8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY,
PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.

 

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.

 

As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.

 

In the auxiliary role, the verb to HAVE works for the framework. We mark it green. As a content verb, it can tell about ownership. We mark it mauve then, as all content verbs.

*****

Madame Règle speaks excellent American English. Her friendship with Jill Smith started over a website forum discussing philosophy and linguistics.

 

They agreed that Latin had had {TO} influence over English and French thought, although the languages belonged to diverse language groups.

 

*****

 

This is one of the reasons for some French reference in our grammar voyage. Latin has affected {TO} both English and French languages.

 

On the other hand, English and French have {ON} very dissimilar shapes. English is a Germanic language, and French belongs with the Romance language group. Some American insignia have {ON} Latin mottos.

 

We could hear or read sometimes that American English is an international language. There are no international languages really. Esperanto does not have {ON} many features of a natural language.

 

We can say that American English is a lingua franca, that is, a tongue spoken worldwide.

 

By origin of the phrase, we can associate a lingua franca with free speech. In Latin, the adjective “francus” also meant someone exempt from service, someone at liberty.

 

The Roman Empire rule over the present-day territory of France collapsed early, and ancient Romans knew the local people as Franks, READ IN WIKIPEDIA.

 

America and France have had {TO} historic ties. The French were American allies in the WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. The Statue of Liberty is a memorial to American independence and alliance with the French.

 

PICTURE: STATUE OF LIBERTY

 

There are many Statues of Liberty. The most famous statues are those in New York and Paris. A French sculptor, FRÉDÉRIC BARTHOLDI, designed the Statue.

 

Bartholdi patented it as Liberty Enlightening the World (La Liberté éclairant le monde, in French). The American statue stands on the Liberty Island, in New York Harbor.

 

PICTURE: LIBERTY ISLAND

*****

 

Madame Règle has {ON} a small book of poetry with her today. She has finished {TO} the book about Descartes. At home, she has {ON} a big volume about influences between French and English thinkers.

 

She has been reading {AT} two book series, poetry or philosophical commentary, one at a time, all this week.

 

Latimer Sauf is not surprised at her reading habit. The special edition of Larousse Gastronomique he got from her last Christmas has {ON} an elevated and celebrated place in his restaurant main hall.

 

The guests have turned {TO} many of the pages so far. He has had {TO} another copy to read at home. He has been studying {AT} it to detail. He has {ON} extra Larousse dishes on his menu.

*****

Let us focus on the grammatical time and cognitive variable.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE been reading; {AT}

 

PRESENT
He HAS been reading; {AT}

 

PAST
He HAD been reading. {AT}

 

We can compare the beginning of our language journey, the Fields of Time (CHAPTER 1).

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO HAVE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

How does the Perfect Progressive change for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE? It is the verb to have to change.

 

The verb to have changes the same as in our Fields of Time, for our cognitive variable {ON}, the Simple Aspect.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE a book; {ON}

 

PRESENT
He HAS a book; {ON}

 

PAST
He HAD a book. {ON}

 

Let us compare the cognitive variable {IN}. In the content role, the verb to have can also tell about eating. Madame Règle likes the extra Larousse dishes by Monsieur Sauf.

 

FUTURE
Tomorrow at this hour, Madame Règle
WILL BE having her extra Larousse and reading a book; {IN}

 

PRESENT
Madame Règle
IS having her extra Larousse and reading a book now; {IN}

 

PAST
When Jill walked into the restaurant yesterday, Madame Règle
WAS having her extra Larousse and reading a book.{IN}

 

Let us compare the variable {ON}. Here are our Fields of Time, again.

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

FUTURE
She WILL BE at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PRESENT
She IS at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PAST
She WAS at the restaurant. {ON}

 

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change for the grammatical time. It changes the same in our Fields of Time, the same as for our variable {ON}.

 

Let us compare all Aspects. The elements that adapt for the grammatical time are underlined.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FIRST ELEMENT

 

We can view the value {ON} as a basis for other Aspects.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM A LEARNER, I HAVE A GRAMMAR BOOK

 

We also can focus on the value {ON} and view other Aspects as syntactic expansion.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM -- I HAVE -- I HAVE BEEN LEARNING

 

Please mind that finding a basic value does not impose any particular order to use the values, especially if we come to the resolve that our {ON, IN, TO} and {AT} can be our learned cognitive variables.

EMOTICON: SMILE

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Let us turn to American English as it is really. We do not intend to invent a new language.

This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
(NBC Today Sun as in the CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH, COCA.)

TEXT EXTENT: THIS IS A DREAM
SYMBOLICS: SYNTACTIC EXPANSE

The Simple Aspect can tell what we have {ON} our cognitive map. What we perceive does not have to take up an entire extent.

 

Even if we regard an entire cognitive extent, it does not have to imply that we are preoccupied. Another way round, we live on planet Earth, and none of us could preoccupy it.

EMOTICON: SMILE

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TEXT EXTENT: I AM LOVING IT

The Progressive Aspect, the value {IN}, can help mark a matter as different from the regular and basic {ON}.

 

To compare space, we may feel as IN an area, rather than ON a regular cognitive map, for matters we perceive as irregular or EMPHATIC.

 

The Progressive can help delineate in time, on something out of the ordinary, as a dream come true: dreams coming true are not anything regular.

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In this view, we can have the value {AT} for the most divergent from the regular, basic {ON}.
PICTURE: ASPECT SYNTACTIC EXPANSION

 

Could we have a natural feeling to return to the basic variable, after we “go away”? The following example looks spontaneous and shows our matter well.

 

{AT} I’ve been loving it. But {ON} I want to keep doing different things.
(People magazine as in COCA.)

TEXT EXTENTS: HAVE BEEN LOVING -- WANT TO DO

Some classic grammars might not agree to have verbs as “to love” or “to hate” in the Progressive at all. However, if to let anybody PRESCRIBE what language should be like, we might have to recur to MIDDLE ENGLISH.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

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American English is a live language, and live languages also change. Thinking about free speech, let us consider a cognitive difference, for the two forms:
“I hate you”,
or
“I am hating you”.

 

We can compare human perception on physical space.
TEXT EXTENT: I AM HATING YOU

“I am hating you” is {IN} an area only.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HATE YOU

“I hate you” is {ON} the entire extent.

 

Our grammar is correct when it properly renders how we feel and think.

 

To speak American freely, we should choose independently if we say that we are hating or loving something, or that we hate or love it.

 

This can be our earthling proper egoism: we have our inner grammars work for our minds, rather than adapt our minds to rules that cannot be universal, anyway.

 

The variable {ON} can be our earthling and basic variable. Who knows, maybe the ancient Latin rules, from which classic grammars derive, emerged owing to human variables, only they were not called variables then, hence the “stative use of verbs”?

 

Naturally, classicist or generativist, we do not have to be always gravely serious about everything we say.

EMOTICON: SMILE

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VARIABLES OR OPTIONS?

We may come across presentations of language as features.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FEATURES, A CHART

 

An Aspect both Perfect and Progressive would be the Perfect Progressive. An Aspect neither Perfect nor Progressive would be the Simple.

 

Some approaches might attempt a picture for language as made of options. However, our brains are live structures and have simultaneous processes.

 

When we use the Present Simple, our paths for the Perfect Progressive for example do not become “switched off”. If we use the Progressive, we do not exclude a possibility for the same thing to happen also in a manner we describe in the Simple:

“I‘m loving you”,

would not mean

“I don’t love you”.

 

Planet Earth is our natural habitat. When we people think what there is {ON} a geographical map, we do not exclude possibilities for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} places.

 

Humans are likely to learn languages {ON} a planet for an indeterminate future. Even astronauts learn {ON} Earth.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Associating language, thinking, feeling, and generally space is natural. What would feelings, thoughts, or works be — without room?

 

Finally, our variable {ON} does not correspond with an option as OFF. We do not turn our brains off, also when we go to sleep.

 

We can conclude that Aspects are not options. Options can be mutually exclusive. To take one option, we would have to exclude other choices. Variables work together, also simultaneously.

 

Feel welcome to practice.

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS
BUTTON, 8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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7.1. PRACTICE FOR THE HEART AND THE MIND

Exercise 39. Let us provide synonyms for stative and dynamic senses of the verbs below. We can use the Infinitive also with the Progressive.

 

SUB-CHAPTER 2.1. presents the Infinitive.
APPENDIX 1 lays out the basics about verbs.

 

Example: to think

 

Answer:
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ONstative, variable {ON}
to consider, to believe
*****
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE INdynamic, variable {IN}
to be cerebrating, to be pondering

 

1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.

 

Exercise 40. We paraphrase the verbs and tell where we could take the ING, and where we would mostly stay {ON} our cognitive extents. Our answers do not have to be identical. Humans differ in stative verb use.

 

1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.

 

Exercise 41. Let us think over the various impressions that phrases as “I’m loving it” or “I’m hating it” might give.

 

Exercise 42. It happens in conversations: our grammar is good, but we do not know a particular word, or we know the words, but we are not familiar with the way someone puts words together, and confused about the words, we get confused about grammar, too.

 

Language about thinking and feeling can be elaborate. Here, we learn to keep our grammar against even unusual wording.

 

We continue comparing the mapping variables {ON} and {IN}, for the grammatical Aspect. We have only part the arrow cues (see SUB-CHAPTER 5.1.). We are staying in the grammatical PAST.

 

Our story is about the GREENSHANK’S closest relative, the GREATER YELLOWLEGS, meeting the LESSER YELLOWLEGS.

 

PICTURE: GREATER YELLOWLEGS

GREATER YELLOWLEGS, PHOTO BY MIKE BAIRD, WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

 

The tale is a little inspired with ARISTOTLE and intended to be mildly humorous. Regarding criticism on Aristotle, feel welcome to the BOOK INFORMATION.

 

A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs.

 

Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs 1. (hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser 2. (chirp) mighty out of tune (!)
CUES

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, EXAMPLE TASK

 

Answer: heard, variable {ON}; was chirping, variable {IN}

 

A. The Greater 3. (fly) up to the path and 4. (think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature 5. (give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet 6. (can be) a huge enterprise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 3-6

 

B. The Greater 7. (ponder) on some of the particulars, when he 8. (see) the Lesser Yellowlegs by the seashore.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 7-8

 

C. The Lesser Yellowlegs 9. (can try) the three-note whistle, it N 10. (be) in violation of the laws of physics, 11. (argue) the Greater Yellowlegs. The Lesser Yellowlegs 12. (appear) very similar in size.

 

D. “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser 13. (retort). The two-note 14. (be) the only melody he 15. (know) by heart.

 

E. The Greater Yellowlegs 16. (expect) the refutation. However, there always 17. (exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds.

 

F. Rare sounds 18. (feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (observe). Education 19. (mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever 20. (import) worse individually.

 

G. The uncouth absurd of the situation 21. (consist) in being out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs 22. (declare).

 

H. The Lesser Yellowlegs 23. (deem) that impossible. One place 24. (involve) one place, however negative the relation.

 

I. The two 25. (meditate) steadily, when the Lesser 26. (sigh). Elaborating on the two-note 28. (chance) the common sense.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25
EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

From the key: the variable {ON} can tell an activity that got on a cognitive map or extent when something else was in its course: the two were meditating steadily, when the Lesser sighed. There are more examples in exercises that follow.

*****

Exercise 43. We compare the variables {ON} and {IN} within all grammatical time, the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. As there is more language logic to manage, we have all arrow cues.

 

Our next story is about a creature from the Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly. The inspiration for the story comes from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, see over INTERNET ARCHIVE.

 

Example: According to a legend, it is around the summer solstice that dayflies 1. (come) to exist in the Cimmerian Bosporus. A dayfly 2. (begin) its life in the morning, and 3. (die) before the second day sunset.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 1-3

 

Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}

 

A. It 4. (be) early morning. The dayfly 5. (flutter) its wings in the sunrise light. “I 6. (be) a day-fly”, it 7. (think). The circumstance 8. (give) it its name.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 4-8

 

B. The morning 9. (be) very bright and fresh. The dayfly 10. (wonder) over the water and the air, the green and the colorfulness of vegetation, when it 11. (see) a dry leaf.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 9-11

 

C. It 12. (see) how water 13. (come) from the earth and the air. It 14. (cogitate) if dry leaves 15. (belong) with green leaves.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 12-15

 

D. It 16. (fly) past a vividly red rose flower when a butterfly 17. (stop) it for a little conversation. “You 18. (seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, the butterfly 19. (say).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 16-19

 

E. “Right, I 20. (name) myself a dayfly”, the dayfly 21. (respond). “Living for a day 22. (form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that 23. (become) can be eternal, anyway.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 20-23

 

F. This 24. (be) very interesting”, the butterfly 25. (remark). “I sure also 26. (become).” — “I 27. (think) about it when I 28. (see) that dry leaf over there”, the dayfly 29. (reply).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 24-29

 

G. “I 30. (contemplate) if the becoming of dry leaves 31. (happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and… butterflies.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 30-31

 

H. The butterfly 32. (disapprove). “I sure N 33. (will answer) this! You 34. (can see) that we 35. (differ). Our wings 36. (be) dissimilar.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 32-36

 

I. “Nobody 37. (deny) this”, the dayfly 38. (concede). “It 39. (be) the becoming that I 40. (distrust).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 37-40

 

J. This morning 41. (become) broad daylight, and this day 42. (become) a night. However, the day and the night 43. (can inhere) in disparate matters, I 44. (feel). One of them 45. (may be) the light.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 41-45

 

K. The butterfly 46. (shrug) its wings and 47. (fly) away.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 46-47PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25

*****

From the key: We can perceive the verb WILL as referring to the PRESENT or the FUTURE.

 

THE PRESENT
“I sure will not answer this!”
We can make a close synonym, saying,
“I have no wish to answer this.”

 

THE FUTURE
“This morning is becoming broad daylight,
and this day will become a night.”
We would make a close synonym, saying,
“This is what is going to happen.”

 

The verb to become has had a role in language history. We may get to know it better, further in the grammar journey.

 

We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. I hope you do your dictionary work (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

 

Exercise 44. We focus on the grammatical Time and Expression. To deny something, we can use the Negative. In our notes, we may distinguish the Negative with the letter N. To ask a question, we can use the Interrogative. We give it the question mark, (?).

 

First, we place our story mostly in the PRESENT. This manner to tell a story is the dramatic narrative. Then, we take the story to the PAST.

 

This should help us see how language logic can work together, for the grammatical time. Further in the journey, we may learn the Reported Speech.

 

Our story is about the westerly, the kind of wind that happens to rise in oceans. Westerlies influence the weather. Some scientists have blamed record temperatures, hot or cold, on splits in westerly currents.

 

Some observers even suspected extraterrestrial or supernatural influences over the weather, while it was… a westerly.

 

We have only part the arrow cues. We keep them, to work out a sense for target time. It can be very useful with Modal verbs.

 

Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.

 

A. It 3. (come) to the land and 4. (feel) a difference. Now, the high ocean 5. (be) the past and the land 6. (become) the present.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK A

 

B. The shore 7. (delineate) the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter, and 10. (frolic) into eddies.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK B

 

C. The wester 11. (swirl), when the thought about the future 12. (come) to it. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shoreland N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK C

 

D. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK D

 

E. The shoreland 20. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past. Then, there 21. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, when the wester 23. (get) there.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK E

 

We take our story into the grammatical PAST. The verb WILL takes on another form, WOULD.

 

Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.

 

A1. It came to the land and felt a difference. Now, the high Ocean was the past and the land had become the present.

 

B1. The shore delineated the past and the present. It was the limit for both. The wind was playing with the matter and frolicking into eddies.

 

Please mind: we can use the variable {ON} for an activity that gets on the map, while something else is happening: The wester was swirling, when the thought about the future came to it.

 

TEXT EXTENT: THE WESTERLY WAS SWIRLING -- WHEN THE THOUGHT CAME

 

We can envision our grammatical logic as interconnected.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: PRESENT AND PAST, THE WESTERLY SETS -- SET -- ITS COURSE

 

Our logic for grammatical time can work in connected sets. Could we connect or merge our variables {IN} and {TO}? Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

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6.4. MORE GRAMMAR AND WORD PRACTICE

Boutique d’bonheur, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

It is natural to wish someone good luck, with tests and exams. Grammar exercises can “buy” us some luck. They do not have to be difficult, for that. Good luck (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

Exercise 34. All verbs in parentheses will have a closed time frame, and remain {ON} a PAST cognitive ground.

 

1. The kitten (spill) all the milk by the mill down the hill.

 

2. The hedgehog (hide) the apples from the bird in a good jar with a lid.

 

3. The rabbit (strew) the cashews for the jabiru and (go on) making his debut callaloo.

 

4. The gades (lay) a fair-trade plan for a decade.

 

5. The corn-fed chick (flee) the shed for some strick.

 

6. The adept turtle (keep) his hep by the skep except when the bees (sweep).

 

7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.

 

8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast.

 

9. The southern wind (heave) the sea and (sheave) the tides to incline a span unsized in eyes.

 

10. The butterfly (weave) in a cove; the dove taut (think) about a courtly lot.

*****

For spoken American English, please find the Voice of America at VOANEWS.COM. There is worthwhile, standard American English along with materials for learners. The LEARNING ENGLISH site has slow and clear readouts of news.

*****

Exercise 35. Let us try our time frames and logical cues with mapping values. Our pieces of thought are longer, more proportionate to everyday language.

 

We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles.

 

Good American English does not have to be gravely serious (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

WE CAN FIND THE LYRICS ONLINE
We also can visit the official website
THE OFFICIAL SIMON & GARFUNKEL

 

Example: Right after he (1) had fought his dependence on the game of Monopoly, he (2) fell for spinnakers completely. A born and bred Alaskan, he (3) went to cruise the Antarctic with a chute.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 35, ANSWER

 

1. He (4) sold his vintage Chevy and nearly (5) bought a Jeep, when he (6) thought that his vehicle (7) approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost (8) portended a personality change.

 

2. A newspaper article on alpha and beta males seriously (9) disappointed him. He (10) was neither.

 

3. Many years, he (11) has looked for a role model. Nobody (12) has met his expectations on both personality and body build, however, and he (13) gave up trying to have body and mind for separate, on Earth.

 

4. He (14) has pursued some philosophy. At the present, he (15) is pessimistic on a resolve between existence and matter. He (16) thinks he (17) will resort to stoicism.

 

5. His friend (18) says he (19) needs some sense of humor, if he (20) wants to put up with a woman in his life. The woman always (21) is another Self.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Could this be Jim?

 

Exercise 36. We are staying with the Simple pattern {ON} a PAST time extent. We try some syntax for the Negative, too.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 36 TASK ILLUSTRATION

 

Example: Consciously pragmatic, Jill (decide) that tidying on her own (be) N too traditionalist. At least she (remember) where her things usually (be) before she (put) them somewhere completely else.

 

Answer: decided, was not (N, the Negative), remembered, were, put

 

In the beginning, we may care to write up entire answers. Our human memories can learn with writing habits. It is up to us to choose (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Full answer: Consciously pragmatic, Jill decided that tidying on her own was not too traditionalist. At least she remembered where her things usually were before she put them somewhere completely else.

 

1. She never (get) totally honest with anyone, on favorite comedy episodes.

 

2. An article on family roles in kite flying (incline) her towards psychoanalysis for a while. She yet soon (conclude) that she (need) N another grammatical person to be herself. Being herself anyway (happen) to her all the time, and she simply (like) to hold the strings. The West Coast had the weather.

 

3. Disputes on Sandburg and Creeley (bring) her to the belief it (be) never possible to think about one poet strictly, although it (make) no sense sometimes to try talking about two at the same time.

 

4. After some study of a number of concepts on the cosmos, she (picture) the humanity as an odd kind of fish in a series of still larger fish tanks. Early in the series, there (be) N any point to try bringing another fish tank to imagination. It anyway (require) adding more fish tanks.

 

5. She (tolerate) pop music well and (watch) American football with friends, but she always (choose) her fountain pens on her own and (keep) them just for herself.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Could this be Jill?

 

Feel welcome to some more exercise, on the open or closed time frame and the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.
6.5. EXERCISES
BUTTON: 6.5. THE OPEN OR CLOSED TIME FRAME AND THE PRESENT, PAST, OR FUTURE

*****

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6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning, Cloudy Weather, Wikimedia Commons

 

Exercise 32. For our warm-up, let us practice the time frames. We can do the exercise in our minds solely, as in the MIND PRACTICE. Our head verb is to work.

 

Example 1: Monsieur Sauf had worked.
Answer: {TO}, a PAST cognitive ground.
PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT(a time frame open to a reference mark in the PAST)

 

Example 2: Madame Règle will work.
Answer: {ON}, a cognitive ground for the FUTURE.
PICTURE: CLOSED TIME FRAME, FUTURE SIMPLE ARROW CUE(a time frame closed on a FUTURE time reference)

 

Please mind that our grounds for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE are the grammatical time. We do not need insight greater than for classic grammar, to talk about what happened, or to predict on our real-time future.

 

1. Monsieur Sauf worked.

 

2. Monsieur Sauf will have worked.

 

3. Madame Règle has worked.

 

4. Madame Règle works.

*****

One of the worst mistakes in language work is to keep vocabulary practice apart from grammar exercise. We are about avoiding it here.

 

Big dictionaries should not scare us. We do not have to memorize them. We can learn by referring to them.

 

It is good to use monolingual dictionaries and select on word sense. A monolingual dictionary has words and definitions in the same language.

 

Our brains can get the habit to choose on word sense. For example, the AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY has about 10 senses for the verb TO BE.

 

The word MAN has about 20 senses, and one of them is “a human being, a person”.

 

Women also belong with this sense of the word, as in all men are created equal, a phrase we may know from the Declaration of Independence.
FEEL WELCOME TO READ ABOUT THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

 

We may not want to worry about getting the money to buy expensive dictionaries, especially if we are just beginners. There are free dictionary resources, available over the web and in libraries.

 

For American English, there also is THE FREE DICTIONARY, or MERRRIAM-WEBSTER.

 

“Jumping into deep waters” is yet no good strategy for language, and Hispanic learners may like to compare the Spanish DICCIONARIO. People with French or German might like to use LAROUSSE or PONS, respectively.

 

All the websites have extensive free contents.

 

Our Travel in Grammar has a mirror in a Slavic language, Polish.
BUTTON: ZOBACZ PODRÓŻ W GRAMATYCE

 

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We may look up dictionary definitions, but we people naturally build own, mental lexicons for meaning. The word “mental” means “of the mind”.

 

It comes from the Latin word “mens, mentis”, signifying the mind, disposition, feeling, character, heart, as well as soul. Reading dictionaries can help us build own lexicons in our minds.

 

American English ― the same as any other language ― has formal and standard, as well as colloquial language uses. To be colloquial, a use may depart far from the standard, or even go opposite to it.

 

Colloquially, the word “mental” may refer to insanity. By standard, a “mental lexicon” is a “vocabulary of a mind”. We can decide how we use words. Free speech cannot require that we blindly follow, especially colloquial uses.

 

Let us try to reckon on word sense. The AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY says that stollen is a rich yeast bread containing dried fruit, as raisins, and candied fruit, as citron; chopped nuts, and spices.

 

In other words, stollen can be full-bodied sweetbread with fruit sweetmeats, grated or milled nuts, as well as marzipan or citron.

 

Obviously, own lexicons cannot be always a piece of cake. Let us think about COSMOS, as in the American Heritage dictionary:

 

1. The universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole.
2. An ordered, harmonious whole.
3. Harmony and order as distinct from chaos.
4. pl. cos•mos•es or cosmos Any of various mostly Mexican herbs of the genus Cosmos.

 

We do not have to agree. Human civilizations have had ideas as a “cosmogonic strife”, and the outer space observably clashes, sometimes.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

The cosmos flower grows also in the USA, up to the Olympic Penninsula in Washington (WIKIPEDIA).

 

Here is my idea for the word “cosmos”:
1. space to include the planet Earth ― we can compare the “outer space”;
2. spatial reference to be mapped on itself, as in stereometry, mathematics, information technology, and philosophy
(we can refer to the cosmos and give it attributes, we yet do not include the cosmos in any larger space, to map it);
3. American colorful garden flower to attract birds, also similar to gillyflower in color.

 

PICTURE: WHAT IS THE COSMOS, JOKE
EMOTICON: A JOKE
(Do not underestimate juniors learning, and please remember that the word “dude” is TABOO in official situations.)

 

There are a few kinds of the cosmos flower. The word “cosmos” comes from Greek. Also originally, it happened to refer to the outer space.

 

If we want to find out about the position of the Earth in space, we can visit NASA.GOV. NASA is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of America.

 

A good idea is to read a dictionary “until we get it”. If we are not sure what the “solar system” means, we open the dictionary at “solar” and “system”.

 

Sooner than later, we are going to be able to flip pages and read big dictionaries just like books. Let us try our linguistic natures with real words and big dictionaries.

 

Exercise 33. Natural languages do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds.

 

Let us mind our time frames.
Example: The goldfish awoke, hearing a croak.
Answer: a/wake, {ON} the PAST ground
PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.

 

2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.

 

3. The soybean alone outshone the legumes fair in Bayonne.

 

4. The hornbill had overlooked the rook by the brook.

 

5. The golden frog behind the chilidog overslept and wept.

 

6. The windflower withstood the rude mood in the wood.

 

7. The woodpecker has custom remade the pasquinade to treat his clade.

 

8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet.

 

9. The kinkajou understood that honey was for feel-good.

 

10. The kittiwake has shaken and partaken in casing bacon in Macon.

 

Feel welcome to further practice.
6.4. EXERCISES:
THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

BUTTON: 6.4. EXERCISES, THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

4.2. LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE

Exercise 13. If we never imagined anything, we would be unable to prefigure on things, to predict what happens, before we do something. Imagination is an ability to envision, to form an image.

 

Let us draw concept maps for our physical whereabouts, our every day, and our lives. Our maps do not have to be exact.

 

We only move gradually from a space concept into a time concept. Maps for physical whereabouts would be mostly about space. Maps about lives would focus on time more.

 

We have a few examples here. Please do draw your own maps, put on them as many associations as possible, all in English.

 

A. My physical whereabouts: the map does not have to be exact. It should only show physically nearest objects.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

 

B. My everyday life: the places do not have to be physically close; it is important we associate them with our routine and preferred experiences. This makes them psychologically close.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

C. My life: we may feel like going into the future a little.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK C, LIFE AND FUTURE

EMOTICON: A JOKE 

Exercise 14. We can recognize language content and inner framework. The framework is not about style only. It helps put thought into comprehensible patterns.

 

We use the verbs to be and to have, to build the Progressive or Perfect Aspects. When be and have help build a pattern, they map on time and activity.

 

The mapping is usually an approximation; it even cannot be 100% exact, as there happen to be differences among people, on how to view things.

 

When they map, to be and to have belong with the language framework.

 

When they bring talk about existence (being) or ownership, to be and to have are head verbs. They can head verb phrases, and belong with the content.

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs.
BUTTON, APPENDIX 1: THE VERB

 

Let us decide, where be and have belong with the framework, and where with the content. In the example, the answer is underlined.

 

F: language framework
C: language content

 

Example:
I have brought this for you.
This is a chart for our journey.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

Answer:
have      F or C (framework)
be          F or C (content)

 

1. Mary’s lamb was white as snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

2. As I was going to St. Ives, I was talking with a man of seven wives.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

3. An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, it has borne silver nutmeg and golden pears.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

4. The north wind has blown, we will have snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

5. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown.
be          F or C

 

Exercise 15. Let us exercise our symbolics for time. In our minds, we match a language marker (ON, IN, or TO) with a picture. The simple activity may help more advanced brainwork.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 15, INTRODUCTION

 

Example: Variable {TO}, the PRESENT Field
Answer: have

 

Our purely symbolic behavior might be illustrated as follows.
PICTURE, EXERCISE 15 SYMBOLICS

 

We may view or print the picture below (click to enlarge), and think about the answers, simply looking at the picture.

 

1. Variable {IN}, the PAST Field
2. Variable {ON}, the PAST Field
3. Variable {ON}, the FUTURE Field
4. Variable {TO}, the FUTURE Field
5. Variable {IN}, the FUTURE Field
6. Variable {ON}, the PRESENT Field
7. Variable {IN}, the PRESENT Field
8. Variable {TO}, the PAST Field

*****

We are about to progress into verbal guidance more. Language Mapping does not require that we abandon classic grammar books.

 

We may want to talk about grammar, and classic grammar terms can be useful in this. Exercises 16-21 are to help the ends meet.

*****

Exercise 16. We do not have to feel bound to fields and land travel, to think about grammatical time. We can imagine an eagle route.

 

PICTURE: EAGLE ROUTE WITH ASPECT PATTERNS

 

Our eagle route has four mapping forms. All English languages in the world (American, British, Irish, or any other) have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive.

 

The fourth mapping form is have been ING (the variable AT). We can think about it more in Part Two of our journey.

 

Our inner language does not need to be “fixed”. We do not have to stay by the connotation from exercise 15. It can be “PAST reference” now. Our head verb can be to live.

 

Example: have, PAST reference, he

Answer: He had lived; the Past Perfect.

 

We work minds first: we think the entire exercise over, and we write the answers only if we decide to do so.

 

Grammatical time

Aspect

 

The Simple

The Progressive

The Perfect

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FUTURE FIELDThe Future

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE FUTURE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PRESENTThe Present

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PRESENT

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PASTThe Past

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PAST FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PAST FIELD

 

1. , PRESENT reference, they

2. be, FUTURE reference, you

3. , PAST reference, we

4. have, PRESENT reference, it

5. be, PAST reference, she

6. , FUTURE reference, we

7. have, FUTURE reference, I

8. be, PRESENT reference, he

 

Exercise 17. Time for some work after all the leisure (!)

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Grammar books may differ on Aspect labeling: some will have Progressive tenses for Continuous tenses. Travelers in Grammar stay by the name Progressive.

 

Our connotation now can be “in the Field of the FUTURE. Our head verb can be to guide.

 

Example: Perfect in the Field of the FUTURE, she

Answer: She will have guided. (Future Perfect)

 

Minds first (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

1. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, I

2. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, you

3. Progressive in the Field of the FUTURE, he

4. Progressive in the Field of the PAST, she

5. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, it

6. Perfect in the Field of the PAST, you

7. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, we

8. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, she

 

Exercise 18. Let us put our skills to an ultimate test. We can try to gather our verb forms from pieces. Speaking with someone in a noisy room happens to require such “gathering from pieces”.

 

Again, we may remain by thinking the answers, without writing them or saying. Our head verb may be to continue.

 

Example: ING, it, the PAST Field

Answer: It was continuing.

 

1. 3RD, he, the FUTURE Field

2. ING, she, the PAST Field

3. ING, they, the PRESENT Field

4. 3RD, we, the PAST Field

5. 3RD, you, the FUTURE Field

6. ING, I, in the PAST Field

7. 3RD, it, the PRESENT Field

8. ING, we, the PRESENT Field

9. 3RD, I, the FUTURE Field

10. ING, you, the PAST Field

11. 3RD, she, the PRESENT Field

12. ING, he, the PAST Field

13. 3RD, they, the FUTURE Field

14. ING, we, the FUTURE Field

 

Exercise 19. We can have various head verbs. All verbs here refer to moving about. Let us remember there are many more verbs, in APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3.

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 2
BUTTON, APPENDIX 3

 

Example 1: walk, HAVE in the PRESENT

Answer: Present Perfect, have/has walked

 

We “gather from pieces” as above, we only include the Simple Aspect. We mark it as the indeterminate or infinity.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity symbolizes that it is impossible to calculate all words, phrases, and sentences we humans can make.

 

There is no way to count irregular verb uses alone. They may vary from one geographical area to another, from person to person, or even the same people may change in verb regularity.

 

The Simple pattern can use head verbs to map on grammatical time. Progressive and Perfect patterns use auxiliary verbs for that.

 

Example 2: go, , in the PAST

Answer: went, Past Simple

 

1. hike, BE in the PRESENT

2. trek, , in the FUTURE

3. stride, HAVE in the PAST

4. ramble, HAVE in the FUTURE

5. move, BE in the PAST

6. stroll, , in the PAST

7. tread, , in the PRESENT

8. step, BE in the FUTURE

9. roam, HAVE in the PAST

10. rove, BE in the PRESENT

 

Exercise 20. Now our head verbs all refer to thinking. Let us use the Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect, with the grammatical person (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).
We may fancy our BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS.

 

Example 1:
think, Progressive, in the PAST Field

Answer:
was thinking (I, he, she, it),
were thinking (you, we, they)

 

Example 2:
consider, Simple, in the PAST Field

Answer:
considered (I, you, we, they, he, she, it: all persons)

 

1. reason, Perfect, in the FUTURE Field

2. imagine, Simple, in the FUTURE Field

3. expect, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

4. figure, Perfect, in the PAST Field

5. reckon, Progressive, in the PRESENT Field

6. surmise, Simple, in the PAST Field

7. mediate, Simple, in the PAST Field

8. cogitate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

9. review, Progressive, in the PAST Field

10. anticipate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

 

Exercise 21. Our thinking and inner language are the fastest and most capable to manage our inner grammars.

 

Linguistically, abstract thinking is not about anything unreal. It extracts from experience. It integrates the essentials.

 

Let us try a few hat tricks. The hat, ^ , is a symbol we may use for our language notation. Let us see, if we can take language tasks “at the drop of the hat”, that is, fast and without effort. Below, we can see an extract or essence for our observations so far.

 

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

In this exercise, all verbs relate to comprehension and learning. We can have our language note, TO^PRESENT, for saying, TO a moment with a PRESENT reference. Everyone may write up own notation.

 

Example: gather, TO^PRESENT, she

Answer: She has gathered.

 

1. understand, ON^PRESENT, I

2. learn, IN^FUTURE, we

3. notice, TO^FUTURE, he

4. think, IN^PAST, you

5. study, ON^PAST, they

6. interpret, IN^PRESENT, he

7. discern, TO^PRESENT, she

8. comprehend, ON^FUTURE, we

 

Our language markers ON, IN, TO (and later also AT) grammatically are prepositions. We can have these function words for cognitive variables in inner management of integrated patterns of language.

 

We do not need to be ashamed of the idea in front of school professors (!)

 

Let us mind, we use our markers for the language inner framework. We can compare classic grammars: we do not have to say we are using the Present Simple, whenever we speak or write with the Present Simple pattern.

 

Matters are the same with Language Mapping: we do not have to say or write the prepositions, to use them for mapping.

 

Another way round, we do not have to employ the Progressive, Simple, or Perfect tense patterns to use the words progress, simple, or perfect. Likewise, we can use prepositions for our content regardless of the mapping framework.

 

An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, says example 3 in exercise 14. Our Simple pattern can have an auxiliary. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 5.

BUTTON, CHAPTER 5. THE AFFIRMATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, NEGATIVE, AND NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

2.1. WORD PRACTICE IN THE FIELDS

We can manage the grammatical time as in fields for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

Verb forms may change for the grammatical time.
Not all are regular in this.

 

Most dictionaries have lists of irregular verbs. The lists show the first, second, and third form, for irregular verbs.

 

AN IRREGULAR VERB

The infinitive: to ring

The base form: ring.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

ring

rang

rung

 

Regular verbs take the ending ED in their second and third forms.

 

A REGULAR VERB

The infinitive: to sound

The base form: sound.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

sound

sounded

sounded

 

We are only beginning our language journey with verbs. For now, we can stay with the first and second forms. Some knowledge on the base and infinitive shapes of verbs should help us work with grammar resources.

 

We build the infinitive with the basic form of the verb and the particleto”.

 

BASE FORM: ring & to
THE INFINITIVE: to ring.

 

For most verbs in English, the base form is going to be the same as the first form.
I will write tomorrow, the FUTURE Field of Time;
(“write” is the first and the basic form of the verb to write).

 

For the verb to be, the base form is different from the first form.
I will be home tomorrow, the FUTURE Field of Time;
(“be” is the base form of the verb to be;
the first forms are am, is, are).

 

We can see the first forms in our PRESENT Field of Time.

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

Human grammars evidently have evolved in our earthly reality.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us note that the particle “to” does not belong only with the infinitive. To tell the difference, we mind if the particle comes with a verb or a noun. The infinitive is a form of a verb.

 

I like to listen to music;
(the PRESENT Field, the infinitive is underlined).

 

I often listen to music;
(the PRESENT Field, no infinitive, music is a noun, that is, a word that can answer the question Who or what?)

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs. APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3 show verb speech sound patterns. Irregular verbs are easier to learn with those language melodies.

 

Exercise 5. Let us put the verbs in forms proper for the indicated grammatical time.

 

 

In simple words,
let us put the verbs in Fields of Time.

 

Our vocoid pattern here is [I:] ― [e:] ― [e:].

 

In simple words,
the language melody for the verbs has a contour as
[I:] ― [e:] ― [e:]

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

leave

left

left

 

Example: PAST (leave)

Answer: left

 

1. FUTURE (leave)

2. PRESENT (mean)

3. PRESENT (meet)

4. PAST (read)

5. FUTURE (sleep)

6. PAST (sweep)

7. PAST (sleep)

8. PRESENT (read)

9. FUTURE (meet)

10. PRESENT (sweep)

 

Exercise 6. We can try our language natures another way round. We tell the Field of Time by the shape of the verb. By standard, we show pronunciation — the way to say a word — in square brackets.

 

Example: left

Answer: (time first) PAST (leave)

 

1. meet(s); 2. read [re: d]; 3. read [rI: d]; 4. will sleep; 5. will leave; 6. met; 7. mean(s); 8. meant; 9. slept; 10. swept.

 

Verbs can make patterns we name the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. Feel welcome to further grammar journey.
CHAPTER 3. TIME IS LIKE A RIVER.

LINK TO CHAPTER 3: THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH