7.1. PRACTICE FOR THE HEART AND THE MIND

Exercise 39. Let us provide synonyms for stative and dynamic senses of the verbs below. We can use the Infinitive also with the Progressive.

 

SUB-CHAPTER 2.1. presents the Infinitive.
APPENDIX 1 lays out the basics about verbs.

 

Example: to think

 

Answer:
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ONstative, variable {ON}
to consider, to believe
*****
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE INdynamic, variable {IN}
to be cerebrating, to be pondering

 

1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.

 

Exercise 40. We paraphrase the verbs and tell where we could take the ING, and where we would mostly stay {ON} our cognitive extents. Our answers do not have to be identical. Humans differ in stative verb use.

 

1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.

 

Exercise 41. Let us think over the various impressions that phrases as “I’m loving it” or “I’m hating it” might give.

 

Exercise 42. It happens in conversations: our grammar is good, but we do not know a particular word, or we know the words, but we are not familiar with the way someone puts words together, and confused about the words, we get confused about grammar, too.

 

Language about thinking and feeling can be elaborate. Here, we learn to keep our grammar against even unusual wording.

 

We continue comparing the mapping variables {ON} and {IN}, for the grammatical Aspect. We have only part the arrow cues (see SUB-CHAPTER 5.1.). We are staying in the grammatical PAST.

 

Our story is about the GREENSHANK’S closest relative, the GREATER YELLOWLEGS, meeting the LESSER YELLOWLEGS.

 

PICTURE: GREATER YELLOWLEGS

GREATER YELLOWLEGS, PHOTO BY MIKE BAIRD, WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

 

The tale is a little inspired with ARISTOTLE and intended to be mildly humorous. Regarding criticism on Aristotle, feel welcome to the BOOK INFORMATION.

 

A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs.

 

Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs 1. (hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser 2. (chirp) mighty out of tune (!)
CUES

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, EXAMPLE TASK

 

Answer: heard, variable {ON}; was chirping, variable {IN}

 

A. The Greater 3. (fly) up to the path and 4. (think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature 5. (give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet 6. (can be) a huge enterprise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 3-6

 

B. The Greater 7. (ponder) on some of the particulars, when he 8. (see) the Lesser Yellowlegs by the seashore.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 7-8

 

C. The Lesser Yellowlegs 9. (can try) the three-note whistle, it N 10. (be) in violation of the laws of physics, 11. (argue) the Greater Yellowlegs. The Lesser Yellowlegs 12. (appear) very similar in size.

 

D. “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser 13. (retort). The two-note 14. (be) the only melody he 15. (know) by heart.

 

E. The Greater Yellowlegs 16. (expect) the refutation. However, there always 17. (exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds.

 

F. Rare sounds 18. (feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (observe). Education 19. (mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever 20. (import) worse individually.

 

G. The uncouth absurd of the situation 21. (consist) in being out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs 22. (declare).

 

H. The Lesser Yellowlegs 23. (deem) that impossible. One place 24. (involve) one place, however negative the relation.

 

I. The two 25. (meditate) steadily, when the Lesser 26. (sigh). Elaborating on the two-note 28. (chance) the common sense.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25
EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

From the key: the variable {ON} can tell an activity that got on a cognitive map or extent when something else was in its course: the two were meditating steadily, when the Lesser sighed. There are more examples in exercises that follow.

*****

Exercise 43. We compare the variables {ON} and {IN} within all grammatical time, the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. As there is more language logic to manage, we have all arrow cues.

 

Our next story is about a creature from the Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly. The inspiration for the story comes from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, see over INTERNET ARCHIVE.

 

Example: According to a legend, it is around the summer solstice that dayflies 1. (come) to exist in the Cimmerian Bosporus. A dayfly 2. (begin) its life in the morning, and 3. (die) before the second day sunset.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 1-3

 

Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}

 

A. It 4. (be) early morning. The dayfly 5. (flutter) its wings in the sunrise light. “I 6. (be) a day-fly”, it 7. (think). The circumstance 8. (give) it its name.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 4-8

 

B. The morning 9. (be) very bright and fresh. The dayfly 10. (wonder) over the water and the air, the green and the colorfulness of vegetation, when it 11. (see) a dry leaf.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 9-11

 

C. It 12. (see) how water 13. (come) from the earth and the air. It 14. (cogitate) if dry leaves 15. (belong) with green leaves.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 12-15

 

D. It 16. (fly) past a vividly red rose flower when a butterfly 17. (stop) it for a little conversation. “You 18. (seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, the butterfly 19. (say).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 16-19

 

E. “Right, I 20. (name) myself a dayfly”, the dayfly 21. (respond). “Living for a day 22. (form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that 23. (become) can be eternal, anyway.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 20-23

 

F. This 24. (be) very interesting”, the butterfly 25. (remark). “I sure also 26. (become).” — “I 27. (think) about it when I 28. (see) that dry leaf over there”, the dayfly 29. (reply).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 24-29

 

G. “I 30. (contemplate) if the becoming of dry leaves 31. (happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and… butterflies.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 30-31

 

H. The butterfly 32. (disapprove). “I sure N 33. (will answer) this! You 34. (can see) that we 35. (differ). Our wings 36. (be) dissimilar.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 32-36

 

I. “Nobody 37. (deny) this”, the dayfly 38. (concede). “It 39. (be) the becoming that I 40. (distrust).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 37-40

 

J. This morning 41. (become) broad daylight, and this day 42. (become) a night. However, the day and the night 43. (can inhere) in disparate matters, I 44. (feel). One of them 45. (may be) the light.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 41-45

 

K. The butterfly 46. (shrug) its wings and 47. (fly) away.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 46-47PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25

*****

From the key: We can perceive the verb WILL as referring to the PRESENT or the FUTURE.

 

THE PRESENT
“I sure will not answer this!”
We can make a close synonym, saying,
“I have no wish to answer this.”

 

THE FUTURE
“This morning is becoming broad daylight,
and this day will become a night.”
We would make a close synonym, saying,
“This is what is going to happen.”

 

The verb to become has had a role in language history. We may get to know it better, further in the grammar journey.

 

We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. I hope you do your dictionary work (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

 

Exercise 44. We focus on the grammatical Time and Expression. To deny something, we can use the Negative. In our notes, we may distinguish the Negative with the letter N. To ask a question, we can use the Interrogative. We give it the question mark, (?).

 

First, we place our story mostly in the PRESENT. This manner to tell a story is the dramatic narrative. Then, we take the story to the PAST.

 

This should help us see how language logic can work together, for the grammatical time. Further in the journey, we may learn the Reported Speech.

 

Our story is about the westerly, the kind of wind that happens to rise in oceans. Westerlies influence the weather. Some scientists have blamed record temperatures, hot or cold, on splits in westerly currents.

 

Some observers even suspected extraterrestrial or supernatural influences over the weather, while it was… a westerly.

 

We have only part the arrow cues. We keep them, to work out a sense for target time. It can be very useful with Modal verbs.

 

Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.

 

A. It 3. (come) to the land and 4. (feel) a difference. Now, the high ocean 5. (be) the past and the land 6. (become) the present.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK A

 

B. The shore 7. (delineate) the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter, and 10. (frolic) into eddies.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK B

 

C. The wester 11. (swirl), when the thought about the future 12. (come) to it. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shoreland N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK C

 

D. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK D

 

E. The shoreland 20. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past. Then, there 21. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, when the wester 23. (get) there.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK E

 

We take our story into the grammatical PAST. The verb WILL takes on another form, WOULD.

 

Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.

 

A1. It came to the land and felt a difference. Now, the high Ocean was the past and the land had become the present.

 

B1. The shore delineated the past and the present. It was the limit for both. The wind was playing with the matter and frolicking into eddies.

 

Please mind: we can use the variable {ON} for an activity that gets on the map, while something else is happening: The wester was swirling, when the thought about the future came to it.

 

TEXT EXTENT: THE WESTERLY WAS SWIRLING -- WHEN THE THOUGHT CAME

 

We can envision our grammatical logic as interconnected.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: PRESENT AND PAST, THE WESTERLY SETS -- SET -- ITS COURSE

 

Our logic for grammatical time can work in connected sets. Could we connect or merge our variables {IN} and {TO}? Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

Advertisements

CHAPTER 7. TIME IN THE MIND AND HEART

When it comes to talk about hearts and minds, we might picture the difference between the Simple and the Progressive as above, one face being joyous, the other unhappy.

 

Saying, “I am hating you”, could be a joke.
Saying, “I hate you”, could declare hatred.

 

Most grammar books tell about “stative” or “static verbs”. The books enumerate such “stative verbs” to remember and never to use with the Progressive.

 

According to those books, we should never come across phrases as “I am loving you”, or “I am hating you”.

 

The fact is such phrases do occur, and we cannot expect of life to be as a grammar book.

 

Let us try things the classic way. Most grammars group the “stative” or “static verbs”. We may collect a few samples and reckon.

 

Our senses:
to feel, hear, look, perceive, see, sense, smell, sound, taste.

 

Our feelings:
to admire, adore, appreciate, cherish, cost, desire, detest, disdain, dislike, esteem, fear, feel, hate, like, loathe, love, prefer, regard, relish, respect, revere, want, wish.

 

Our minds:
to admit, appreciate, appear, assume, believe, belong, choose, cost, disapprove, esteem, expect, feel, hope, know, mean, object, perceive, prefer, realize, recall, recognize, recollect, regard, relish, remember, see, sense, stipulate, suppose, think, understand.

 

Property (things or animals owned):
to belong, charge, have, hold, owe, own, possess, retain, vest.

 

Properties (characteristics, attributes, features):
to appear, appertain, befit, concern, consist, contain, emerge, hold, inhere, keep, matter, seem, show, signify, sound.

 

PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S HABIT
We may be happy with own notes on words.

 

When we want more words, we can use a thesaurus, as at the THESAURUS.COM.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Progressive, using our cognitive variables. We can maintain the infinity symbol for the Simple.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity is not eternity or uncertainty. It is to mind that natural language is not a finished set.

 

 

We can begin with our senses. We have correlated the Simple with the variable {ON}, and the Progressive with the variable {IN}.

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

8. She feels cold. {ON}
Her body feels cold. {ON}

 

We can use ING when we use our sense of touch:

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

8a. She is feeling her temperature. {IN}
She is using palpation to feel the temperature. {IN}

 

We may reflect on our sense of touch:

8b. The wind feels cold (right now). {ON}

 

Our moods happen to be dynamic. We could ask,

8c. How are you feeling? {IN}
(How are you taking your own condition, mood?) {IN}

 

To convey the same meaning as in 8c, we also could ask,
8d. How do you feel? {ON}
(How are you taking your own condition, mood?) {IN}

 

The form may not refer to the sense of touch and well, the way we feel about answering can depend on who asks the question.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Our feelings are worth thinking about. We can use introspection.

 

PICTURE: JIM THINKING

 

We probably never say about someone shivering,
8e. She / he *is feeling cold. {IN}

 

This could sound hard-hearted, as if we would be saying someone is just exercising his or her senses, when his or her body temperature is low.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

 

People naturally develop group language use. Our language may vary, dependent on who we speak with: a close friend or a stranger, for example. Grammars usually do not prescribe on group language use. However, we mostly say,

8f. She / he feels cold. {ON}
8g. She / he is cold. {ON}

 

In everyday language, we often use the Modal verb can, to tell about our senses. It may not change the meaning at all,

9. I can feel something strange. ~ I feel something strange. {ON}
9a. I can see something. ~ I see something. {ON}

 

The Modal yet may bring another connotation,
9b. Things can look better. {ON}
(They do not; it needs to stop raining.)

 

Verbs may become phrasal verbs. Their meanings may change then, as with to see about, or to look for.

 

Contemporary American English uses phrasal verbs extensively. We have a few phrasal verbs in our grammar guidance.

 

We can say we catch on a bit of language, when we get to hear or see it. We may catch on to a bit of language and learn it.

 

If we come across something or someone, we meet or find them, often by chance. When we look up dictionaries, we read them. If we look to something, we consider it.

 

We can get to know phrasal verbs better in Part Four.

 

Let us give some more time to eyesight.

10. What are you looking at? {IN}
(What are you viewing?) {IN}

 

10a. What are you looking for? {IN}
(What are you seeking?) {IN}

 

10b. She is seeing him tomorrow. ~ She is meeting him tomorrow. {IN}
10c. She is seeing about getting the new house. ~ She is arranging the purchase of the house. {IN}

 

Let us look to a few more examples about our senses. The meaning may change, if we change the variable.

11. I can hear some strange noise. ~ I hear some strange noise. {ON}
11a. They are hearing new candidates now. {IN}
(They are interviewing or auditioning them.)
11b. You are hearing things. {IN}
(Your nervous system is producing delusions.)

 

The meaning will always depend on the context and the speaker’s intentions. We can call it the locutionary intent, in linguistics.

12. You look great now! {ON}
(I like your appearance now.) {ON}

 

English is as honest as any other language ― in fact, it terms an innocent lie a “white lie”. Imagine a boss wearing a horrible suit. What might others say?
“Interesting, boss”. “Chic.”’
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE

 

“White lies” are usually brief utterances. There is always the hazard of praising the boss while he or she would be deliberately wearing something awful, to tell friends from foes.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can speak about our senses with an open time frame (please compare CHAPTER 6),

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

13. I have not heard from him in years. {TO}
(He hasn’t contacted me in years.) {TO}

 

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND, AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

Please compare,
13a. She has never seen anything like this. {TO}
(This is the first time she can see such a strange thing.) {ON}
13b. He has never felt so good. {TO}
(He is now very comfortable.)

 

Our noses are quite a regular sense. We can speak about smell with an open time frame, use the verb can, as well as balance our variables.

14. She has never smelled anything more portending savor. {TO}
(An irresistible scent is coming from the kitchen.) {IN}
14a. I can smell something nice. ~ I smell something nice. {ON}

 

PICTURE: VEG AND A BOWL OF HERBS

 

Fresh herbs can make food healthier and irresistible.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

14b. The roses smell beautiful. {ON}
14c. She is smelling the roses. {IN}
(She is using her sense of smell.) {IN}

 

PICTURE: 101 ROSES

How could 101 roses smell?

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Psycholinguistics says there is always an emotional component in human learning and thinking.

 

Naturally, learning something does not mean automatically loving or hating it. However, if we choose to learn something, it is good to think about the advantages.

 

We humans remember pleasurable experiences much better than unpleasant impressions. Our senses are not our feelings directly, yet human emotionality may require some diplomacy about perception.

 

However tolerant to the verb can, our noses happen to be delicate. We may say,
15. It smells here. {ON}
Actually, we are going to be close to saying,
15a. It stinks here. {ON} TABOO

 

As this could be an ugly and unpleasant thing to say, we can mark this socially uncertain expression as TABOO.

 

We may be more socially agreeable, if we take some responsibility for our perception,
(as liable as we get to be).

EMOTICON: A JOKE

15b. I (think I can) smell something. {ON}

 

We may want our taste buds to make sense, too:
16. I can taste some nice flavor in this. ~ I taste some nice flavor in this. {ON}

 

Same as with other senses, we can use ING to say that we are using our taste buds. When it is our sense of taste to be telling us something, we can simply stay ON our cognitive extent.
16a. The drink tastes sweet. {ON}
(This is what our taste buds are telling.) {IN}
16b. He is tasting the drink. {IN}
(He is trying it.) {IN}

 

Let us think about our variables and recur to CHAPTER 4. If we select part an extent for our view, we may mark we do not mean an entire extent.

 

PICTURE: VALUES ON AND IN, HE IS MAD, HE IS BEING MAD

 

When we use our senses or act on appearance, we can have this for an activity in progress, the same as any other actions we take or carry out. We can follow the dynamic use of verbs, that is, use ING.

 

When we perceive, feel, or think, we may want our linguistic gravitation (compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.2). Our senses, feelings, and thoughts belong with our cognizance. We can stay ON our notional grounds.

 

Let us compare two forms,
What are you hoping for? {IN}
What do you hope for? {ON}

 

The latter form, hope for, would make an impression broader than the form hoping for. To discuss this, we need to talk about…

 

FEELINGS!

We cannot really speak a language if we are unable to speak about our feelings in it. We can present a few stative uses of verbs for feelings, in pairs of antonyms, that is, words of opposite meanings.

 

Thesauruses (or thesauri) mostly abbreviate antonyms as ant, and synonyms as syn.

 

Psycholinguistics says we are all language users. We can use words without carrying out any action about them. Never leaving home, we can speak about space flight, climbing Mount McKinley, or diving in the Milwaukee Deep.

 

Mount McKinley (or Denali) is the highest peak in the USA and North America entire. It is about 20,300 feet above the sea level. Denali is the third most prominent summit in the world. It neighbors on the Wonder Lake.

 

PICTURE: MOUNT DENALI

 

The Milwaukee Deep is the most profound depth in the Atlantic. It belongs with the Puerto Rico trench and is about 27,500 feet. USS Milwaukee discovered it. The USA has borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the east and on the Pacific in the west.

 

PICTURE: MILWAUKEE DEEP

 

Language users as we are, we can present words about feelings in antonyms, without any emotional disturbance or distress.

EMOTICON: SMILE

admire, adore, cherish ~#~ detest, disdain
appreciate, esteem ~#~ disregard
benefit, favor ~#~ cost
dare ~#~ fear
desire, relish ~#~ abhor, reject
like ~#~ dislike
love ~#~ hate, loathe
prefer ~#~ reject
respect, revere ~#~ disparage
want, wish ~#~ have no relish in / taste for

 

PICTURE: DELLA AND THE GLOBE

Could the value ON be our earthling basic variable?
SUB-CHAPTER 8.1 has an idea.

 

We can try pairs of synonyms with our stative uses for thinking. Synonyms are words close in meaning. We yet cannot always use synonyms interchangeably.

accede, agree ~#~ admit, consent
appreciate ~#~ realize
assume ~#~ presume, stipulate
believe ~#~ consider, suppose
expect ~#~ think likely, count upon
feel ~#~ hold, think
forget ~#~ become oblivious of, overlook
know ~#~ be aware of, remember
mean ~#~ intend
object ~#~ disapprove
perceive, sense ~#~ consider, recognize
see ~#~ comprehend, understand
think ~#~ cerebrate

 

PICTURE: DELLA AND OLLIE

 

Human potential for language is inborn. However, ― with each and every language ― we all need to learn speaking and writing. Chatting with minors can be a clever thought (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

We people are language users with regard to thinking and other processes, activities, or experiences. We can speak about Benjamin Franklin, the wave theory of light, or a Pulitzer Prize author, never getting to all the details of the lives, theories, and works.

 

Let us put our words for property together with synonyms and antonyms for us, sometimes rich and sometimes not-so-affluent people who learn.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

belong ~#~ be part of, pertain to  ~#~ be exclusive of
have, hold, own ~#~ possess, retain ~#~ be devoid of
owe ~#~ be indebted ~#~ be creditor to
vest ~#~ charge ~#~ cost

 

Properties happen to come and go. Let us put our stative uses for properties together with their synonyms. When a property (feature, characteristic) is gone, we can use negation.

appear ~#~ look, seem
concern ~#~ be of interest to, relate to
consist ~#~ be composed of, be made up of
consist ~#~ exist
contain ~#~ hold or include within
hold ~#~ remain (valid, true)
matter ~#~ be of importance
signify ~#~ imply, mean
sound, look ~#~ convey an impression

 

*****

 

The above provides quite a thorough analysis of verbs for feeling and thought. To feel is a very interesting verb.

 

We might say, “I feel fresh”, to speak about our senses. We could say, “I feel love”, to speak about our emotions. We also could say, possibly in another context, “I feel this is stupid” [TABOO], to say what we think.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Natural language does associate feelings and thoughts with spatial variables. “High on emotion” or “in the deepest of our thoughts”, we require some of the notions for space, to think about time and feelings.

 

Cognitive variables naturally can help manage our expression on that.

 

PICTURE: JAMES MADISON, THE 4TH PRESIDENT OF THE USA

 

The advice nearest to my heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the States be cherished and perpetuated,
James Madison, the 4th President of the United States.

 

We can find resources about American presidents at WHITEHOUSE.GOV, the website of the President’s home. It is enough that we type “presidents” in the search field.

 

*****

 

Classing verbs as stative and grouping them in categories befits behaviorist analyses more. Our perspective is psycholinguistic: we stay with cognitive variables.

 

We can agree there might be stative uses of verbs, but we do not list special verbs never to use with the Progressive.

 

If we go WORDNET.PRINCETON.EDU, we get a project with the US National Science foundation, WordNet. It is free to download and use, according to the license. Resources like WordNet help view vocabulary in a connected way.

 

Feel welcome to the practice for the mind and the heart.
7.1. EXERCISES: THE SIMPLE OR THE PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: 7.1. EXERCISES, THE SIMPLE OR THE PROGRESSIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH