Isolated word form, whether auditory or visual, is not enough to convey language information. We can work our time frames only in context.
There is a use in language we could compare to a natural phenomenon on Earth, namely gravitation. It can help us choose on the time frame and decide between the Perfect or Simple Aspects. More→
There are no universal principles for choosing between the Present Perfect and the Past Simple. We may learn many classic rules, yet the truth is going to be that we need own resolves in context. An idea as a time frame can help. More→