2.1. WORD PRACTICE IN THE FIELDS

We can manage the grammatical time as in fields for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

Verb forms may change for the grammatical time.
Not all are regular in this.

 

Most dictionaries have lists of irregular verbs. The lists show the first, second, and third form, for irregular verbs.

 

AN IRREGULAR VERB

The infinitive: to ring

The base form: ring.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

ring

rang

rung

 

Regular verbs take the ending ED in their second and third forms.

 

A REGULAR VERB

The infinitive: to sound

The base form: sound.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

sound

sounded

sounded

 

We are only beginning our language journey with verbs. For now, we can stay with the first and second forms. Some knowledge on the base and infinitive shapes of verbs should help us work with grammar resources.

 

We build the infinitive with the basic form of the verb and the particleto”.

 

BASE FORM: ring & to
THE INFINITIVE: to ring.

 

For most verbs in English, the base form is going to be the same as the first form.
I will write tomorrow, the FUTURE Field of Time;
(“write” is the first and the basic form of the verb to write).

 

For the verb to be, the base form is different from the first form.
I will be home tomorrow, the FUTURE Field of Time;
(“be” is the base form of the verb to be;
the first forms are am, is, are).

 

We can see the first forms in our PRESENT Field of Time.

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

Human grammars evidently have evolved in our earthly reality.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us note that the particle “to” does not belong only with the infinitive. To tell the difference, we mind if the particle comes with a verb or a noun. The infinitive is a form of a verb.

 

I like to listen to music;
(the PRESENT Field, the infinitive is underlined).

 

I often listen to music;
(the PRESENT Field, no infinitive, music is a noun, that is, a word that can answer the question Who or what?)

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs. APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3 show verb speech sound patterns. Irregular verbs are easier to learn with those language melodies.

 

Exercise 5. Let us put the verbs in forms proper for the indicated grammatical time.

 

 

In simple words,
let us put the verbs in Fields of Time.

 

Our vocoid pattern here is [I:] ― [e:] ― [e:].

 

In simple words,
the language melody for the verbs has a contour as
[I:] ― [e:] ― [e:]

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

leave

left

left

 

Example: PAST (leave)

Answer: left

 

1. FUTURE (leave)

2. PRESENT (mean)

3. PRESENT (meet)

4. PAST (read)

5. FUTURE (sleep)

6. PAST (sweep)

7. PAST (sleep)

8. PRESENT (read)

9. FUTURE (meet)

10. PRESENT (sweep)

 

Exercise 6. We can try our language natures another way round. We tell the Field of Time by the shape of the verb. By standard, we show pronunciation — the way to say a word — in square brackets.

 

Example: left

Answer: (time first) PAST (leave)

 

1. meet(s); 2. read [re: d]; 3. read [rI: d]; 4. will sleep; 5. will leave; 6. met; 7. mean(s); 8. meant; 9. slept; 10. swept.

 

Verbs can make patterns we name the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. Feel welcome to further grammar journey.
CHAPTER 3. TIME IS LIKE A RIVER.

LINK TO CHAPTER 3: THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

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1.1. FIELDS OF TIME: BASIC PRACTICE

Much has been written and said on what great difference it is, if we speak a language natively or as a foreign tongue, or how peculiar foreign language learning can be, in comparison with learning the first tongue in childhood.

Let us remember, there are no inborn language habits. There are no inborn grammar books either, and learning a language always requires thinking.

Would we say we use the verb to be because Mr. Y, a grammarian, says so? It might not stand for a good reason.

Repeating after people or books would not give us the flexibility we need to talk. This is why we have exercises as here: to make ourselves flexible habits for language.

Exercise 1. Let us try to use the verbs to be, to have, and to do, for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE, with the grammatical person (we refer to chapter 1).

With the pronouns I, you, he, she, and it, we may speak about single individuals or objects. We name this the singular, in grammar.

In simple words, let us put the verbs in the Fields of Time.

If we already know the forms well, we can take the exercise as a mild brainteaser. We consciously practice the Field (grammatical time) first. We can use the GRAMMAR VISUALS.

Example: PRESENT, (be), she

Answer: is

1. PRESENT, (do), I

2. FUTURE, (do), you

3. PAST, (have), I

4. PRESENT, (be), he

5. PAST, (be), you

6. FUTURE, (have), she

7. PAST, (have), it

8. PRESENT, (be), you

9. FUTURE, (do), he

10. PAST, (have), you

Exercise 2. In this exercise, we use the persons we, you, and they, too. This means we can speak about more than one individual or object.

In grammar, we name this the plural. We can use the pronoun youfor the singular and the plural, compare subchapter 3.2.

We may think about real people ― our acquaintances, friends as well as foes ― to do this exercise.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

1. PAST, (do), they

2. PRESENT, (do), I

3. PRESENT, (have), he

4. FUTURE, (be), it

5. FUTURE, (be), we

6. PRESENT, (have), you

7. FUTURE, (have), we

8. PRESENT, (be), she

9. PAST, (do), they

10. FUTURE, (have), you

Exercise 3. We tell the grammatical time (the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE) and the person, for the verbs below. We can note “all persons”, where the form stays the same for all of them. We continue focusing on time first: we can stay with our visuals and Fields of Time.

Example: do

Answer: PRESENT, I, you, we, they

1. are; 2. will do; 3. did; 4. will have; 5. has; 6. am; 7. does; 8. had; 9. were; 10. have; 11. will be; 12. was.

Grammar practice is not only pen and paper. It is also about a way to think. Feel welcome to the 1.2. Mind practice.

Link 1.2. Mind practice
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CHAPTER 1. WE CAN PLAN ON TIME AS IN FIELDS

Our earthly space is three-dimensional. Language grammar belongs with the estimable heights, widths, and depths or lengths, along with the human need for fresh water, air, good clothing, and a decent roof. Grammar is a basic human need. It is healthy to have a good business with grammar.
 
Language has much reference to time. When we talk about a thing or a person, we usually think if something or someone — is, was, or will be. This means we need grammar for the Present, Past, or Future.
 
However, we cannot touch time. We cannot see or hear time. Clocks can show values only as we set them, and grammatical time is not the same thing as the hour.
 
PICTURE: CLOCKS SHOWING DIFFERENT TIMES
 
How can we learn the grammatical time, then? To an extent, we may think about time together with place. 
 
We can reason on the human experience we know as language use. The way we people use language can show a bit of that human and intellectual skill to manage own speech faculty.
 
How can we use a word as “before?” Could we say “before that turn”, for a place, and “before ten”, for a time?
 
ILLUSTRATION: BEFORE A PLACE OR TIME
 
“Before the turn” says “before the place”.
“Before ten” says “before the time”.
 
We can use the word before to speak about time, as well as place. In all natural languages, human minds have a flexible habit to connect time and place. Humans have evolved grammars along with perception for three-dimensional space.
 
Let us elaborate on this fact for grammar.
 
We can think about three places, and name them TODAY, YESTERDAY, and TOMORROW.
 
Could there be a town named Tomorrow?
 
PICTURE: ROAD SIGN SAYING 'TOMORROW'
 
This could be our Tomorrow town.
 
PICTURE: SUBURBAN AREA, AERIAL VIEW
 
Could there be an estate named “Yesterday”?
 
PICTURE: BODIE, CALIFORNIA, USA
 
Well, this could be a good idea for our Yesterday.
(Bodie is a ghost town in a history park in California, USA.)
Such place names would be unusual, but possible.
 
Let us envision fields we name the PAST, PRESENT, and FUTURE. They can be our Fields of Time. To learn the grammatical time, we learn to manage our Fields of Time.
 
In grammar as well as in day-to-day living, our views depend on our knowledge. We could say that our knowledge is the light we have. Let us think about Fields of Time and sunlight.
 
Knowledge needs memory. PAST things happen to go into oblivion, as the learning matter we do not review or work with.
 
For our PAST field, we can envision the light as with a setting sun: there is shine enough, if we want to return to the matter.
VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST
 
We do not have memories of the FUTURE, but we can plan our learning. For our FUTURE field, the shine can be as with sunrise.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE
 
It is our PRESENT we have the most potential to shape. In our PRESENT field, the sun is high and daylight broad.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT
 
Let us picture a word that matters a lot in grammar and life, the verb to be, in the Field we name the PRESENT.
PICTURE: THE VERB TO BE IN THE FIELD FOR THE PRESENT
 
Let us envision the verb to be in the other Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO BE IN THE FIELDS FOR THE FUTURE AND PAST
 
This is how the verb to be can look in all our Fields.
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
We can feature two other important words, to have and to do, in our Fields.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FIELDS FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
This is how the verb to have alone could look in our Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
This is how the verb to do could look in the Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO DO IN THE FIELDS FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO DO, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
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What do we do, to feature words in our Fields of Time? We put together our thought about the grammatical time and person.
 
For a start, we can think about s as the feature for the pronouns he, she, and it.
 
PICTURE: PERSONAL PRONOUNS, HE, SHE, AND IT
 
Pronouns are words that can stand for grammatical persons. The words I, you, we, they, he, she, and it, are personal pronouns.
 
The persons are “grammatical”, as they can stand for human beings, or things, events, or other objects of thought. They also can refer to fictional characters or objects, and people in stories do not have to be real, either.
 
PICTURE: BOB THE JUNIOR
 
We can say that he is someone, he has something, or he does something. Similarly, we can say that she is someone, she has something, or she does something.
 
PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES
 
The feature “s” holds only for the singular, that is, single persons, creatures, things, events, or phenomena — in short, objects of thought — in the grammatical PRESENT.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT
 
How important are our three words, be, have, and do? They can be our core grammar words. We can use them cognitively to map the grammatical time in language.
 
When fashioning words with features becomes our habit and nature, we get more real time to think what we want to say. We do not need very much time to think how to speak or write. Feel welcome to try 1.1. THE FIELDS OF TIME, BASIC PRACTICE.
LINK 1.1. FIELDS OF TIME, BASIC PRACTICE

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