3.3. THE BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS

Let us picture the Simple, Progressive, and the Perfect with all personal pronouns.

 

We can view the verb phrase as the room we make for grammatical time. Verb phrases mostly have a few verbs, but in the Simple Aspect, one verb may be enough.

 

We begin with the FUTURE. Our head verb is to learn.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

THE SIMPLE

will learn
(I, you, we, they, he, she, it)

THE PROGRESSIVE

will be learning
(I, you, we, they, he, she, it)

THE PERFECT

will have learned
(I, you, we, they, he, she, it)

NOTES

Our verbal forms do not change for the grammatical person, in the FUTURE Field. All Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and the Perfect, take on the auxiliary WILL.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT

THE SIMPLE

I, you, we, they learn
he, she, it learns

THE PROGRESSIVE

I am learning
you, we, they are learning
he, she, it is learning

THE PERFECT

I, you, we, they have learned
he, she, it has learned

NOTES

The feature S keeps company to the third person singular, he, she, it. We have the forms learns, is learning, and has learned.

VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

THE SIMPLE

learned
(I, you, we, they, he, she it)

THE PROGRESSIVE

I, he, she, it was learning
you, we, they were learning

THE PERFECT

had learned
(I, you, we, they, he, she it)

NOTES

The feature S remains with the Past Progressive singular, for the 1st and 3rd persons: I, he, she, it was learning.

The form LEARNED looks the same for the Simple, where it is the 2ND form, and the Perfect, where it is the 3RD form. The matter is going to be the same with all regular verbs.

We tell 2ND or 3RD forms by the syntax, by the way we put words together.

If our syntax has the auxiliary HAVE, we use the 3RD form, for the FUTURE, PRESENT, as well as the PAST.

The PAST Simple pattern uses the 2ND form of the head verb.

We know patterns, when we know how to use them. CHAPTER 4 has a picture for this.

We also can practice the forms a little, before we think about further grammar guidance.

3.4. ASPECT PATTERNS IN EXERCISES
LINK 3.4. ASPECT PATTERNS IN EXERCISES

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CHAPTER 1. WE CAN PLAN ON TIME AS IN FIELDS

Our earthly space is three-dimensional. Language grammar belongs with the estimable heights, widths, and depths or lengths, along with the human need for fresh water, air, good clothing, and a decent roof. Grammar is a basic human need. It is healthy to have a good business with grammar.
 
Language has much reference to time. When we talk about a thing or a person, we usually think if something or someone — is, was, or will be. This means we need grammar for the Present, Past, or Future.
 
However, we cannot touch time. We cannot see or hear time. Clocks can show values only as we set them, and grammatical time is not the same thing as the hour.
 
PICTURE: CLOCKS SHOWING DIFFERENT TIMES
 
How can we learn the grammatical time, then? To an extent, we may think about time together with place. 
 
We can reason on the human experience we know as language use. The way we people use language can show a bit of that human and intellectual skill to manage own speech faculty.
 
How can we use a word as “before?” Could we say “before that turn”, for a place, and “before ten”, for a time?
 
ILLUSTRATION: BEFORE A PLACE OR TIME
 
“Before the turn” says “before the place”.
“Before ten” says “before the time”.
 
We can use the word before to speak about time, as well as place. In all natural languages, human minds have a flexible habit to connect time and place. Humans have evolved grammars along with perception for three-dimensional space.
 
Let us elaborate on this fact for grammar.
 
We can think about three places, and name them TODAY, YESTERDAY, and TOMORROW.
 
Could there be a town named Tomorrow?
 
PICTURE: ROAD SIGN SAYING 'TOMORROW'
 
This could be our Tomorrow town.
 
PICTURE: SUBURBAN AREA, AERIAL VIEW
 
Could there be an estate named “Yesterday”?
 
PICTURE: BODIE, CALIFORNIA, USA
 
Well, this could be a good idea for our Yesterday.
(Bodie is a ghost town in a history park in California, USA.)
Such place names would be unusual, but possible.
 
Let us envision fields we name the PAST, PRESENT, and FUTURE. They can be our Fields of Time. To learn the grammatical time, we learn to manage our Fields of Time.
 
In grammar as well as in day-to-day living, our views depend on our knowledge. We could say that our knowledge is the light we have. Let us think about Fields of Time and sunlight.
 
Knowledge needs memory. PAST things happen to go into oblivion, as the learning matter we do not review or work with.
 
For our PAST field, we can envision the light as with a setting sun: there is shine enough, if we want to return to the matter.
VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST
 
We do not have memories of the FUTURE, but we can plan our learning. For our FUTURE field, the shine can be as with sunrise.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE
 
It is our PRESENT we have the most potential to shape. In our PRESENT field, the sun is high and daylight broad.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT
 
Let us picture a word that matters a lot in grammar and life, the verb to be, in the Field we name the PRESENT.
PICTURE: THE VERB TO BE IN THE FIELD FOR THE PRESENT
 
Let us envision the verb to be in the other Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO BE IN THE FIELDS FOR THE FUTURE AND PAST
 
This is how the verb to be can look in all our Fields.
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
We can feature two other important words, to have and to do, in our Fields.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FIELDS FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
This is how the verb to have alone could look in our Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
This is how the verb to do could look in the Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO DO IN THE FIELDS FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO DO, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
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What do we do, to feature words in our Fields of Time? We put together our thought about the grammatical time and person.
 
For a start, we can think about s as the feature for the pronouns he, she, and it.
 
PICTURE: PERSONAL PRONOUNS, HE, SHE, AND IT
 
Pronouns are words that can stand for grammatical persons. The words I, you, we, they, he, she, and it, are personal pronouns.
 
The persons are “grammatical”, as they can stand for human beings, or things, events, or other objects of thought. They also can refer to fictional characters or objects, and people in stories do not have to be real, either.
 
PICTURE: BOB THE JUNIOR
 
We can say that he is someone, he has something, or he does something. Similarly, we can say that she is someone, she has something, or she does something.
 
PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES
 
The feature “s” holds only for the singular, that is, single persons, creatures, things, events, or phenomena — in short, objects of thought — in the grammatical PRESENT.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT
 
How important are our three words, be, have, and do? They can be our core grammar words. We can use them cognitively to map the grammatical time in language.
 
When fashioning words with features becomes our habit and nature, we get more real time to think what we want to say. We do not need very much time to think how to speak or write. Feel welcome to try 1.1. THE FIELDS OF TIME, BASIC PRACTICE.
LINK 1.1. FIELDS OF TIME, BASIC PRACTICE

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