8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

Exercise 45. We can warm up, merging our symbolic cues. As for our MIND PRACTICE, we may just think and visualize.

 

Example:
The plain arrow symbolizes the variable {ON}. Pointed up or down, it cues for the grammatical FUTURE or PAST. Horizontally, it indicates the PRESENT. We may refer to SUBCHAPTER 5.1.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

We can merge the plain arrow, let us say for the variable {IN}, within the same grammatical time. Here, it is going to be the PRESENT.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger:
Jemma smiles.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

B. After the merger:
Jemma is smiling.
PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

*****

We are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are working on flexible habits. We may think about Jemma, as well as Bob or anyone, including ourselves, and with various verbs. It is important that we learn to merge features for grammatical variables and time.

*****

THE TASK
PICTURE: EXERCISE 45, TASK

 

Exercise 46. We merge features as above and think about Expression. We just think and visualize.

 

SYMBOLICS: QUESTION MARK
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger
Does Bob worry?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, BEFORE THE MERGER
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON 

B. After the merger
Is Bob worrying?
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE
(His dad is wearing a horrible tie.)
EMOTICON: A JOKE
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, AFTER THE MERGER
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, TASK

 

Exercise 47. Let us practice deciding {ON} our cognitive extents. We complete the structures and arrow cues.

 

Not everyone fancies speaking about feelings and thoughts. However, it is important that we try to represent them in language. We may think about time and change.

*****

When we are able to put words together well, our words represent our notions and thoughts in language. We can name this ability representation, as there is always more than one way to put words together and make sense.

*****

Example: I love …

Answer: I love language.
(We can answer without telling anyone;
we remember the MIND PRACTICE.)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I hate …

 

2. I thought that … was pretty.

 

3. I remembered … then.

 

4. I considered … important.

 

5. I want

 

6. I hated … when I was a child.

 

7. I think that … is stupid. [TABOO]

 

8. I remember

 

9. I consider … important.

 

10. I wanted … when I was a child.

 

Exercise 48. It is natural to follow what is good for us. Therefore, let us try to “trade” language features. We merge the features in the wording with symbolics.

 

Example: I love
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Answer: I have (always) loved language.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

Again, we can give our answers in our thoughts, envisioning situations for which we might use the phrases.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I think (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

2. I concluded
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

3. I like
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

4. I keep
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

5. I sensed
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

6. I thought (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

7. I feel (always, that)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

8. I was thinking (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

9. I learned
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

10. means a lot to me.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Exercise 49. The Perfect Progressive Aspect makes three tenses, PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE. It has an open time frame.

 

Let us practice our linguistic gravitation: we close the time frame, when we are {ON} a cognitive ground (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.1).

 

We have part the mapping cues and stay with the Affirmative. We may not want much to do, in one go.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example 1: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 10:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 18:00 P.M.

 

Answer: I had breakfast.
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

 

Example 2: have breakfast
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 8:30 A.M.
TIME NOW: 8:15 P.M.

 

Answer: I have been having breakfast.
SYMBOLICS: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 

1. work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Monday, 10:00 P.M.

 

2. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Saturday, after 19:00 P.M.

 

3. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 23:00 P.M.

 

4. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 00:15 P.M.

 

5. go to the gym
TUESDAYS 19:00 ― 20:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Wednesday, after 21:15 P.M.

 

Exercise 50. Let us practice our earthling proper egoism (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 8.1). In conversation, we cannot merely follow on grammar.

 

We decide {ON} our language extents. We ignore the cue that would not be properly egoistic.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example: She (cherish) her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: She has cherished her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, ANSWER

 

1. The book set (consist) of five parts.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 1

 

2. She (sound) like under a bad impression.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 2

 

3. Yesterday afternoon, he (recall) his school years with friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 3

 

4. She just (recognize) the handwriting now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 4

 

5. He (agree) to the new conclusion just now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 5

 

6. Now, she (appreciate) the ancient manuscript for an hour.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 6

 

7. He (want) to go to the Arctic before he went to the Antarctic.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 7

 

8. The house (belong) to the family for 10 years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 8

 

9. He usually (respect) other opinions, but not that time.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 9

 

10. This time tomorrow, she (see) her brother.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 10

*****

From the key: example 7 shows we always should consider the entire utterance, to make out the grammatical time. The verb form “went” places the stretch of speech in the PAST.

 

We also can think about the alternate language forms.

 

In example 3, a phrase as “*yesterday afternoon, he will recall his school years with friends”, could not work with our cognitive map for YESTERDAY.

 

In example 8, a phrase as “*the house will have been belonging to the family for 10 years”, would go against natural human possessiveness: we place property {ON} cognitive maps.

 

Grammar is not only about style. It is also about logic and sense.
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Exercise 51. In natural language, our real-time present allows combining the time reference. We can talk about events that took place TODAY with a PAST grammatical reference. For events that are to take place, we can use the FUTURE.

 

We remain with our healthy egoism: we stay {ON} cognitive extents, for hearts and minds, regardless of any cues.

 

Example:
TODAY, PRESENT; he, know the answer
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Answer: He knows the answer. {ON}
PRESENT SIMPLE arrow(We ignore the dot, the Progressive symbolics.)

 

1. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, believe it

 

2. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

3. TODAY, the PAST; they, see each other
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

4. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, live here for ten years
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

5. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, speak with them
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

6. YESTERDAY, the PAST; he, write for an hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

7. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; you, work here for five years
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

8. TODAY, the PAST; we, hike in the mountains
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

9. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, exercise for an hour already
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

10. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, watch television, at this hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Exercise 52. SAMSON THE AGONIST is a story of a hero who had magic hair that gave him power. Naturally, we do not have to believe everything we read, online either.

 

Our “Observations as by a grain of sand” are to help us keep grammar even against unusual wording, like in EXERCISE 42. We have only part the cues: we practice independent language skill.

 

We first put our verbs into the grammatical PAST, and then into the PRESENT. We mind our Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.

 

Example: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, 1. (think) about a proper measure for own composition.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, was thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A. Length N 2. (seem) to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum N 3. (be) the argument to the grain of sand: it 4. (bring) to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B. The grain of sand 5. (think) about wisdom. What wisdom 6. (be) ?

 

C. It 7. (may be) a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand N 8. (consider) going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary.

 

D. The grain usually 9. (rest) close to the shoreline, not entirely by own will, but by the way of life it 10. (practice) since its earliest years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASK 10

 

E. Owing to this lifestyle, it 11. (decide) to devote part its time to necessities of cognition.

 

F. Thinking about own format as a potentiality by another, it 12. (deliberate) whether it 13. (be), as a grain of sand, a fruit of ability or mere industriousness.

 

G. It 14. (can be) up to itself to conclude on own structuring. For that chance, it 15. (spend) half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the evening, to ponder on composite phenomena strictly.

 

H. It 16. (do) its daily dose of reckoning for about fifteen minutes, when a westerly 17.  (arrive) to the shore. Its habitual way, the wind 18. (make) a little eddy on the shoreside.

 

I. The grain of sand 19. (think) if that 20. (be) wise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASKS 16-17

*****

Obviously, wits cannot be something we grow on our heads.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us now put the story into the grammatical PRESENT. Our grammar journey has had some dramatic narrative already, in EXERCISE 44.

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, is thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A1. Length does not seem to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum is not the argument to the grain of sand: it brings to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B1. The grain of sand thinks about wisdom. What is wisdom?

 

C1. It may be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand does not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary…

*****

Our sense for distance and time may encourage altering the word “that” from the grammatical PAST into the word “this”, for the grammatical PRESENT.

 

Modal verbs can challenge our logic. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 9.
BUTTON: CHAPTER 9. MODAL VERBS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY,
PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.

 

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.

 

As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.

 

In the auxiliary role, the verb to HAVE works for the framework. We mark it green. As a content verb, it can tell about ownership. We mark it mauve then, as all content verbs.

*****

Madame Règle speaks excellent American English. Her friendship with Jill Smith started over a website forum discussing philosophy and linguistics.

 

They agreed that Latin had had {TO} influence over English and French thought, although the languages belonged to diverse language groups.

 

*****

 

This is one of the reasons for some French reference in our grammar voyage. Latin has affected {TO} both English and French languages.

 

On the other hand, English and French have {ON} very dissimilar shapes. English is a Germanic language, and French belongs with the Romance language group. Some American insignia have {ON} Latin mottos.

 

We could hear or read sometimes that American English is an international language. There are no international languages really. Esperanto does not have {ON} many features of a natural language.

 

We can say that American English is a lingua franca, that is, a tongue spoken worldwide.

 

By origin of the phrase, we can associate a lingua franca with free speech. In Latin, the adjective “francus” also meant someone exempt from service, someone at liberty.

 

The Roman Empire rule over the present-day territory of France collapsed early, and ancient Romans knew the local people as Franks, READ IN WIKIPEDIA.

 

America and France have had {TO} historic ties. The French were American allies in the WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. The Statue of Liberty is a memorial to American independence and alliance with the French.

 

PICTURE: STATUE OF LIBERTY

 

There are many Statues of Liberty. The most famous statues are those in New York and Paris. A French sculptor, FRÉDÉRIC BARTHOLDI, designed the Statue.

 

Bartholdi patented it as Liberty Enlightening the World (La Liberté éclairant le monde, in French). The American statue stands on the Liberty Island, in New York Harbor.

 

PICTURE: LIBERTY ISLAND

*****

 

Madame Règle has {ON} a small book of poetry with her today. She has finished {TO} the book about Descartes. At home, she has {ON} a big volume about influences between French and English thinkers.

 

She has been reading {AT} two book series, poetry or philosophical commentary, one at a time, all this week.

 

Latimer Sauf is not surprised at her reading habit. The special edition of Larousse Gastronomique he got from her last Christmas has {ON} an elevated and celebrated place in his restaurant main hall.

 

The guests have turned {TO} many of the pages so far. He has had {TO} another copy to read at home. He has been studying {AT} it to detail. He has {ON} extra Larousse dishes on his menu.

*****

Let us focus on the grammatical time and cognitive variable.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE been reading; {AT}

 

PRESENT
He HAS been reading; {AT}

 

PAST
He HAD been reading. {AT}

 

We can compare the beginning of our language journey, the Fields of Time (CHAPTER 1).

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO HAVE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

How does the Perfect Progressive change for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE? It is the verb to have to change.

 

The verb to have changes the same as in our Fields of Time, for our cognitive variable {ON}, the Simple Aspect.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE a book; {ON}

 

PRESENT
He HAS a book; {ON}

 

PAST
He HAD a book. {ON}

 

Let us compare the cognitive variable {IN}. In the content role, the verb to have can also tell about eating. Madame Règle likes the extra Larousse dishes by Monsieur Sauf.

 

FUTURE
Tomorrow at this hour, Madame Règle
WILL BE having her extra Larousse and reading a book; {IN}

 

PRESENT
Madame Règle
IS having her extra Larousse and reading a book now; {IN}

 

PAST
When Jill walked into the restaurant yesterday, Madame Règle
WAS having her extra Larousse and reading a book.{IN}

 

Let us compare the variable {ON}. Here are our Fields of Time, again.

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

FUTURE
She WILL BE at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PRESENT
She IS at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PAST
She WAS at the restaurant. {ON}

 

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change for the grammatical time. It changes the same in our Fields of Time, the same as for our variable {ON}.

 

Let us compare all Aspects. The elements that adapt for the grammatical time are underlined.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FIRST ELEMENT

 

We can view the value {ON} as a basis for other Aspects.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM A LEARNER, I HAVE A GRAMMAR BOOK

 

We also can focus on the value {ON} and view other Aspects as syntactic expansion.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM -- I HAVE -- I HAVE BEEN LEARNING

 

Please mind that finding a basic value does not impose any particular order to use the values, especially if we come to the resolve that our {ON, IN, TO} and {AT} can be our learned cognitive variables.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us turn to American English as it is really. We do not intend to invent a new language.

This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
(NBC Today Sun as in the CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH, COCA.)

TEXT EXTENT: THIS IS A DREAM
SYMBOLICS: SYNTACTIC EXPANSE

The Simple Aspect can tell what we have {ON} our cognitive map. What we perceive does not have to take up an entire extent.

 

Even if we regard an entire cognitive extent, it does not have to imply that we are preoccupied. Another way round, we live on planet Earth, and none of us could preoccupy it.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

TEXT EXTENT: I AM LOVING IT

The Progressive Aspect, the value {IN}, can help mark a matter as different from the regular and basic {ON}.

 

To compare space, we may feel as IN an area, rather than ON a regular cognitive map, for matters we perceive as irregular or EMPHATIC.

 

The Progressive can help delineate in time, on something out of the ordinary, as a dream come true: dreams coming true are not anything regular.

*****

In this view, we can have the value {AT} for the most divergent from the regular, basic {ON}.
PICTURE: ASPECT SYNTACTIC EXPANSION

 

Could we have a natural feeling to return to the basic variable, after we “go away”? The following example looks spontaneous and shows our matter well.

 

{AT} I’ve been loving it. But {ON} I want to keep doing different things.
(People magazine as in COCA.)

TEXT EXTENTS: HAVE BEEN LOVING -- WANT TO DO

Some classic grammars might not agree to have verbs as “to love” or “to hate” in the Progressive at all. However, if to let anybody PRESCRIBE what language should be like, we might have to recur to MIDDLE ENGLISH.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

American English is a live language, and live languages also change. Thinking about free speech, let us consider a cognitive difference, for the two forms:
“I hate you”,
or
“I am hating you”.

 

We can compare human perception on physical space.
TEXT EXTENT: I AM HATING YOU

“I am hating you” is {IN} an area only.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HATE YOU

“I hate you” is {ON} the entire extent.

 

Our grammar is correct when it properly renders how we feel and think.

 

To speak American freely, we should choose independently if we say that we are hating or loving something, or that we hate or love it.

 

This can be our earthling proper egoism: we have our inner grammars work for our minds, rather than adapt our minds to rules that cannot be universal, anyway.

 

The variable {ON} can be our earthling and basic variable. Who knows, maybe the ancient Latin rules, from which classic grammars derive, emerged owing to human variables, only they were not called variables then, hence the “stative use of verbs”?

 

Naturally, classicist or generativist, we do not have to be always gravely serious about everything we say.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

VARIABLES OR OPTIONS?

We may come across presentations of language as features.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FEATURES, A CHART

 

An Aspect both Perfect and Progressive would be the Perfect Progressive. An Aspect neither Perfect nor Progressive would be the Simple.

 

Some approaches might attempt a picture for language as made of options. However, our brains are live structures and have simultaneous processes.

 

When we use the Present Simple, our paths for the Perfect Progressive for example do not become “switched off”. If we use the Progressive, we do not exclude a possibility for the same thing to happen also in a manner we describe in the Simple:

“I‘m loving you”,

would not mean

“I don’t love you”.

 

Planet Earth is our natural habitat. When we people think what there is {ON} a geographical map, we do not exclude possibilities for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} places.

 

Humans are likely to learn languages {ON} a planet for an indeterminate future. Even astronauts learn {ON} Earth.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Associating language, thinking, feeling, and generally space is natural. What would feelings, thoughts, or works be — without room?

 

Finally, our variable {ON} does not correspond with an option as OFF. We do not turn our brains off, also when we go to sleep.

 

We can conclude that Aspects are not options. Options can be mutually exclusive. To take one option, we would have to exclude other choices. Variables work together, also simultaneously.

 

Feel welcome to practice.

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS
BUTTON, 8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

7.1. PRACTICE FOR THE HEART AND THE MIND

Exercise 39. Let us provide synonyms for stative and dynamic senses of the verbs below. We can use the Infinitive also with the Progressive.

 

SUB-CHAPTER 2.1. presents the Infinitive.
APPENDIX 1 lays out the basics about verbs.

 

Example: to think

 

Answer:
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ONstative, variable {ON}
to consider, to believe
*****
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE INdynamic, variable {IN}
to be cerebrating, to be pondering

 

1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.

 

Exercise 40. We paraphrase the verbs and tell where we could take the ING, and where we would mostly stay {ON} our cognitive extents. Our answers do not have to be identical. Humans differ in stative verb use.

 

1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.

 

Exercise 41. Let us think over the various impressions that phrases as “I’m loving it” or “I’m hating it” might give.

 

Exercise 42. It happens in conversations: our grammar is good, but we do not know a particular word, or we know the words, but we are not familiar with the way someone puts words together, and confused about the words, we get confused about grammar, too.

 

Language about thinking and feeling can be elaborate. Here, we learn to keep our grammar against even unusual wording.

 

We continue comparing the mapping variables {ON} and {IN}, for the grammatical Aspect. We have only part the arrow cues (see SUB-CHAPTER 5.1.). We are staying in the grammatical PAST.

 

Our story is about the GREENSHANK’S closest relative, the GREATER YELLOWLEGS, meeting the LESSER YELLOWLEGS.

 

PICTURE: GREATER YELLOWLEGS

GREATER YELLOWLEGS, PHOTO BY MIKE BAIRD, WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

 

The tale is a little inspired with ARISTOTLE and intended to be mildly humorous. Regarding criticism on Aristotle, feel welcome to the BOOK INFORMATION.

 

A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs.

 

Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs 1. (hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser 2. (chirp) mighty out of tune (!)
CUES

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, EXAMPLE TASK

 

Answer: heard, variable {ON}; was chirping, variable {IN}

 

A. The Greater 3. (fly) up to the path and 4. (think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature 5. (give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet 6. (can be) a huge enterprise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 3-6

 

B. The Greater 7. (ponder) on some of the particulars, when he 8. (see) the Lesser Yellowlegs by the seashore.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 7-8

 

C. The Lesser Yellowlegs 9. (can try) the three-note whistle, it N 10. (be) in violation of the laws of physics, 11. (argue) the Greater Yellowlegs. The Lesser Yellowlegs 12. (appear) very similar in size.

 

D. “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser 13. (retort). The two-note 14. (be) the only melody he 15. (know) by heart.

 

E. The Greater Yellowlegs 16. (expect) the refutation. However, there always 17. (exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds.

 

F. Rare sounds 18. (feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (observe). Education 19. (mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever 20. (import) worse individually.

 

G. The uncouth absurd of the situation 21. (consist) in being out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs 22. (declare).

 

H. The Lesser Yellowlegs 23. (deem) that impossible. One place 24. (involve) one place, however negative the relation.

 

I. The two 25. (meditate) steadily, when the Lesser 26. (sigh). Elaborating on the two-note 28. (chance) the common sense.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25
EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

From the key: the variable {ON} can tell an activity that got on a cognitive map or extent when something else was in its course: the two were meditating steadily, when the Lesser sighed. There are more examples in exercises that follow.

*****

Exercise 43. We compare the variables {ON} and {IN} within all grammatical time, the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. As there is more language logic to manage, we have all arrow cues.

 

Our next story is about a creature from the Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly. The inspiration for the story comes from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, see over INTERNET ARCHIVE.

 

Example: According to a legend, it is around the summer solstice that dayflies 1. (come) to exist in the Cimmerian Bosporus. A dayfly 2. (begin) its life in the morning, and 3. (die) before the second day sunset.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 1-3

 

Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}

 

A. It 4. (be) early morning. The dayfly 5. (flutter) its wings in the sunrise light. “I 6. (be) a day-fly”, it 7. (think). The circumstance 8. (give) it its name.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 4-8

 

B. The morning 9. (be) very bright and fresh. The dayfly 10. (wonder) over the water and the air, the green and the colorfulness of vegetation, when it 11. (see) a dry leaf.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 9-11

 

C. It 12. (see) how water 13. (come) from the earth and the air. It 14. (cogitate) if dry leaves 15. (belong) with green leaves.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 12-15

 

D. It 16. (fly) past a vividly red rose flower when a butterfly 17. (stop) it for a little conversation. “You 18. (seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, the butterfly 19. (say).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 16-19

 

E. “Right, I 20. (name) myself a dayfly”, the dayfly 21. (respond). “Living for a day 22. (form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that 23. (become) can be eternal, anyway.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 20-23

 

F. This 24. (be) very interesting”, the butterfly 25. (remark). “I sure also 26. (become).” — “I 27. (think) about it when I 28. (see) that dry leaf over there”, the dayfly 29. (reply).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 24-29

 

G. “I 30. (contemplate) if the becoming of dry leaves 31. (happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and… butterflies.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 30-31

 

H. The butterfly 32. (disapprove). “I sure N 33. (will answer) this! You 34. (can see) that we 35. (differ). Our wings 36. (be) dissimilar.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 32-36

 

I. “Nobody 37. (deny) this”, the dayfly 38. (concede). “It 39. (be) the becoming that I 40. (distrust).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 37-40

 

J. This morning 41. (become) broad daylight, and this day 42. (become) a night. However, the day and the night 43. (can inhere) in disparate matters, I 44. (feel). One of them 45. (may be) the light.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 41-45

 

K. The butterfly 46. (shrug) its wings and 47. (fly) away.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 46-47PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25

*****

From the key: We can perceive the verb WILL as referring to the PRESENT or the FUTURE.

 

THE PRESENT
“I sure will not answer this!”
We can make a close synonym, saying,
“I have no wish to answer this.”

 

THE FUTURE
“This morning is becoming broad daylight,
and this day will become a night.”
We would make a close synonym, saying,
“This is what is going to happen.”

 

The verb to become has had a role in language history. We may get to know it better, further in the grammar journey.

 

We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. I hope you do your dictionary work (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

 

Exercise 44. We focus on the grammatical Time and Expression. To deny something, we can use the Negative. In our notes, we may distinguish the Negative with the letter N. To ask a question, we can use the Interrogative. We give it the question mark, (?).

 

First, we place our story mostly in the PRESENT. This manner to tell a story is the dramatic narrative. Then, we take the story to the PAST.

 

This should help us see how language logic can work together, for the grammatical time. Further in the journey, we may learn the Reported Speech.

 

Our story is about the westerly, the kind of wind that happens to rise in oceans. Westerlies influence the weather. Some scientists have blamed record temperatures, hot or cold, on splits in westerly currents.

 

Some observers even suspected extraterrestrial or supernatural influences over the weather, while it was… a westerly.

 

We have only part the arrow cues. We keep them, to work out a sense for target time. It can be very useful with Modal verbs.

 

Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.

 

A. It 3. (come) to the land and 4. (feel) a difference. Now, the high ocean 5. (be) the past and the land 6. (become) the present.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK A

 

B. The shore 7. (delineate) the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter, and 10. (frolic) into eddies.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK B

 

C. The wester 11. (swirl), when the thought about the future 12. (come) to it. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shoreland N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK C

 

D. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK D

 

E. The shoreland 20. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past. Then, there 21. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, when the wester 23. (get) there.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK E

 

We take our story into the grammatical PAST. The verb WILL takes on another form, WOULD.

 

Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.

 

A1. It came to the land and felt a difference. Now, the high Ocean was the past and the land had become the present.

 

B1. The shore delineated the past and the present. It was the limit for both. The wind was playing with the matter and frolicking into eddies.

 

Please mind: we can use the variable {ON} for an activity that gets on the map, while something else is happening: The wester was swirling, when the thought about the future came to it.

 

TEXT EXTENT: THE WESTERLY WAS SWIRLING -- WHEN THE THOUGHT CAME

 

We can envision our grammatical logic as interconnected.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: PRESENT AND PAST, THE WESTERLY SETS -- SET -- ITS COURSE

 

Our logic for grammatical time can work in connected sets. Could we connect or merge our variables {IN} and {TO}? Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

6.5. THE TARGET TIME AND FRAME

Berry target, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

With goals, purposes and targets, the matter is to have what we want, where we want it, and when we want it, like a bowl of berries in the picture above.

 

For language skill, we need to practice linguistic targets.

 

Exercise 37. We have our time frames for our guidance. We choose between the Simple and the Perfect, in the PAST.

 

Please put the verb in the form for the grammatical PAST and give the arrow cue along with the mapping value. In language, we can seek inspiration with words. Let it be a simple chair this time.

 

Example: His parents (surrender) his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan (suggest) playing the musical chairs, Art (throw) in three right hand gloves. One of them (belong) to Ms. Duncan.

 

If we feel we could be better off writing entire answers, we can do so without looking to others. Writing belongs with human fine motor behavior. It is important in integrating language skills.

 

Answer: His parents surrendered his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan suggested playing the musical chairs, Art threw in three right hand gloves. One of them belonged to Ms. Duncan.

 

We can only think about the logical cues and mapping values, as in MIND PRACTICE 1.2.
Answer: {ON}
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. Despite his early predilection for challenge, he (get) himself a chairborne job. His chair (have) an advantage, however. He (design) └┘ it for use by one person exactly

 

2. Originally, he never (expect) of a woman to fill a chair. He (change) his mind when he (perceive), at about 26, that the strategy almost (reduce) └┘ him to his local club armchair, for dialogue.

 

3. He (marry) Jin in summer. They (spend) their countryside honeymoon mostly bringing the chairs from the garden. His friend Jalen (persuade) him to go on a vacation, in a better weather. They (choose) Amtrak to journey. Art and Jin first (meet) in a parlor car. Face to face with their notebooks, they (realize) they were actually chatting with each other over the Unlimited (!)

 

4. He soon (begin) developing his son-in-law attitude. Eva, his mother-in-law, (love) to say nobody should let predecessors set the measure for the chair. Art (have) a reservation. His job (be) └┘ by principle like trying to keep someone on the edge of the seat with soft overboiled noodles. Jalen Seges (agree) that office routines (take) some time.

 

5. Art (know) that contending Eva’s arguments (be) suggestive of trying verbally to captivate a moving rock. Incontrovertibility (belong) with the Seges family ethos. A Yale graduate married to a Harvard grad, Ms. Seges (be) └┘ a woman of resolve, throughout her life. She (talk) table and chairs right when junior (begin) preschool. Her grandchildren would go to best schools, to fill their grandparents’ walnut bobbin chairs.

 

*****

 

Art is thinking about a new job. Routines of predetermined beginning and end are not his nature. With language work, we also can learn to negotiate: we contend the arguments and not the people, for that.

Could we look up the Amtrak Unlimited, Yale, and Harvard over the Internet? Can we comprehend words like “incontrovertibility”, if our dictionary does not have them? There are sample hints down this page.

 

Exercise 38. Please tell the time frames and map values (ON, IN, or TO), along with the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE). We have the arrow cues with every task, if we need them.

 

Example: Her father 1. (be) a nibmeister. She 2. (have) a clear taste for good quality since she 3. (be) a little girl.

CUES
PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES

 

Again, we can think about the frames and variables, minds first or only.
Answer:
(1) was, {ON} PAST;
(2) └┘ has had, {TO} PRESENT;
(3) was, {ON} PAST.

 

A. When she was in her early teens, she 4. (make) a miniature book. It 5. (be) three inches square.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 4-5

 

B. She 6. (keep) the book for her thinktionary. She still 7. (happen) to add words to it, though she 8. (make) many more such books.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 6,7,8

 

C. A young girl, she 9. (put) her miniature book in her jacket pocket and 10. (go) to sit by the river. Whenever a word 11. (come) to her mind, she 12. (write) it in with her miniature fountain pen.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 9-12

 

D. Her handwriting 13. (change) a little, since then. By and large, she 14. (adjust) her letters to the size of her notebook. One day, she 15. (engross) her future husband’s name in her thinktionary. His name 16. (remain) the only word to take a page entire, out of the alphabetical order.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 13-16

 

E. Chantelle 17. (have) a collection of pens. Her favored inkwells 18. (be) glass, silver, and pewter. Her first book 19. (tell) about a girl’s language of the heart.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 17-19

 

*****

 

Form (16) also might be “his name remains”: there are no universal rules to govern contexts, and we are free to decide on our own, dependent on our cognitive mapping.

 

Miniature books belong with arts. Their scopes may be the same as of standard volumes. They are smaller because they are miniaturized. Chantelle’s miniature book is one of the biggest sizes ― it is three inches square.

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S THINKTIONARY

 

The “thinktionary” is a coined word. We can compare it with the word “dictionary”. Everyone can have own thinktionaries. Have we met Chantelle already?

 

HINTS FROM THE KEY

 

We do not have to use Past Perfect forms whenever anything happened earlier or preceded something else. We would need millions of past tense forms to speak about Old English, thinking only about the days and years since those times.

 

Amtrak Unlimited is a forum for Amtrak passengers.

 

Harvard and Yale are two very prominent and competitive American universities.

*****

How do we interpret words as incontrovertibility?
Here is how we can interpret information about words. We do not need to memorize it.

 

Just browsing and reading dictionaries, we might get even surprised with how much we remember and “intuitively” use.

 

We can interpret incontrovertibility by the word build.

 

The American Heritage online will show the word in•con•tro•vert•ible and explain that the verb to con•tro•vert may mean “to raise arguments against; voice opposition to”.

 

We look up the parts in– and –ibility. The particle in– may negate. The particle –ibility can work with a noun and connote “an ability, inclination, or suitability”.

 

However, the particle in– may also mean “having the function of”. We can look up words such as “inbound” or “incant”. Inflammable materials or substances can be highly flammable.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

The verb “to controvert” derives from the noun controversy. The noun consists of the particles contro– and versus.

 

Contro– or contra– can connote “against, opposite, contrasting”. The particle in– does not work in the sense “into” or “within” with the particle con–.

 

The American Heritage dictionary can tell that incontrovertibility relates to the adjective incontrovertible, meaning “impossible to dispute, unquestionable”.

 

In•con•tro•vert•i•ble•ness is another, probable form.

 

We can guess that Art Veltall’s mother-in-law may be a person difficult — but not impossible — to persuade or influence. His wife Jin is some personality, too.

EMOTICON: SMILE

READ HOW TO USE THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY

 

Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS
BUTTON: CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

6.4. MORE GRAMMAR AND WORD PRACTICE

Boutique d’bonheur, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

It is natural to wish someone good luck, with tests and exams. Grammar exercises can “buy” us some luck. They do not have to be difficult, for that. Good luck (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

Exercise 34. All verbs in parentheses will have a closed time frame, and remain {ON} a PAST cognitive ground.

 

1. The kitten (spill) all the milk by the mill down the hill.

 

2. The hedgehog (hide) the apples from the bird in a good jar with a lid.

 

3. The rabbit (strew) the cashews for the jabiru and (go on) making his debut callaloo.

 

4. The gades (lay) a fair-trade plan for a decade.

 

5. The corn-fed chick (flee) the shed for some strick.

 

6. The adept turtle (keep) his hep by the skep except when the bees (sweep).

 

7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.

 

8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast.

 

9. The southern wind (heave) the sea and (sheave) the tides to incline a span unsized in eyes.

 

10. The butterfly (weave) in a cove; the dove taut (think) about a courtly lot.

*****

For spoken American English, please find the Voice of America at VOANEWS.COM. There is worthwhile, standard American English along with materials for learners. The LEARNING ENGLISH site has slow and clear readouts of news.

*****

Exercise 35. Let us try our time frames and logical cues with mapping values. Our pieces of thought are longer, more proportionate to everyday language.

 

We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles.

 

Good American English does not have to be gravely serious (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

WE CAN FIND THE LYRICS ONLINE
We also can visit the official website
THE OFFICIAL SIMON & GARFUNKEL

 

Example: Right after he (1) had fought his dependence on the game of Monopoly, he (2) fell for spinnakers completely. A born and bred Alaskan, he (3) went to cruise the Antarctic with a chute.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 35, ANSWER

 

1. He (4) sold his vintage Chevy and nearly (5) bought a Jeep, when he (6) thought that his vehicle (7) approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost (8) portended a personality change.

 

2. A newspaper article on alpha and beta males seriously (9) disappointed him. He (10) was neither.

 

3. Many years, he (11) has looked for a role model. Nobody (12) has met his expectations on both personality and body build, however, and he (13) gave up trying to have body and mind for separate, on Earth.

 

4. He (14) has pursued some philosophy. At the present, he (15) is pessimistic on a resolve between existence and matter. He (16) thinks he (17) will resort to stoicism.

 

5. His friend (18) says he (19) needs some sense of humor, if he (20) wants to put up with a woman in his life. The woman always (21) is another Self.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Could this be Jim?

 

Exercise 36. We are staying with the Simple pattern {ON} a PAST time extent. We try some syntax for the Negative, too.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 36 TASK ILLUSTRATION

 

Example: Consciously pragmatic, Jill (decide) that tidying on her own (be) N too traditionalist. At least she (remember) where her things usually (be) before she (put) them somewhere completely else.

 

Answer: decided, was not (N, the Negative), remembered, were, put

 

In the beginning, we may care to write up entire answers. Our human memories can learn with writing habits. It is up to us to choose (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Full answer: Consciously pragmatic, Jill decided that tidying on her own was not too traditionalist. At least she remembered where her things usually were before she put them somewhere completely else.

 

1. She never (get) totally honest with anyone, on favorite comedy episodes.

 

2. An article on family roles in kite flying (incline) her towards psychoanalysis for a while. She yet soon (conclude) that she (need) N another grammatical person to be herself. Being herself anyway (happen) to her all the time, and she simply (like) to hold the strings. The West Coast had the weather.

 

3. Disputes on Sandburg and Creeley (bring) her to the belief it (be) never possible to think about one poet strictly, although it (make) no sense sometimes to try talking about two at the same time.

 

4. After some study of a number of concepts on the cosmos, she (picture) the humanity as an odd kind of fish in a series of still larger fish tanks. Early in the series, there (be) N any point to try bringing another fish tank to imagination. It anyway (require) adding more fish tanks.

 

5. She (tolerate) pop music well and (watch) American football with friends, but she always (choose) her fountain pens on her own and (keep) them just for herself.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Could this be Jill?

 

Feel welcome to some more exercise, on the open or closed time frame and the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.
6.5. EXERCISES
BUTTON: 6.5. THE OPEN OR CLOSED TIME FRAME AND THE PRESENT, PAST, OR FUTURE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning, Cloudy Weather, Wikimedia Commons

 

Exercise 32. For our warm-up, let us practice the time frames. We can do the exercise in our minds solely, as in the MIND PRACTICE. Our head verb is to work.

 

Example 1: Monsieur Sauf had worked.
Answer: {TO}, a PAST cognitive ground.
PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT(a time frame open to a reference mark in the PAST)

 

Example 2: Madame Règle will work.
Answer: {ON}, a cognitive ground for the FUTURE.
PICTURE: CLOSED TIME FRAME, FUTURE SIMPLE ARROW CUE(a time frame closed on a FUTURE time reference)

 

Please mind that our grounds for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE are the grammatical time. We do not need insight greater than for classic grammar, to talk about what happened, or to predict on our real-time future.

 

1. Monsieur Sauf worked.

 

2. Monsieur Sauf will have worked.

 

3. Madame Règle has worked.

 

4. Madame Règle works.

*****

One of the worst mistakes in language work is to keep vocabulary practice apart from grammar exercise. We are about avoiding it here.

 

Big dictionaries should not scare us. We do not have to memorize them. We can learn by referring to them.

 

It is good to use monolingual dictionaries and select on word sense. A monolingual dictionary has words and definitions in the same language.

 

Our brains can get the habit to choose on word sense. For example, the AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY has about 10 senses for the verb TO BE.

 

The word MAN has about 20 senses, and one of them is “a human being, a person”.

 

Women also belong with this sense of the word, as in all men are created equal, a phrase we may know from the Declaration of Independence.
FEEL WELCOME TO READ ABOUT THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

 

We may not want to worry about getting the money to buy expensive dictionaries, especially if we are just beginners. There are free dictionary resources, available over the web and in libraries.

 

For American English, there also is THE FREE DICTIONARY, or MERRRIAM-WEBSTER.

 

“Jumping into deep waters” is yet no good strategy for language, and Hispanic learners may like to compare the Spanish DICCIONARIO. People with French or German might like to use LAROUSSE or PONS, respectively.

 

All the websites have extensive free contents.

 

Our Travel in Grammar has a mirror in a Slavic language, Polish.
BUTTON: ZOBACZ PODRÓŻ W GRAMATYCE

 

*****

 

We may look up dictionary definitions, but we people naturally build own, mental lexicons for meaning. The word “mental” means “of the mind”.

 

It comes from the Latin word “mens, mentis”, signifying the mind, disposition, feeling, character, heart, as well as soul. Reading dictionaries can help us build own lexicons in our minds.

 

American English ― the same as any other language ― has formal and standard, as well as colloquial language uses. To be colloquial, a use may depart far from the standard, or even go opposite to it.

 

Colloquially, the word “mental” may refer to insanity. By standard, a “mental lexicon” is a “vocabulary of a mind”. We can decide how we use words. Free speech cannot require that we blindly follow, especially colloquial uses.

 

Let us try to reckon on word sense. The AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY says that stollen is a rich yeast bread containing dried fruit, as raisins, and candied fruit, as citron; chopped nuts, and spices.

 

In other words, stollen can be full-bodied sweetbread with fruit sweetmeats, grated or milled nuts, as well as marzipan or citron.

 

Obviously, own lexicons cannot be always a piece of cake. Let us think about COSMOS, as in the American Heritage dictionary:

 

1. The universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole.
2. An ordered, harmonious whole.
3. Harmony and order as distinct from chaos.
4. pl. cos•mos•es or cosmos Any of various mostly Mexican herbs of the genus Cosmos.

 

We do not have to agree. Human civilizations have had ideas as a “cosmogonic strife”, and the outer space observably clashes, sometimes.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

The cosmos flower grows also in the USA, up to the Olympic Penninsula in Washington (WIKIPEDIA).

 

Here is my idea for the word “cosmos”:
1. space to include the planet Earth ― we can compare the “outer space”;
2. spatial reference to be mapped on itself, as in stereometry, mathematics, information technology, and philosophy
(we can refer to the cosmos and give it attributes, we yet do not include the cosmos in any larger space, to map it);
3. American colorful garden flower to attract birds, also similar to gillyflower in color.

 

PICTURE: WHAT IS THE COSMOS, JOKE
EMOTICON: A JOKE
(Do not underestimate juniors learning, and please remember that the word “dude” is TABOO in official situations.)

 

There are a few kinds of the cosmos flower. The word “cosmos” comes from Greek. Also originally, it happened to refer to the outer space.

 

If we want to find out about the position of the Earth in space, we can visit NASA.GOV. NASA is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of America.

 

A good idea is to read a dictionary “until we get it”. If we are not sure what the “solar system” means, we open the dictionary at “solar” and “system”.

 

Sooner than later, we are going to be able to flip pages and read big dictionaries just like books. Let us try our linguistic natures with real words and big dictionaries.

 

Exercise 33. Natural languages do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds.

 

Let us mind our time frames.
Example: The goldfish awoke, hearing a croak.
Answer: a/wake, {ON} the PAST ground
PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.

 

2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.

 

3. The soybean alone outshone the legumes fair in Bayonne.

 

4. The hornbill had overlooked the rook by the brook.

 

5. The golden frog behind the chilidog overslept and wept.

 

6. The windflower withstood the rude mood in the wood.

 

7. The woodpecker has custom remade the pasquinade to treat his clade.

 

8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet.

 

9. The kinkajou understood that honey was for feel-good.

 

10. The kittiwake has shaken and partaken in casing bacon in Macon.

 

Feel welcome to further practice.
6.4. EXERCISES:
THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

BUTTON: 6.4. EXERCISES, THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

*****

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APPENDIX 3. IRREGULAR VERBS: VOWEL BACK AND FRONT QUALITIES

We can present irregular verbs looking to vowel back and front qualities.

 

PICTURE: VOWEL CHART, BACK AND FRONT VOWELS

 

As all live languages, American English is not a monolith. It has regional varieties. We mark regional forms as R, “regional”.

 

Regional varieties have second and third forms the same more often — we may compare regional American forms for “chide” or “hide”.

 

SYMBOLICS: STARchide

chid

chid

SYMBOLICS: STARhide

hid

hid

 

Regional variants also resolve into a mid-to-back pattern more often. We may mark this with a tilde, that is, a flourish.

 

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHspin

span R

spun

 

Regular forms may prevail in standard American. They are not a novelty, however. King James’ Bible has a form as “builded”, for example.

 

Archaic or obsolete forms are those out of regular use. We do not predict here which forms might be in live use, therefore we mark forms that occur rarely as A, “aged”.

 

We will find our aged forms especially in poetry. Authors ― also American ― have used the forms for adjectives. We may follow in our wrought writings; we yet always have choice as learned people.

EMOTICON: SMILE

The prejudice about the language standard is that it excludes regional variety or prescribes which verb forms might ever be in use. Neither is true. It is prescriptive attitude to language, and not language itself, to try to make rulings.

 

Irregular verb forms with regard to back and front vowel qualities, back to front.

 

1. Second and third forms [o] – [o]
[o] – [o] – [o]

 

saw

sawed

sawed/sawn

 

[u:] – [o] – [o]

 

lose

lost

lost

shoe

shod/shoed

shod/shoed/shoddenR

shoot

shot

shot/shottenR

 

[ɅI ] — [o] — [o]

 

buy

bought

bought

fight

fought/foutR/fitR

fought/foughtenR/foutR/ fitR

 

[з] — [o] — [o]

 

work

worked/wroughtA (transitive sense)

worked REG / wroughtA (transitive sense)

 

[æ] — [o] — [o]

 

catch

caught/catchedR

caught/catchedR

 

[e:] — [o] — [o]

 

bear

bore

borne/born/boreR

sell

sold

sold

tell

told

told

swear

swore/swareA

sworn/sworeR

tear

tore/tareA

torn/tareA/toreR

tread

trod/treaded

trodden/trodR/treadR

wear

wore

worn/woreR

 

Please compare to bear, to lower the prices; beared [e], beared [e].
Please compare to tear [tI:r], to fill with tears, shed tears; teared [I:], teared [I:]

 

[I] — [o] — [o]

 

think

thought/thunkR
(transitive sense)

thought/ thunkR
(transitive sense)

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHbring

brought/ brangR / brungR/
broughtenR

brought/ brangR / brungR/ broughtenR

seek

sought

sought

shear

sheared/shoreR

sheared/shorn

teach

taught

taught

 

[oI] — [oI] — [oI]

spoil

spoiled /spoilt

spoiled/spoilt

 

[ou] — [ou] — [ou]

 

mow: to cut, crop

mowed

mowed/mown

mow: to pile as in a haymow

mowed

mowed

mow: to make faces

mowed

mowed

sew: to stitch

sewed

sewed/sewn

show

showed

showed/shown

sow

sowed

sowed/sown

 

Please compare to sew, to drain of water; sewed, sewed.

 

[u] — [ou] — [ou]

 

choose

chose

chosen/choseR

 

[ɅI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

shine

shone/shined

shone/shined

 

[eI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

break

broke/brakeR

broken/brokeR

stave

stove/staved

stove/staved

wake

woke/waked

woken/waked/wokeR

 

[ I:] — [ou] — [ou]

 

cleave: to separate, to split

clove/cleaved/cleft/claveA

cloven/cleaved/cleft/

cleave to: to adhere

clove/cleaved/claveA

clove/cleaved

freeze

froze/frizR

frozen/frozeR/frizR

heave

hove/heaved/hovedR

hove/heaved/hovenA&R

speak

spoke/spakeA

spoken/spokeA

steal

stole

stolen/stoleR

weave: to interlace

wove/weaved

woven/weaved

 

Please compare to weave: to waver; weaved [I:], weaved [I:].

 

2. Second and third forms [u:] — [u:]
[æ] — [u:] — [u:]

 

stand

stood

stood

 

3. Second and third forms [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]
[ɅI] — [Ʌu] — [Ʌu]

 

bind

bound

bound/boundedA

find

found

found

grind

ground/grindedR/groundenA

ground/grindedR/ groundenA

wind: to warp

winded [ɅI] / /wound

winded [ɅI] / /wound

wind: to blow a horn

winded [ɅI] / /wound

winded [ɅI] / /wound

 

Please compare to wind, to limit the breath, to expose to wind, dry; winded [ɅI], winded [ɅI].

 

Please compare to wind, to smell a scent; winded [ɅI], winded [ɅI].

 

[ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ]

 

thrust

thrust

thrust

 

[e] — [ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ]

 

get

got/gatA

got/gotten

 

[I] — [Ʌ ] — [Ʌ ]

 

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHcling

clung/clangR

clung

dig

dug

dug

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHfling

flung/flangR

flung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHsling: to throw

slung/slangR

slung

sling: to put in a sling

slung/slinged

slung/slinged

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHslink

slunk/slinkedR/slankR

slunk

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHspin

spun/spanR

spun

stick

stuck

stuck

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHsting

stung/stangR

stung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHstink (TABOO)

stunk/stankR

stunk

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHstring

stringed/strung/strangR

stringed/strung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHswing

swung/swangR

swung

win

won

won

wring

wrung

wrung

 

Please compare to cling: to make a metallic sound; clinged, clinged.

 

Please compare to sling: to drink alcohol (TABOO); slung/slinged, slung/slinged.

 

Please compare to stick: to arrange, to support with a stick; sticked, sticked.

 

Please compare to win: to reside BRE;R (intransitive) winned BRE,R winned BRE.R

 

Please compare to win: to dry BRE;R won BRE,R won BRE.R

 

[ ɅI] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

 

strike

struck

struck/stricken

 

[æ] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

 

hang

hung/hanged

hung/hanged

 

4. Second and third forms [ з ] — [ з ]
[з] — [ з ] — [ з ]

 

burn

burned/burnt/brentA/brunt BRER

burned/burnt/brentA/brunt BRER

learn

learned/learnt BRE

learned/learnt BRE

 

[ I] — [з] — [ з]

 

hear

heard/hearedR / hearnA

heard/hearedR / hearnA

 

5. Second and third form [ e] — [e]
[o] [ e] — [e]

 

hold

held/hiltR

held/holdenA

 

[e] [ e] — [e]

 

bend

bent/bendedR

bent/bendedR

blend: to blind, to deceive A
(transitive only)

blend/blentA

blent/blendedA

blend: to mix

blended REG / blent

blended REG / blent

bless

blessed REG / blest

blessed REG / blest

lend

lent

lent

rend

rended/rent

rended/rent

smell

smelled REG / smelt BRE

smelled/smelt BRE

send

sent

sent

spell

spelled/spelt BRE

spelled/spelt BRE

spend

spent

spent

 

Please compare to bless: to shake, brandish (weapon);A blessedA, blessed.A

 

Please compare to spell: to take turns, to allow to rest; spelled, spelled.

 

Please compare to spell: to becharm; spelled, spelled.

 

[eI] — [e] — [e]

 

gainsay

gainsaid

gainsaid

say

said/saidestA/saidstA

said

 

Please compare to say: to assay, to try, to test; (as)sayed [eI], (as)sayed [eI].

 

[I] — [e] — [e]

 

bereave

bereaved/bereft

bereaved/bereft/bereavenA

bleed

bled/bleededR

bled/bleededR

breed

bred

bred

deal

dealt

dealt

dream

dreamed/dreamt

dreamed/dreamt

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

flee

fled

fled

keep

kept

kept

kneel

kneeled/knelt

kneeled/knelt

lead

led

led

lean

leaned/ leant BRE

leaned/leant BRE

leave

left

left

leap

leaped REG / leapt

leaped REG / leapt

mean

meant/meanedA

meant/meanedA

meet

met

met

read

read

read

sleep

slept

slept

speed

speeded/sped

speeded/sped

sweep

swept

swept

weep

wept

wept

 

Please compare to bleed: to provide, to be drained for, e.g. money (in the passive) TABOO; bleededR [I:] TABOO, bleededR [I:] TABOO.

 

Please compare to bleed: to produce or to make pass (baseball slang) TABOO; bleededR [I:] TABOO, bleededR [I:] TABOO.

 

Please compare to lead [led], to cover in lead; leaded [e], leaded [e].

 

Please compare to lean, to make inclined; leaned [I:], leaned [I:].

 

Please compare to leave,: to produce leaves; leaved [I:], leaved [I:].

 

Please compare to mean: to mediate;A meanedA [I:], meanedA [I:].

 

[eI] — [eI] — [eI]

 

inlay

inlaid

inlaid

lade

laded

laded/laden

lay

laid

laid

make

made

made

pay

paid

paid

shave

shaved

shaved REG /shaven

 

Please compare to pay: to slacken (a rope, for example); paid/payed, paid/payed.

 

Please compare to shave: to reduce in amount; shaved, shaved.

 

[ɅI] — [eI] — [eI]

 

lie: remain in a horizontal position

lay

lain/lienA [Iə]

Please compare to lie [ɅI], to make a false statement; lied [ɅI], lied [ɅI].

 

6. Second and third forms [ I] — [ I]
[ɅI] — [ I] — [ I]

 

bite

bit

bitten/bitR

chide

chided /chid/chodeA

chided /chid/chidden

hide

hid

hidden/hid

light: to brighten

lighted/lit

lighted/lit

light: to dismount

lighted REG / lit

lighted REG / lit

slide

slid/slidedR/slodR

slid/slidedR/sliddenA

 

Please compare to hide: to punish by beating TABOO; hided [ɅI] TABOO, hided [ɅI] TABOO.

 

Please compare to be/feel slided: to be/feel cheated or wasted (in the passive) TABOO; slided [ɅI] TABOO, slided [ɅI] TABOO.

 

Please compare to slip-slide: to become lower in grade; slip-slided [ɅI], slip-slided [ɅI].

 

[I] — [I] — [I]

 

build

built/buildedA

built/buildedA

gild

gilded/gilt

gilded/gilt

gird

girded/girt

girded/girt

hit

hit

hit

knit

knitted/knit/knetR

knitted/knit/knetR

spill

spilled /spilt

spilled /spilt

rid

ridded /rid

ridded /rid

 

Please compare to gird: to strike, to mock BRE; girded BRE, girded BRE.

 

[ I:] — [ I:] — [ I:]

 

beat

beat

beaten/beatR/betR

 

7. A back diphtong can resolve into a front vowel.

 

[ɅI:] — [ou] — [ I:]

 

drive

drove/draveA/drivR/druvR

driven/droveA/ drivR/druvR

ride

rode/ridR/radeR

ridden/ridR/rodeR

rise

rose/riseA/rizR

risen/rizR

rive

rived/rove

rived/riven

shrive

shrived/shrove

shrived/shriven

smite

smote/smit

smitten/smote/smit

stride

strode

stridden

strive

strived/strove

strived/striven/stroveR/

thrive

thrived/throve

thrived/thriven

write

wrote/writR

written/wroteR/writR

 

Most transcriptions consider [ɅI] a diphthong. The [I] never becomes [ I:], however. In articulation, it will become a glide, like the y in “you”.

 

8. Vowel quality can be back to the base form.
[o] — [u] — [o]

 

draw

drew/drawedR

drawn

know

knew/knowedR

known/knowedR

 

[o] — [e] — [o]

 

fall

fell

fallen

 

[ou] — [u] — [ou]

 

blow: to make a current of air

blew/blowedR

blown/blowedR

blow
(to blossom) A

blewA

blown/bloweA

crow

crowed REG / crew

crowed

grow

grew/growedR

grown/growedR

throw

threw/throwedR/trunR

thrown/throwedR

 

[Ʌ] — [æ] — [Ʌ]

 

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHrun

ran/runR

run

 

The mid to back pattern is not only regional.
[Ʌ] — [eI] — [Ʌ]

 

come

came/comeR/comedR

come/comedR

 

[eI] — [U] — [ eI]

 

take

took/takenR

taken/tookR

shake

shook/shakedR/shakenR

shaken/shakedR

 

[I] — [eI] — [I]

 

bid

bade/bid/badA

bidden/bid/bade

give

gave/give/givR/guvR

given/givR/guvR

 

[I:] — [o:] — [I:]

 

see

saw/seedR/seenR

seen/seedR/sawR

 

[ I:] — [o:/e:] — [I:]

 

be

was/were

been

 

[I:] — [eI] — [I:]

 

eat

ate/eatR

eaten/eatR

 

The mid-to-back pattern belongs well with the language standard.
[ɅI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHbegin

began/begunR

begun

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHdrink

drank/drunkR/drinkedR

drunk/drankR/drinkedR/ drunkenA

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHring

rang

rung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHsing

sang/sungR

sung/sangR

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHsink

sank/sunkR

sunk/sunken

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHshrink

shrank/shrunkR

shrunk/shrunken

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHspring

sprang/sprungR

sprung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHswim

swam/swumR

swum/swamR

 

Please compare to ring: to put on or form a ring; ringed [I], ringed [I].

 

Please compare to spring: to supply with springs; springed [I] REG / sprung, springed [I] REG / sprung.

 

10. A few verbs keep a front-to-back pattern
[ I] — [æ] — [æ]

 

sit

sat/sotR/sateA

sat/sotR/sittenA

spit

spit/spat

spit/spat/spittedR/spittenA

 

Please compare to spit: to fix (like) with a spit, that is, a pointed rod; spitted, spitted.

 

[e] — [e] — [o]

swell

swelled

swelled/swollen

 

Let us remember about our “verb cradle” from APPENDIX 2. The “cradle” becomes more visible when we compare the “focused” have.
[æ] — [æ] — [æ]

 

have/has

had

had

 

[ou] — [e] — [Ʌ]

 

go

went/goedR

gone/wentR

 

[ɅI] — [U] — [oU]

 

fly

flew

flown

 

[ U] — [I] — [Ʌ]

 

do

did/doneR/didstA

done

 

Let us try an exercise.

 

Exercise 31. Let us think if we could “sum up” verb forms. If we look them up in a dictionary, we will find that their meanings often are not mere sums, and they can vary in regularity.

 

become, befall, beget, behold, beseech, beset, betake, bethink, forbear, forbid, forecast, foreknow, foresee, foretell, forget, forgive, forsake, forswear, hamstring, miscast, misdeal, misgive, mislay, mislead, misspell, misspend, mistake, misunderstand, outbid, outdo, outgo, outgrow, outride, outrun, outshine, overbear, overcast, overcome, overdo, overhang, overhear, overlay, overleap, overlie, overlook, override, overrun, oversee, overshoot, oversleep, overtake, overthrow, partake, recast, remake, repay, rerun, reset, retell, rewrite, unbend, unbind, underbid, undergo, understand, undertake, undo, waylay, withdraw, withold, withstand.