantów.

 

Sect. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

 

Dział 2. Izba Reprezentantów będzie się składać z Posłów wybieranych co drugi rok przez ludność poszczególnych Stanów, a Elektorzy w każdym Stanie posiadać będą kwalifikacje stosowne dla Elektorów najliczniejszego działu Legislatury Państwowej.

 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

 

Nie będzie Reprezentantem osoba która nie osiągnęła wieku lat dwudziestu pięciu, nie jest obywatelem Stanów Zjednoczonych od lat przynajmniej siedmiu, oraz która, gdy wybrana, nie będzie mieszkańcem Stanu w którym na nią głosowano.

 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct.

 

Reprezentacja oraz opodatkowanie bezpośrednie będą proporcjonalne dla poszczególnych Stanów które z tą Unią przynależą, stosownie do wartości liczbowej określanej przez dodanie do całości wolnych mieszkańców, włącznie z tymi na kontraktach terminowych, a wyłączając nieopodatkowanych Indian, trzech piątych wszystkich innych osób. Faktyczne wyliczenie nastąpi w ciągu trzech lat od pierwszego spotkania Kongresu Stanów Zjednoczonych, a w okresach dziesięcioletnich potem, na sposób wyznaczony prawnie.

 

The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New-Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New-Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North-Carolina five, South-Carolina five, and Georgia three.

 

Liczba Reprezentantów nie może przekroczyć jednego na trzydzieści tysięcy osób, lecz każdy Stan będzie mieć przynajmniej jednego; do czasu aż wyliczenie takie nastąpi, Stan New Hampshire będzie uprawniony do wyboru trzech, Massachusets ośmiu, Rhode Island i Providence jednego, Connecticut pięciu, Nowy Jork sześciu, New Jersey czterech, Pensylwania ośmiu, Delaware jednego, Maryland sześciu, Wirginia dziesięciu, Karolina Północna pięciu, Karolina Południowa pięciu, a Georgia trzech.

 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

 

Na wypadek wakatów w Reprezentacji jakiegokolwiek Stanu, władza Wykonawcza wyda wezwanie do wyborów, by wakaty takie wypełnić.

 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

 

Izba Reprezentantów wybierze swego Przewodnczącego oraz innych funkcjonariuszy, mając wyłączność na pozbawianie urzędu.

 

Sect. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

 

Dział 3. Senat Stanów Zjednoczonych będzie się składać z dwóch Senatorów z każdego Stanu, wybranych przez ich Legislatury, na lat sześć; każdy Senator będzie mieć jeden głos.

 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

 

Zaraz jak zgromadzą się w następstwie pierwszych wyborów, zostaną podzieleni równo jak to tylko możliwe, na trzy grupy. Miejsca Senatorów grupy pierwszej zostaną zwolnione po upływie drugiego roku, miejsca grupy drugiej po upływie czwartego roku, a miejsca grupy trzeciej po upływie roku szóstego, tak aby jedna trzecia mogła być wybierana co drugi rok; a jeśli zdarzą się wakaty, drogą rezygnacji czy inną, w przypadku przerwy w obradach Legislatury danego Stanu, jego Egzekutywa może dokonać tymczasowych mianowań do czasu następnego zgromadzenia owej Legislatury, która wtedy takowy wakat wypełni.

 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

 

Nie będzie Senatorem osoba która nie osiągnęła wieku lat trzydziestu, nie jest obywatelem Stanów Zjednoczonych od lat przynajmniej dziewięciu, oraz która, gdy wybrana, nie będzie mieszkańcem Stanu w którym na nią głosowano.

 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

 

Wice-Prezydent Stanów Zjednoczonych bedzie Przewodniczącym Senatu, nie będzie jednak głosować, jedynie przy równej liczbie głosów.

 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

 

Senat będzie wybierać swych funkcjonariuszy oraz Przewodniczącego pro tempore, pod nieobecność Wice-Prezydenta, bądź podczas jego pełnienia funkcji Prezydenta Stanów Zjednoczonych.

 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

 

Wyłącznie Senat może sądzić sprawy o złożenie z urzędu. Podczas posiedzeń w takim celu, Senatorowie będą zaprzysiężeni. Gdyby sądzony miał być Prezydent Stanów Zjednoczonych, przewodniczyć będzie Sędzia Główny; a nikt nie może zostać skazany bez jednomyślności dwóch trzecich obecnych.

 

Deklaracja niepodległości

The translation regards John Dunlap typeset
Przekład uwzględnia czcionkę Johna Dunlapa

 

Feel welcome to the Dunlap typescript

 

Works in progress:

Karta Praw USA

Hymn USA

 

When in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the Causes which impel them to the Separation.

 

Gdy w Przebiegu Wypadków między Ludźmi staje się potrzebnym, by jeden Naród rozwiązał polityczne Więzy dotąd łączące go z drugim, a to by zająć Siłom na Ziemi tej równe i także samodzielnie Stanowisko, do którego Prawa Natury oraz Natury owej Bóg uprawniają, szczere Poszanowanie dla Zapatrywań Ludzkości wymaga, by Naród ten zdeklarował Przyczyny, które go do tej Separacji przynaglają.

 

We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.— –

 

Uważamy Prawdy te za samooczywiste, iż każdy Człowiek stworzony jest równym, uposażonym przez Stwórcę pewnymi niezbywalnymi Prawami, a między tymi w owe do Życia, Wolności, oraz Dążności do własnego Szczęścia.— —

 

That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

  

By umocować te Prawa, Rządy ustanawiane są między ludźmi, czerpiąc swe prawne Władze ze zgody Rządzonych, a kiedykolwiek Rządu jakiego Forma staje się niszczycielską dla tych celów, jest Prawem Narodu ową Formę zmienić lub obalić, ustanawiawszy nowy Rząd, kładąc Podwaliny na takich Zasadach, oraz organizując swe Siły w takiej Formie, aby były one najzdolniejszymi Bezpieczeństwo oraz Zadowolenie uskutecznić.

 

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed.

 

Roztropność zaiste nakazuje, iż Rządy dobrze ugruntowane nie powinny być zmieniane z Powodów błahych a przejściowych; a stosownie wszelkie Doświadczenie ujawia, że Ludzie skłonni są cierpieć raczej póki Zło jest znośnym, niż zadość sobie czynić obalając Formy do których są przyzwyczajonymi.

 

But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security.

 

Lecz gdy długi Ciąg Nadużyć i Uzurpacji, stale w jednym Celu bieżący, ujawnia Zamiar uniżenia ich pod absolutnym Despotyzmem, jest ich Prawem, jest ich Obowiązkiem, Rząd taki zrzucić, a zaprowadzić Straż nową dla swej przyszłej Bezpieczności.

 

Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.

 

Takowym pozostaje Cierpienie tych Kolonii; taką jest też obecna Potrzeba, która zmusza je do zmiany bywałych Rządowych Systemów.

 

The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.

 

Tradycja obecnego Króla Wielkiej Brytanii to Dzieje ponawianych Krzywd i Uzurpacji, wszystkich na bezpośrednim Celu mających Ustanowienie absolutnej Tyranii nad tymi Stanami. Aby to wykazać, niech Fakty przedstawione będą szczeremu Światu.

 

HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.

 

ON odmówił swej Zgody na Prawa, nad wyraz godziwe a potrzebne publicznemu Dobru.

 

HE has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

 

ON zabronił swym Zarządcom wydawać Prawa pilnej a żywotnej Wagi, o ile zawieszonymi nie były w Działaniu do uzyskania jego Zgody; a gdy tak były zawieszonymi, zupełnie odmawiał się nimi zajmować.

 

HE has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.

 

ON odmówił przyjęcia Praw ku Ulokowaniu Ludzi w sporych ziemskich Okręgach, chyba że zrzekliby się oni Prawa do Reprezentacji w Legislatywie, Prawa dla nich bezcennego, a odpychającego Tyranom jedynie.

 

HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.

 

ON zwyływał spotkania Ciał Prawodawczych w miejscach niezwykłych, uciążliwych, od Składnic ich Rejestrów Publicznych oddalonych, jedynie z Zamysłem by przymęczyć do Uległości wobec jego Środków.

 

HE has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.

 

ON wielokrotnie rozwiązał Izby Reprezentantów, za sprzeciwianie się z męską Stanowczością jego Naruszeniom Praw Narodu.

 

HE has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their Exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within.

 

ON długimy Czasy odmawiał, po takowych Rozwiązaniach, bieg nadać wybieraniu następnych, a Zdolności Prawodawcze, do Zaniku niezdolne, między Ludność ogółem się wróciły dla swej Uprawy; Państwo pozostając w międzyczasie narażonym na wszelkie Niebezpieczeństwa Inwazji z zewnątrz, a Tumultu wewnętrznie.

 

HE has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

 

ON powziął się zapobiec Zaludnieniu tychże Stanów; z tym Zamiarem obstrukcyjnie zawadzając Prawom Naturalizacji Obcokrajowców; odmawiając innych praw, które by owych do Migracji tutaj zachęcały, oraz podnosząc Wymogi dla nowych Przydziałów Ziem.

 

HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

 

ON wstrzymał Administrację Prawa, odmawiając swej Zgody na Przepisy dla Władz Prawnych ustanowienia.

 

HE has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries.

 

ON Sędziów zależnymi uczynił od jego Woli wyłącznie, dla Kadencji na Urzędzie, czy Wysokości Płacy Zarobków.

 

HE has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance.

 

ON utworzył Mnogość nowych Urzędów, a sprowadził Roje Urzędników by nasz Naród nękali, a żywili się jego Własnością.

 

HE has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the Consent of our Legislatures.

 

ON pomiędzy nami trzymał, w Czasie Pokoju, Wojska Stałe, bez Przyzwolenia naszych Legislatyw.

 

HE has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

 

ON sprawił, iż Wojsko niezależnym a nadrzędnym Władzy Cywilnej się stało.

 

HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

 

ON porozumiał się z innymi by poddać nas Legislacji obcej naszej Konstytucji i przez nasze Prawa nie uznanej; udzielając Zgody na Uchwały rzekomej Praworządności:

 

FOR quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us:

 

O zakwaterowaniu dużych Oddziałów Zbrojnych Wojsk pomiędzy nami:

 

FOR protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

 

O ich chronieniu, pozornymi Rozprawami, od Kary jakiejkolwiek za Mordy jakie by na Mieszkańcach tych Stanów popełnili:

 

FOR cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:

 

O odcięciu naszego Handlu z wszystkimi Stronami Świata:

 

FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

 

O nakładaniu na nas Podatków bez naszej Aprobaty:

 

FOR depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:

 

O pozbawieniu nas, w wielu Sprawach, Dobrodziejstw Sądu Przysięgłych:

 

FOR transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences:

 

O transportowaniu nas za Morza, by nas sądzić za rzekome Przestępstwa:

 

FOR abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rule into these Colonies:

 

O obaleniu Systemu wolnych Angielskich Praw w sąsiedniej Prowincji, ustanawiając tam arbitralny Rząd, oraz poszerzeniu jej Granic, aby ją zaraz uczynić Przykładem i zdatnym Narzędziem zaprowadzenia tego samego absolutnego Rządu w tych Koloniach:

 

FOR taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

 

O odebraniu nam naszych Statutów, obalając najdroższe nam Prawa, a zmieniając zasadniczo Formy naszego Ustroju:

 

FOR suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever:

 

O zawieszeniu naszych Legislatur, oraz zadeklarowaniu się uposażonymi w Moc ustanawiania za nas we wszystkich Sprawach:

 

HE has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

 

ON opuścił tutejszy Urząd, deklarując nas pozbawionymi jego Opieki i wydając nam Wojnę.

 

HE has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed the Lives of our People.

 

ON splądrował nasze Morza, spostoszył nasze WYbrzeża, spalił nasze Miasta, i zniweczył naszym Ludziom Życie.

 

HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with Circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.

 

ON tego Czasu teraz przesyła duże Wojska obcych Najemników, by dopełnić Dzieła Śmerci, Spustoszenia i Tyraniii, rozpoczętych z Przesłankami Okrucieństwa i Perfidii, którym ledwo równać by się mogły najbardziej barbarzyńskie z Czasów, a niegodnymi Głowy cywilizowanego Narodu.

 

HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

 

ON zmuszał naszych współ-Obywateli na Jeńców pojmanych na pełnym Morzu by nosili Broń przeciw swemu Krajowi, Oprawcami się stali swoich Przyjaciół i Braci, bądź sami z ich Rąk umierali.

 

HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.

 

ON wzniecał domowe Zamieszki pomiędzy nami, oraz powziął się sprowadzać Mieszkańców naszych Granic, bezlitosnych Indiańskich Dzikusów, których znaną Zasadą Walki jest ślepa Destrukcja, bez względu na Wiek, Płeć, oraz Stan.

 

IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms :

 

NA każdym etapie owych Opresji zwracaliśmy się z Petycjami o Reperację, w najskromniejszych z Pojęć:

 

Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every Act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.

 

Odpowiedzią na nasze powtarzane Petycje były jedynie powtarzane Krzywdy. Książę, którego Charakter odznacza się tym samym Uczynkami określającymi Tyrana, nie nadaje się na Władcę wolnego Narodu.

 

NOR have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren.

 

NIE zbrakło nam Baczenia dla Brytyjskiej naszej Braci.

 

We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us.

 

Przestrzegaliśmy ich od Czasu do Czasu o Próbach ich Legislatywy objęcia nas niezasadnym Sądownictwem.

 

We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here.

 

Przypominaliśmy im o okolicznościach naszej Emigracji i Osiedlenia tutaj.

 

We have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence.

 

Odwoływaliśmy się do ich rodzimej Sprawiedliwości i Wspaniałomyślności, upraszaliśmy dla względów wspólnego naszego Rodzaju, by wyrzekli się tych Uzurpacji, które nieuchronnie zerwałyby nasze Więzy i Korespondencję.

 

They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity.

 

Pozostali głuchymi na Głos Sprawiedliwości i Pokrewności.

 

We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.

 

Musimy więc ugiąć się wobec naszej Potrzeby, ogłaszając naszą Separację, i uznać ich, jak resztę Ludzkości, za Wrogów podczas Wojny, podczas Pokoju, za Przyjaciół.

 

WE, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of Right do.

 

Takowoż MY, Reprezentanci ZJEDNOCZONYCH STANÓW AMERYKI, na GENERALNEGO KONGRESU Gremium, przywołując Najwyższego Sędzię tego Świata dla Prawości naszych Intencji, ogłaszamy, w Imię i z Upoważnienia dobrego Ludu tych Koloniii, uroczyście Orędziem Deklaracji, iż te Zjednoczone Kolonie są i Prawem winny być WOLNYMI I NIEZALEŻNYMI STANAMI; iż uwolnione są one od lojalności dla Korony Brytyjskiej, oraz że wszelka polityczna Więź pomiędzy nimi a Wielką Brytanią jest i powinna być zupełnie rozwiązaną; oraz iż jako WOLNE I NIEZALEŻNE STANY mają one Władzę by wydawać Wojnę, zawierać Pokój, wchodzić w Przymierza, zakładać Handel, oraz dokonywać wszelkich Postępków i Spraw które NIEZALEŻNE STANY Prawem czynić mogą.

 

And for the Support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

 

A dla Wsparcia tej Deklaracji, z trwałym Ufaniem w Osłonę bożej Opatrzności, wzajem sobie zawierzamy nasze Żywota, naszą Pomyślność, oraz nasz najświętszy Honor.

 

Signed by ORDER and in BEHALF of the CONGRESS,

 

Podpisano, z NADANIA i na RZECZ KONGRESU,

JOHN HANCOCK, PRESIDENT. (Przewodniczący)

ATTEST. CHARLES THOMSON, SECRETARY. (Sekretarz)

PHILADELPHIA : PRINTED BY JOHN DUNLAP

Filadelfia: Druk Johna Dunlapa

Language Mapping walk-through

I began inventing my grammar when I was a kid, which might part show. When grown-up, we also deserve some sunshine. The grammar remains the way I manage my language skill. 

 

Chapter 1. THE VERBS BE, HAVE, and DO

All tense patterns have the words BE, HAVE, or DO, and everyone has one PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE really. We can symbolize this reality as three Fields of Time in which we envision the verbs BE, HAVE, and DO.

Fields of Time_PAST_FUTURE_PRESENT

We can say figuratively that our knowledge is our light. Knowledge needs memory. Our Past field can be as with a setting sun. We may forget the detail in a matter we have not studied in a long time, yet there is shine enough to return to it. We cannot have memories of the Future, but we are capable of planning our study. Our field for the Future can be as with sunrise. It is our Present we have most cognitive powers to shape. We can symbolize the Present as shiny daylight.

 

Chapter 2. THE VERB FORM WILL

The Fields can help us focus on the verb form WILL. It maps on the Future already in the shape it has for the Present.

WILL mapping on the future

 

Chapter 3. THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, and PERFECT: GENERAL PATTERNS

We can use the word “Character”, for grammatical tense patterns. Character of activity may come easier to think about than the grammatical term “Aspect”, which we get to know too, however.

 

We look to grammatical tense first elements, along with the words BE, HAVE, and WILL. We extract our Character or Aspect patterns, to consider them regardless of Time.

SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, and PERFECT patterns

 

Chapter 4. SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, and PERFECT ON AN ABSTRACT MAP

We can associate grammar and human natural mapping, as with geography and travel. We people live ON Earth. We usually view land or seas as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas IN which we are. We perceive routes and ways TO places. We happen to be AT landmarks and places.

 

We can use the natural variables for grammar. All kinds of English in the world have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive. We can use the cognitive variable ON for the Simple, IN for the Progressive, and TO for the Perfect.

__ESSENCE 3 VALUE with patterns

Chapter 5. EXPRESSION: AFFIRMATIVE, NEGATIVE, and INTERROGATIVE

Arrows are very familiar symbols to show or indicate the way. We can combine our mapping and arrow symbols, to exercise target Time and Aspect. The ability will be vital in our language journey, especially if we want to fare with Modal verbs. Modal forms do not tell directly what time we think about, so it is good to have an idea to picture a target grammatical time.

 

Our arrows are not shooting arrows. They are just to mark the Time and Character, Future Simple or Past Progressive, for example. More, we never grow too old or mature, to use colors. They can help also advanced language work. We make a color palette, and combine grammatical patterns for Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, or Interrogative.

INTEGRATION__PALETTE__CHARACTER AND EEXPRESSION

TRAVEL IN GRAMMAR PART TWO

Chapter 6. SIMPLE OR PERFECT

To compare the Simple and the Perfect, we learn to visualize syntax, to keep the head time, and to use time frames. We keep the frame open for the Perfect, and we close it for the Simple. For real time, our frames are green. We are going to use relative or hypothetical time later, with time frames of a different color.

 

__LOGIC__TWO PRESENT EXTENTS ONE PAST BROKEN

All along, we mind we use concepts and inventions. We do not claim there is anything like time frames or logical extents in human heads. If someone is an architect, it does not mean he or she was born with an idea for a house, or has a building in the brain. At the same time, we mind that we can build our language skills. Nobody is born with grammar, and learning does not require secret talents.

 

Chapter 7. SIMPLE OR PROGRESSIVE

Many grammar books might tell we need to learn “stative verbs”. They would be the words for thinking and feeling. In our language journey, we consider the Simple and the Progressive for our cognitive mapping. We choose if we grant our ideas entire thinking extents, or only part extents.

 

Corpus of US English: LOVING IT

 

We do not change language. We refer for examples to COCA, the Corpus of Contemporary  American English.

“This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.”

— The NBC Today Sun example comes from the Corpus.

 

Chapter 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

After we have compared our mapping variables ON and TO (Simple and Perfect), as well as ON and IN (Simple and Progressive), we try merging TO and IN. We get another mapping value, AT, for the Perfect Progressive. This means we learn to manage all Aspects with variables, as we want them.

ALL ASPECTS MAPPED

We analyze if variable ON could be a basic value. We remember about “stative verbs”: we might not fancy memorizing lists of words to use with the Simple only. The analysis is favorable. It is always the first element in the tense pattern to adapt for the Time. Value ON can be our earthling basic variable. We can agree with classic grammars we may have stative uses of verbs, but we do not have stative verbs.

 

All along, we are able to meet expectations of classic grammar guidance, as in school. We can tell the Aspect and decide if we use ING.

 

Chapter 9. MODAL VERBS

Modal verbs challenge our darts. Past Modal forms can work for the Present as well. We observe that Modal form is only relative to real time. More, hypothetical time cannot be the same as real time. We expand our logic as well as color palettes. Our gloss or forget-me-not symbolizes auxiliary time. Tea rose can help visualize Modal relativity. Our frames for real time remain green.

I HAD WORKED MANY YEARS__I HAVE WORKED MANY YEARS

 

WE MIGHT HAVE WORKED OUT SOME LOGIC

 

We learn to perceive our grammar and notional time as related
(Chapter 9.2).

We can view our grammar as logically connected

Chapter 10. FORM RELATIVITY

Many grammar books will explain on the Conditional or Unreal Past. We can observe there is generally Form Relativity, in language. Present forms can tell about the Future. Past forms can tell about the Present. Antecedent Past forms can tell about the Past.

 

LINGUISTIC FORM RELATIVITY

 

With Relative frames, our Modal phrases will become much simpler to make, and we remain correct according to classic grammars.

 

Further journey can help learn closing the frame or leaving it open, dependent on our focus. There is no universal guidance. Of the President quotes below, neither is grammatically incorrect.

 

If Lincoln were alive today, he’d be (would be) turning over in his grave.

Gerald Rudolph Ford, American President.

 

More than that, and breaking precedent once more, I do not intend to commence any sentence with these words ― “If George Washington had been alive today”, or “If Thomas Jefferson”, or “If Alexander Hamilton”, or “If Abraham Lincoln had been alive today”…

Theodore Roosevelt, American President

 

We learn there are differences between human and artificial intelligence. We know that computers could not work on language the way we do. To the Upper Intermediate level, the grammar story consists of four parts.

 

I am a university Master of Arts, specialized in American English and psycholinguistics. The grammar idea is my invention and the way I actually have managed own language skill. The work is registered with the Library of Congress, TX 7-497-087, and TX 7-648-439.

Link to formats page

Feedback in natural language: conclusions

Artificial intelligence has patterned after human structures for years. In consequence, artificial parsing has come to be used for teaching and diagnosis. Computers rely on programs. My thesis discusses human information processing, with focus to the role of feedback in language. Human information processing differs from artificial considerably.

 

  • Tests by Ladefoged showed speech and language dependence on feedback without exception.
  • Human DNA requires cellular feedback for active protein.
  • Human endurance under feedback impoverishment has been proved lower than for fasting.

Not only on these grounds, the role of feedback in human language processing can be posited to approximate a drive.

 

I defended the thesis in 2000, at Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, earning my M.A. degree in American English, specialization psycholinguistics.

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

 

Of the many definitions of feedback, those of output return, effect reversal, or acoustic interference have been widely used, with regard to mechanical devices. Psychological meaning to be that of evaluative behavior, feedback has become associated with guidance or viewpoints.[1] Neurology began applying the term of information processing to human bodily structures in the XX century.

 

The notion of feedback has been adapted for cybernetics,[2] the Greek kybernan to denote steering or governing. Artificial intelligence remains a secondary application, capable of patterning after human insight only to an extent. Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model having lost prominence for life sciences, the cellular processes as discovered by the researchers remain a fact, feedback to be a closed-loop capability over open-loop sequences.

 

Psycholinguistics gained prominence in 1960s, opposing behaviorism (Puppel, 1996). The framework for the present quest, the discipline has been defined as a study of the relationships between linguistic behavior and psychological processes, including language acquisition (New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1998). Encyklopedia Językoznawstwa Ogólnego would enclose language teaching and remedial with the field (1993). The study of psychological reality of language, as recognized also by the Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language (1989), does not abstract from language neural matter.

 

Human nervous systems can be viewed as natural information management structures. The tenets of option, information pool, program, feedback, and signal use are met within the human internal structuring by standard. Natural language is indispensable for human logical functioning, comprehension and production to depend on neural processes. Feedback reliance is a natural principle for live human systems.

 

Feedback phenomena are intrinsic to single neurons as well as systemic dynamics, of the central and autonomic co-operating for situational and individual stereotypy, or the cortical and subcortical negotiation for the spoken or written act. Regard to feedback is not to encourage pursuits for a uniform[3] neural model for language, human speech and language to be a natural faculty by a human person.

 

Individual, personality factors emerge already at the level of language cerebral patterns.[4] The patterns and their networks are not innate or inborn structures, but actual neural connections every person needs to form on his or her own. Consequently, there is no universal neural format for language, and no such model can become of function for personal linguistic strategies.

 

Strategy language styling and structuring depends on personal free will. The generative and spontaneous capability uses open-loop consecutions for language that can compare with programs, yet need to be formed in feedback-mediated exercise of goal-oriented behavior. The laws of learning by Edward Lee Thorndike are consistent with natural neural networking, in which personal congruity is an inherent component.

 

Human earliest vocal behavior is innate. As instinctively, humans begin own inner networking, in the egocentric feedback of circular reactions. Throughout lifespan, an essentially closed-loop manner can be observed about human learning.[5] Human persons to be dynamic entities rather than layers or scopes of actuation, cognitive processes would require use of own inner input.[6] Timing would be indispensably intrinsic for all intellectual performance, human working memory to partake in inner feedback. Stimulation, as a unidirectional influence, would be incapable of feedback functions.[7]

 

Behaviorist approaches can be doubted also on grounds of the inner heterarchy carry-over of endophasia. For human language skill overall, feedback as sustained in neural pattern build would allow verification as well as change in language existent neural compass, and provide for the neuro-motor-articulatory feedforward. All natural languages permanence is relative, to include phonology along syntax and semantics, in the notion of a language standard.

 

“Mind modularity”, “language universals”, or “notional matrices” cannot account for the language pool phenomena of the Warrens experiment. It would be feedback-mediated attainment of language information thresholds to explain the results: the masked component concealed actual phonemes. Not only on these grounds, feedback reliance can be considered a neuro-behavioral priority for natural language. Open-loop sequences or routines would be formed to encourage neural economy and thus make more allowance for feedback and related responsiveness, as proved by Ladefoged. Grammars would be projects by individual minds flexibly to apply within personal linguistic strategies.

 

Feedback intrinsicality becomes a sound conclusion with regard to permanent hindrance, as well. Re-orienting would follow natural feedback compensation, in persons of inborn and acquired sensory impediment. Remedial in mental language processing always solicits personal awareness and language egocentric feedback. Behavior validity may never become negotiated in the learning deficient, without autonomous concordance. The extreme of the “fragmented thought” of schizophrenia implies defects in intrinsic timing to express in phonologically driven discourse.

 

These are not only human cognition and language to need natural inner feedback. Human DNA depends on cellular feedback for active protein, in the course of the human endeavor to comprehend own structure, this being already Lamarck to note on organism adaptation (The New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1998). Human endurance under feedback impoverishment has been reported lower than for fasting, and of sensory expression (Lindsay and Norman, 1991).[8] Parallel-distributed information processing by human brains holds in standard as well as non-standard contexts, yet impediment, obstruction, or deficit cannot prescribe on norm.[9] Therefore, the role of feedback in language processing can be posited to approximate a drive.

 

Psychologically, a drive is an inner urge to stimulate response, incite or repress action, as well as a basic and instinctive need (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989). The instinctual nature of feedback reliance would be strongest in neural, inner extents, interference or limitation potentially to induce biological search for variables. In environmental scopes, dependence on feedback would lessen with language maturation and personal independence.[10]

 

Not connoted with stress or fear in civilized circumstances, speech and language always remain a basic human need, and as such relate to self-sustainment. The role of natural feedback in language thus would be that of an initiating, mediating, and modeling factor. This would be the self-preservation instinct to promote individual flexibility and competence for progress and advancement.

FOOTNOTES

 

[1] The phrase to give someone feedback means to provide an opinion, an informed view. Only solicited opinion in standard verbal form may work as feedback.

 

[2] Cybernetics: theory of control in biology, mechanics, and electronics.

 

[3] The degree of uniformity as in medical sciences, where the doctor tells the standard heart rate or respiratory capacity, would not apply for language. Some people speak volumes, some prefer written language activity, and some hardly get involved with language. There is no ground to term any of the predilections abnormal.

 

[4] Already individual ways to shape letters of the alphabet vary. The neural patterns to mediate handwritten (ɑ) or (e) can differ from those to mediate (a) or (ε). Please compare chapter 3.6 for graphemic variance.

 

[5] Please compare chapter 2.8.

 

[6] Please compare chapter 2.4, on the role of circular reactions.

 

[7] Even low-level verbal stimulation could not provide for inner language.

 

[8] Please refer to chapter 1.8 and the pool model for internal balance preservation. With partial deprivation only, the endurance was about 48 hours (Lindsay and Norman, 1991).

 

[9] An approach to have deprivation for a measure would have us developing innumerable “drives”. Naturally, a figure of speech as a drive for knowledge could sound natural. “A drive for a good cup of coffee” would not, unless humorous.

 

[10] The term competence follows Noam Chomsky’s notion that all humans have language competence and performance. The use is not to imply school assessment.

Generative and universal grammar FAQ

 

Language and mindNo thinking person would adopt ideas literally, word for word, and without reservation. The few questions and answers below are to explain on the stand my grammar approach has along the Universal Grammar by Noam Chomsky. Undeniably, Mr. Chomsky’s work has been of important reference in my language activity. I began inventing my grammar long before I ever heard about Mr. Chomsky, however.

Feel welcome to email me about generative grammar. Comments will be posted only by consent.

 

1. Is there literally a universal grammar?

 

A uniform grammar for all languages in the world is impossible. I am not aware of any such postulate by Mr. Chomsky. His Universal Grammar is about features that many languages have in common. My grammar is specifically for English.

 

A grammar is generative when it tells the principles or variables a person can use to produce standard language independently, without following formulations by other people. In other words, we do not consider if we use the Present Simple because a book says we do so when “we want to say this or that”. Mr. Chomsky’s grammar tells what principles many languages would have in common. My grammar would offer variables for primarily American English.

Read: Grammar is always a project

 

2. Does the Universal Grammar imply there are actually Language Acquisition Devices in human brains?

 

Linguistically, a device may be something devised, as well as a faculty that devises. This latter meaning applies best to Mr. Noam Chomsky’s theory, I think.

 

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition defines the verb to devise: to form, plan, or arrange in the mind; design or contrive; to suppose; imagine.

 

I do not follow the notion of the Language Acquisition Device. I follow the term of the human language faculty, as neurology is an insufficient perspective on language.

Read: Parameters and devices

 

3. Could language be a result of a genetic mutation?

 

Mr. Noam Chomsky has used the word mutation with reference to language as a result of human evolution.

 

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition will have a mutation for the act or process of being altered or changed; a change of the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type.

 

I think people can evolve language during lifespan, without any corresponding genetic change. Human language skills are not the same if to compare childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, while the DNA retains identity in good shape. My sense for evolving is to achieve gradually, to work out, to devise. I never use the term mutation.

 

Read: American English ― where from?

 

4. Is language explainable in terms of neural study?

 

Neural models refer to the tissue. My language work acknowledges the notion of human personality. For example, most people have happened to write postcards home. Though the situations may be very similar and the time exactly the same, hardly any people would spontaneously write identical messages.

 

There are no “mathematical” or “purely functional” connectivities in human brains. Outcome of isolated neuron excitation can be considered only in terms of statistics. Intermediate neural layers in the brain are constantly active and abundant to the extent allowing to call them “hidden”, though modern scanning technologies can “see” them.

 

Human individuality is not a myth, though we could not say we know all about it, or — as in my case — we would not change focus from language to personality factors. By a human personality I mean individual affect, volition, and intellect, without judging on qualities.

Read: Feelings!

 

5. What is spatialization and is it universal?

 

Spatialization means that we can use some of the words we have learned regarding earthly space also for time. In English, we can say before that house at the end of the road, before that turn to the left, as well as before noon, or before twelve hours.

 

We could say that spatialization is universal, because all languages have it. Every language would spatialize a bit differently, however.

Read: Grammar ― why think about space?

The absolutely basics about the USA

The governing body of the American democracy is the Congress. It comprises the Senate and the House of Representatives. It is located in the Capitol Hill.

 

 

Many researchers derive democracy from ancient Greece. How could we compare ancient Greece and modern America? Ancient Greeks actually developed a proto-democracy: they happened to have kings and queens, depended heavily on military leaders and bequeathed elitism. America is a democracy. There have been no kings or queens of the USA. The head of the state is the President. The President resides in the White House.

 

 

Both the Congress and the White House are in Washington D.C. that is, the city named Washington in the District of Columbia. Washington D.C. is the capital of the USA.

 

District Columbia is on the American East Coast.

 

The state of Washington is on the West Coast.

 

We can get maps of the USA at the National Atlas website, NationalAtlas.gov.
We usually tell the name of our location along with the name of the state, if we give our address in America.

 

Washington state got its name after George Washington, the first American president. The state is the only American state named after a president.

GEORGE WASHINGTON

 

There are many places named Washington in America. George Washington remains a very prominent figure. He fought for American freedom in the Revolutionary War against England. He was President in years 1789-1797, after the War.

 

The American Revolutionary War had its written formulation
in the Declaration of Independence.

Link to post on the Declaration
CLICK TO READ ABOUT THE DECLARATION

 

The Revolutionary victory brought another historic formulation,
the American Constitution.

CLICK TO READ ABOUT THE CONSTITUTION

 

American government was built “from scratch” by the Founding Fathers. Some, as Thomas Jefferson, described their perspectives on the State. Elective monarchy patterns as of Poland, for example, did not win ground. Poland was a chronically fallen country. The monarch was a lifetime position, and commoners hardly had civil rights. Hereditary monarchy forms as of England obviously did not offer any better security for the freedom of the people.

 

James Madison wrote,

 

The constitutional reallocation of powers created a new form of government, unprecedented under the sun. Every previous national authority either had been centralized or else had been a confederation of sovereign states. The new American system was neither one nor the other; it was a mixture of both.[38]

 

The “new form of government” is democracy,
only by far more advanced than Greek prototypes.

Compare the History US site,

Video: America gets a constitution

Language form

Without a piece of thought about language form, we could not learn any language. Let us think what language form is. Different languages have different ways to name objects of thought. For example, we can say a dog in English. In German, we can say ein Hund. In French, we can say un chien. In Greek, we could say σκυλος.In Russian, we could say собака.

 

Alsatian

 

All these words have different forms, but they refer to or indicate the same object that we name a dog in English.We may use word forms in more than one sense. In the picture above, we can see Jemma’s dog. We would not have Buddie for a hot dog (!)

__Smiley joke PNG
Hot dog

Language forms do not work in isolation. A cat in English can be eine Katze in German. It can be un chat in French. A cat can be γάτα or γάτος in Greek. It can be кот in Russian.

 

Cat

 

A chat can be a conversation, in English. A gat can be a channel or passage. Kot can be a Yeniseian language. Language forms happen to differ. Language forms also happen to be very similar. We always need to know the language and the context, to see what the language form denotes: a picture of a cat is not a cat.

 

Language form is always a word form. In language psychology, we have “body language” for a figure of speech. There is no language without syntax. Our bodies could not work for syntax (!)

 

We can work on language form much easier, if we use virtual words. Invented or virtual words are closest to non-existent words. They have word shapes, but they have no meaning. They can help exercise syntax. Children invent words spontaneously, to practice language.

 

Try the virtual words and color code.

Link to the color code and virtual words

Feel welcome to tell me what you think

 

Feel welcome to tell me what you think, it is my cup of tea to answer. Feedback is posted only upon consent.

 

The American bald eagle

The name Haliaeetus leucocephalus, derives from Greek hali “sea”, aiētos “eagle”, leuco “white”, cephalos “head”. American bald eagles are white-headed. The name “bald” correlates with figurative classic Latin reference for the word leucos, as we also may find in descriptions of “barren, wintry lands”. Bald eagles do not migrate for winter, and US Alaska has the biggest population of them in the world.

 

White-headed sea eagle
White-haded sea eagle, Wikimedia Commons

The bald eagle is a national symbol of the United States of America. The Continental Congress included the bird in the Great Seal in 1782.

 

Not everyone was happy with the choice. Benjamin Franklin wrote in one of his letters,

 

For my own part. I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen the representative of our country. He is a bird of bad moral character. He does not get his living honestly … besides, he is a rank coward: The little king bird not bigger than a sparrow attacks him boldly and drives him out of the district.

 

Bald eagles have been termed “opportunistic feeders”, indeed (Wikipedia). The term means they adapt to habitats. Preying on fish is actually easy to the birds, and well, we hardly could expect whaling, by any bird at all.

 

If we are curious about American landscapes and habitats, we can go the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration www.photolib.noaa.gov.

 

On bald eagles’ courage, we should not expect them to fight in areas or territories they do not recognize for own. However, it might be very dangerous to try approaching a nest, when the parents are around (!)

 

All bald eagles and golden eagles are under the Protection Act. Federal laws forbid damaging, disturbing, possession, or trading of the American eagle. Bald eagles hatch reliant on temperatures. They may hatch in spring or fall, dependent on the geographical area.

 

The American bald eagle symbolizes good language skills, in our grammar course. If we are curious about the species, we can get American Bald Eagle Information, www.baldeagleinfo.com.

We also can support the species financially, with the American Eagle Foundation, www.eagles.org.

Colors can help read and learn

We can use a color code, to make reading and learning easier. We use colors when the words are of focus. Let us begin with verbs. We color auxiliary verbs green and head verbs mauve.

 

Some verb forms can work as head verbs as well as auxiliaries. Our head verbs can head verb phrases. They tell the activity or faculty. Auxiliaries always require another verb. They help tell the language pattern, for example Simple, Progressive, or Perfect.

 

We could say,

 

I am a learner;

I am learning.

 

We could also say,

 

I have a grammar book;

I have learned grammar.

 

To avoid confusion, we can use invented words. Virtual words can be fun. Kids use them regularly, following own natural intuitions, and make language patterns much easier to work out. We can use the trick when we are older, too.

 

 

In our exercises, we usually begin with virtual word practice, and only then we work on real words: we focus on meaning better, when language structure is not a problem.

 

SEE EXAMPLES OF REAL SYNTAX WITH INVENTED WORDS

 

We can try “bimo” for a verb. We use “bimo” with the forms and in the places for head verbs. This can help us focus on syntax.

 

I am bimoing.

 

I have bimoed.

 

We can have two invented verbs, bimo and thimo, as well as two invented nouns, phimo and reemo. Our virtual verbs are gillyflower. Our invented nouns can be carrot. The colors are much less likely to occur in print, even color print, and invented words are just to help exercise. They are not to replace language.

 

I have a phimo.

 

Virtual words can help learn speech sounds.

 

VIRTUAL WORDS

The words have the sounds [f] , [b], [th], and [r] in the same position. The sounds may be difficult to learners, just as telling [I] from [I:], for example in thimo and reemo.

 

Learn to say thimo

Kids happen to say things as “phimo bimoes reemo” not only for fun. It is for real language practice.__Smiley PNG

 

In our language journey, pronouns and nouns are ink blue. Highlights and mapping extents are blue. We avoid color red, for the prevalent and adverse associations with prescriptive opinion on error.

 

Feel welcome to tell me what you think

 

Feel welcome to tell me what you think, it is my cup of tea to answer. Feedback is posted only upon consent.

Chapter 1.2. Mind practice

Exercise 4. Let us try some travel in our minds. We can use exercises 1 – 3. Let us take our short mind journey in stages. We all have own inner language, the language of our thought.

 

a) First, let us think how long we can stay without thinking. We happen to hear or say that someone is not thinking. This is yet only a saying, something people do not mean literally. In reality, nobody can “stop” his or her mind, even for a minute.

 

b) Let us fix our thoughts on a single thing — a teacup, a pencil? Let us try to think about our object only and not anything else. We can look at the object or hold it, and use a wristwatch to see how long we cope.

 

c) Let us close our eyes and try not to think absolutely anything. The watch will tell us if we really can do this.

 

d) Now, let us think in what language we think and how we think. Do we think in entire words? Could our thoughts be only pictures?

 

e) Let us now go back to exercise 1. We can take a spare piece of paper. We can say out our answers to exercise 1, and write them down on the piece of paper. Whether multilingual or monolingual, we think strictly in words and in English. We visualize spellings. We do the same for exercise 2. We may be better off coming up with our answers anew than trying to remember the answers we gave previously.

 

f) We put aside the paper with our answers. We try to “say” and “see” our answers to exercises 1 and 2 in our thoughts. Some find it easier with their eyes and mouths closed. Now we open our notebooks and the key to compare our answers. Finally, we try to “say” and “see” our answers to exercise 3 in our thoughts strictly and then compare them with the key, without writing. We do not even whisper (!)

 

In the beginning, we might feel it is really an effort to “discipline” ourselves and consciously direct thinking. It is essential that we try. “Saying” or “writing” in our thoughts before we say or write out can make our thinking and speaking habits stronger.

 

We humans naturally have inner language. For example, silent reading takes less time than reading out. This is inner language to facilitate the process. It is not entire words or even speech sounds. It has only trace aspects of written or spoken language. Inner language is the highly advanced way for our human brains to correlate language knowledge and skills. We cannot speak a language really, if it does not belong with our inner skills. Importantly, we can exercise to augment our inner intellectual powers.

 

Read how grammar exercise can encourage inner convergence.

 

http://feedbackandlanguage.com/inner-convergence-and-grammar-exercise/

 

Feel welcome to further grammar journey.

Link to chapter 2. Verb form WILL in the fields of time

 

Feel welcome to tell me what you think

 

Feel welcome to tell me what you think about the exercise, it is my cup of tea to answer. Feedback is posted only upon consent.