LANGUAGE MAPPING SUMMARY

The grammar course refers to the notion of the human language faculty, not the Language Acquisition Device. Our devices are strictly linguistic and symbolic implements.

 

Everyone has one PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE really. Three fields or extents can symbolize this reality, for the grammatical time (CHAPTER 1).
PICTURE: THE THREE FIELDS OF TIME; PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

 

In the Fields of Time, we observe on the verb form “will” mapping on the FUTURE already in the PRESENT grammatical form (CHAPTER 2).

 

We perceive and extract three Aspect patterns,
in CHAPTER 3 and SUBCHAPTER 3.1.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT PATTERNS, THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

 

We symbolize the first element in the Simple pattern with the Greek lemniscate, that is, the INDETERMINATE OR INFINITY: it can be any verb.

 

We associate grammar and human natural mapping, as with geography and travel, in CHAPTER 4.

 

We people live on Earth. We usually view lands or waters as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas in which we are. We perceive routes and ways to places. We happen to be at landmarks and places.

 

Such are human natural variables for space, in English. We can use them for the grammatical Aspect.
PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

Arrows are very familiar symbols to show or indicate the way. We combine our mapping and arrow symbols, to exercise our target grammatical time, in CHAPTER 5.

 

The ability will be vital with Modal verbs. Their forms may not tell directly what time the talk is about.

 

We make a color palette, and combine language components for the Affirmative, Negative, or Interrogative (SUB-CHAPTER 5.1).

 

VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

 

To expand our syntax, we learn to keep the head time (CHAPTER 6). We use time frames. We keep the real-time frame open for the Perfect, and we close it for the Simple or Progressive: Perfect tenses can make more than one reference in real time.

 

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND, AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

All along, we mind we use concepts, inventions, and symbols. We do not claim there is anything like time frames or time extents in human heads.

 

Common sense, if we can make a wheel, it does not mean we have wheels in our heads.

 

We compare our mapping variables {ON} and {IN} in CHAPTER 7. In classic terms, we compare the Simple and the Progressive, for the stative use of verbs as to love, to hate, to think.

 

We merge our mapping variables {IN} and {TO} for the Perfect Progressive, in CHAPTER 8.
PICTURE: THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE MERGER

We get a mapping variable {AT}, to manage all Aspects as we want.
PICTURE: 4 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

We do not change language. The following examples come from the Corpus of Contemporary American English, COCA:
This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
I’ve been loving it. But I want to keep doing different things.

 

We consider the variable {ON} for an earthling basic variable in SUB-CHAPTER 8.1. Astronauts also have learned language on Earth.

 

Modal verbs challenge us on the target time in CHAPTER 9.

 

We make relative time frames for Modal forms, and learn to keep the earthling basic variable, in SUBCHAPTER 10.1.

 

But the obstacles, she would have made progress.
(She did not make or has not made progress.)
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

*****

Despite the obstacles, she would have made progress.
(She has made progress.)
SYMBOLICS: MODAL MEDIATIONPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Feel welcome.
EMOTICON: SMILE

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8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

Exercise 45. We can warm up, merging our symbolic cues. As for our MIND PRACTICE, we may just think and visualize.

 

Example:
The plain arrow symbolizes the variable {ON}. Pointed up or down, it cues for the grammatical FUTURE or PAST. Horizontally, it indicates the PRESENT. We may refer to SUBCHAPTER 5.1.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

We can merge the plain arrow, let us say for the variable {IN}, within the same grammatical time. Here, it is going to be the PRESENT.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger:
Jemma smiles.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

B. After the merger:
Jemma is smiling.
PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

*****

We are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are working on flexible habits. We may think about Jemma, as well as Bob or anyone, including ourselves, and with various verbs. It is important that we learn to merge features for grammatical variables and time.

*****

THE TASK
PICTURE: EXERCISE 45, TASK

 

Exercise 46. We merge features as above and think about Expression. We just think and visualize.

 

SYMBOLICS: QUESTION MARK
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

Answer:
A. Before the merger
Does Bob worry?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, BEFORE THE MERGER
{ON}, the PRESENT
the Present Simple

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON 

B. After the merger
Is Bob worrying?
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE
(His dad is wearing a horrible tie.)
EMOTICON: A JOKE
PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, AFTER THE MERGER
{IN}, the PRESENT
the Present Progressive

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 46, TASK

 

Exercise 47. Let us practice deciding {ON} our cognitive extents. We complete the structures and arrow cues.

 

Not everyone fancies speaking about feelings and thoughts. However, it is important that we try to represent them in language. We may think about time and change.

*****

When we are able to put words together well, our words represent our notions and thoughts in language. We can name this ability representation, as there is always more than one way to put words together and make sense.

*****

Example: I love …

Answer: I love language.
(We can answer without telling anyone;
we remember the MIND PRACTICE.)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I hate …

 

2. I thought that … was pretty.

 

3. I remembered … then.

 

4. I considered … important.

 

5. I want

 

6. I hated … when I was a child.

 

7. I think that … is stupid. [TABOO]

 

8. I remember

 

9. I consider … important.

 

10. I wanted … when I was a child.

 

Exercise 48. It is natural to follow what is good for us. Therefore, let us try to “trade” language features. We merge the features in the wording with symbolics.

 

Example: I love
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Answer: I have (always) loved language.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

Again, we can give our answers in our thoughts, envisioning situations for which we might use the phrases.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

1. I think (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

2. I concluded
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

3. I like
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

4. I keep
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

5. I sensed
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

6. I thought (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

7. I feel (always, that)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

8. I was thinking (about)
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

9. I learned
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN

 

10. means a lot to me.
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE TO

 

Exercise 49. The Perfect Progressive Aspect makes three tenses, PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE. It has an open time frame.

 

Let us practice our linguistic gravitation: we close the time frame, when we are {ON} a cognitive ground (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.1).

 

We have part the mapping cues and stay with the Affirmative. We may not want much to do, in one go.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example 1: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 10:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 18:00 P.M.

 

Answer: I had breakfast.
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

 

Example 2: have breakfast
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 8:30 A.M.
TIME NOW: 8:15 P.M.

 

Answer: I have been having breakfast.
SYMBOLICS: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 

1. work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Monday, 10:00 P.M.

 

2. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Saturday, after 19:00 P.M.

 

3. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURES TO AND IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 23:00 P.M.

 

4. read
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE IN
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 00:15 P.M.

 

5. go to the gym
TUESDAYS 19:00 ― 20:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Wednesday, after 21:15 P.M.

 

Exercise 50. Let us practice our earthling proper egoism (please compare SUB-CHAPTER 8.1). In conversation, we cannot merely follow on grammar.

 

We decide {ON} our language extents. We ignore the cue that would not be properly egoistic.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Example: She (cherish) her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: She has cherished her friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, ANSWER

 

1. The book set (consist) of five parts.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 1

 

2. She (sound) like under a bad impression.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 2

 

3. Yesterday afternoon, he (recall) his school years with friends.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 3

 

4. She just (recognize) the handwriting now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 4

 

5. He (agree) to the new conclusion just now.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 5

 

6. Now, she (appreciate) the ancient manuscript for an hour.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 6

 

7. He (want) to go to the Arctic before he went to the Antarctic.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 7

 

8. The house (belong) to the family for 10 years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 8

 

9. He usually (respect) other opinions, but not that time.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 9

 

10. This time tomorrow, she (see) her brother.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 50, TASK 10

*****

From the key: example 7 shows we always should consider the entire utterance, to make out the grammatical time. The verb form “went” places the stretch of speech in the PAST.

 

We also can think about the alternate language forms.

 

In example 3, a phrase as “*yesterday afternoon, he will recall his school years with friends”, could not work with our cognitive map for YESTERDAY.

 

In example 8, a phrase as “*the house will have been belonging to the family for 10 years”, would go against natural human possessiveness: we place property {ON} cognitive maps.

 

Grammar is not only about style. It is also about logic and sense.
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Exercise 51. In natural language, our real-time present allows combining the time reference. We can talk about events that took place TODAY with a PAST grammatical reference. For events that are to take place, we can use the FUTURE.

 

We remain with our healthy egoism: we stay {ON} cognitive extents, for hearts and minds, regardless of any cues.

 

Example:
TODAY, PRESENT; he, know the answer
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Answer: He knows the answer. {ON}
PRESENT SIMPLE arrow(We ignore the dot, the Progressive symbolics.)

 

1. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, believe it

 

2. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, work
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

3. TODAY, the PAST; they, see each other
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

4. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, live here for ten years
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

5. YESTERDAY, the PAST; she, speak with them
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

6. YESTERDAY, the PAST; he, write for an hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

7. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; you, work here for five years
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

8. TODAY, the PAST; we, hike in the mountains
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

9. TODAY, the PRESENT; she, exercise for an hour already
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

10. TOMORROW, the FUTURE; he, watch television, at this hour
SYMBOLICS: FEATURE INPICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Exercise 52. SAMSON THE AGONIST is a story of a hero who had magic hair that gave him power. Naturally, we do not have to believe everything we read, online either.

 

Our “Observations as by a grain of sand” are to help us keep grammar even against unusual wording, like in EXERCISE 42. We have only part the cues: we practice independent language skill.

 

We first put our verbs into the grammatical PAST, and then into the PRESENT. We mind our Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.

 

Example: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, 1. (think) about a proper measure for own composition.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, was thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A. Length N 2. (seem) to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum N 3. (be) the argument to the grain of sand: it 4. (bring) to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B. The grain of sand 5. (think) about wisdom. What wisdom 6. (be) ?

 

C. It 7. (may be) a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand N 8. (consider) going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary.

 

D. The grain usually 9. (rest) close to the shoreline, not entirely by own will, but by the way of life it 10. (practice) since its earliest years.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASK 10

 

E. Owing to this lifestyle, it 11. (decide) to devote part its time to necessities of cognition.

 

F. Thinking about own format as a potentiality by another, it 12. (deliberate) whether it 13. (be), as a grain of sand, a fruit of ability or mere industriousness.

 

G. It 14. (can be) up to itself to conclude on own structuring. For that chance, it 15. (spend) half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the evening, to ponder on composite phenomena strictly.

 

H. It 16. (do) its daily dose of reckoning for about fifteen minutes, when a westerly 17.  (arrive) to the shore. Its habitual way, the wind 18. (make) a little eddy on the shoreside.

 

I. The grain of sand 19. (think) if that 20. (be) wise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 52, TASKS 16-17

*****

Obviously, wits cannot be something we grow on our heads.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us now put the story into the grammatical PRESENT. Our grammar journey has had some dramatic narrative already, in EXERCISE 44.

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, is thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A1. Length does not seem to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum is not the argument to the grain of sand: it brings to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B1. The grain of sand thinks about wisdom. What is wisdom?

 

C1. It may be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand does not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary…

*****

Our sense for distance and time may encourage altering the word “that” from the grammatical PAST into the word “this”, for the grammatical PRESENT.

 

Modal verbs can challenge our logic. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 9.
BUTTON: CHAPTER 9. MODAL VERBS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY,
PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.

 

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.

 

As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.

 

In the auxiliary role, the verb to HAVE works for the framework. We mark it green. As a content verb, it can tell about ownership. We mark it mauve then, as all content verbs.

*****

Madame Règle speaks excellent American English. Her friendship with Jill Smith started over a website forum discussing philosophy and linguistics.

 

They agreed that Latin had had {TO} influence over English and French thought, although the languages belonged to diverse language groups.

 

*****

 

This is one of the reasons for some French reference in our grammar voyage. Latin has affected {TO} both English and French languages.

 

On the other hand, English and French have {ON} very dissimilar shapes. English is a Germanic language, and French belongs with the Romance language group. Some American insignia have {ON} Latin mottos.

 

We could hear or read sometimes that American English is an international language. There are no international languages really. Esperanto does not have {ON} many features of a natural language.

 

We can say that American English is a lingua franca, that is, a tongue spoken worldwide.

 

By origin of the phrase, we can associate a lingua franca with free speech. In Latin, the adjective “francus” also meant someone exempt from service, someone at liberty.

 

The Roman Empire rule over the present-day territory of France collapsed early, and ancient Romans knew the local people as Franks, READ IN WIKIPEDIA.

 

America and France have had {TO} historic ties. The French were American allies in the WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. The Statue of Liberty is a memorial to American independence and alliance with the French.

 

PICTURE: STATUE OF LIBERTY

 

There are many Statues of Liberty. The most famous statues are those in New York and Paris. A French sculptor, FRÉDÉRIC BARTHOLDI, designed the Statue.

 

Bartholdi patented it as Liberty Enlightening the World (La Liberté éclairant le monde, in French). The American statue stands on the Liberty Island, in New York Harbor.

 

PICTURE: LIBERTY ISLAND

*****

 

Madame Règle has {ON} a small book of poetry with her today. She has finished {TO} the book about Descartes. At home, she has {ON} a big volume about influences between French and English thinkers.

 

She has been reading {AT} two book series, poetry or philosophical commentary, one at a time, all this week.

 

Latimer Sauf is not surprised at her reading habit. The special edition of Larousse Gastronomique he got from her last Christmas has {ON} an elevated and celebrated place in his restaurant main hall.

 

The guests have turned {TO} many of the pages so far. He has had {TO} another copy to read at home. He has been studying {AT} it to detail. He has {ON} extra Larousse dishes on his menu.

*****

Let us focus on the grammatical time and cognitive variable.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE been reading; {AT}

 

PRESENT
He HAS been reading; {AT}

 

PAST
He HAD been reading. {AT}

 

We can compare the beginning of our language journey, the Fields of Time (CHAPTER 1).

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO HAVE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

How does the Perfect Progressive change for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE? It is the verb to have to change.

 

The verb to have changes the same as in our Fields of Time, for our cognitive variable {ON}, the Simple Aspect.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE a book; {ON}

 

PRESENT
He HAS a book; {ON}

 

PAST
He HAD a book. {ON}

 

Let us compare the cognitive variable {IN}. In the content role, the verb to have can also tell about eating. Madame Règle likes the extra Larousse dishes by Monsieur Sauf.

 

FUTURE
Tomorrow at this hour, Madame Règle
WILL BE having her extra Larousse and reading a book; {IN}

 

PRESENT
Madame Règle
IS having her extra Larousse and reading a book now; {IN}

 

PAST
When Jill walked into the restaurant yesterday, Madame Règle
WAS having her extra Larousse and reading a book.{IN}

 

Let us compare the variable {ON}. Here are our Fields of Time, again.

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

FUTURE
She WILL BE at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PRESENT
She IS at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PAST
She WAS at the restaurant. {ON}

 

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change for the grammatical time. It changes the same in our Fields of Time, the same as for our variable {ON}.

 

Let us compare all Aspects. The elements that adapt for the grammatical time are underlined.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FIRST ELEMENT

 

We can view the value {ON} as a basis for other Aspects.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM A LEARNER, I HAVE A GRAMMAR BOOK

 

We also can focus on the value {ON} and view other Aspects as syntactic expansion.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM -- I HAVE -- I HAVE BEEN LEARNING

 

Please mind that finding a basic value does not impose any particular order to use the values, especially if we come to the resolve that our {ON, IN, TO} and {AT} can be our learned cognitive variables.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us turn to American English as it is really. We do not intend to invent a new language.

This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
(NBC Today Sun as in the CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH, COCA.)

TEXT EXTENT: THIS IS A DREAM
SYMBOLICS: SYNTACTIC EXPANSE

The Simple Aspect can tell what we have {ON} our cognitive map. What we perceive does not have to take up an entire extent.

 

Even if we regard an entire cognitive extent, it does not have to imply that we are preoccupied. Another way round, we live on planet Earth, and none of us could preoccupy it.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

TEXT EXTENT: I AM LOVING IT

The Progressive Aspect, the value {IN}, can help mark a matter as different from the regular and basic {ON}.

 

To compare space, we may feel as IN an area, rather than ON a regular cognitive map, for matters we perceive as irregular or EMPHATIC.

 

The Progressive can help delineate in time, on something out of the ordinary, as a dream come true: dreams coming true are not anything regular.

*****

In this view, we can have the value {AT} for the most divergent from the regular, basic {ON}.
PICTURE: ASPECT SYNTACTIC EXPANSION

 

Could we have a natural feeling to return to the basic variable, after we “go away”? The following example looks spontaneous and shows our matter well.

 

{AT} I’ve been loving it. But {ON} I want to keep doing different things.
(People magazine as in COCA.)

TEXT EXTENTS: HAVE BEEN LOVING -- WANT TO DO

Some classic grammars might not agree to have verbs as “to love” or “to hate” in the Progressive at all. However, if to let anybody PRESCRIBE what language should be like, we might have to recur to MIDDLE ENGLISH.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

American English is a live language, and live languages also change. Thinking about free speech, let us consider a cognitive difference, for the two forms:
“I hate you”,
or
“I am hating you”.

 

We can compare human perception on physical space.
TEXT EXTENT: I AM HATING YOU

“I am hating you” is {IN} an area only.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HATE YOU

“I hate you” is {ON} the entire extent.

 

Our grammar is correct when it properly renders how we feel and think.

 

To speak American freely, we should choose independently if we say that we are hating or loving something, or that we hate or love it.

 

This can be our earthling proper egoism: we have our inner grammars work for our minds, rather than adapt our minds to rules that cannot be universal, anyway.

 

The variable {ON} can be our earthling and basic variable. Who knows, maybe the ancient Latin rules, from which classic grammars derive, emerged owing to human variables, only they were not called variables then, hence the “stative use of verbs”?

 

Naturally, classicist or generativist, we do not have to be always gravely serious about everything we say.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

VARIABLES OR OPTIONS?

We may come across presentations of language as features.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FEATURES, A CHART

 

An Aspect both Perfect and Progressive would be the Perfect Progressive. An Aspect neither Perfect nor Progressive would be the Simple.

 

Some approaches might attempt a picture for language as made of options. However, our brains are live structures and have simultaneous processes.

 

When we use the Present Simple, our paths for the Perfect Progressive for example do not become “switched off”. If we use the Progressive, we do not exclude a possibility for the same thing to happen also in a manner we describe in the Simple:

“I‘m loving you”,

would not mean

“I don’t love you”.

 

Planet Earth is our natural habitat. When we people think what there is {ON} a geographical map, we do not exclude possibilities for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} places.

 

Humans are likely to learn languages {ON} a planet for an indeterminate future. Even astronauts learn {ON} Earth.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Associating language, thinking, feeling, and generally space is natural. What would feelings, thoughts, or works be — without room?

 

Finally, our variable {ON} does not correspond with an option as OFF. We do not turn our brains off, also when we go to sleep.

 

We can conclude that Aspects are not options. Options can be mutually exclusive. To take one option, we would have to exclude other choices. Variables work together, also simultaneously.

 

Feel welcome to practice.

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS
BUTTON, 8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

CHAPTER 8. ALCHEMY OF TIME FOR BEGINNERS

Most grammar resources agree that we have four Aspects in English, the Simple, the Progressive (or Continuous), the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive (or Perfect Continuous).

 

By the label, we can say the Perfect Progressive should have features of the Perfect and the Progressive.

 

We extracted general patterns for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect in SUB-CHAPTER 3.1.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT PATTERNS, THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

 

We can compare Perfect Progressive examples, as online or in books, and note a general pattern for it, too.
FUTURE:
I will have been reading.

 

PRESENT:
I have been reading.

 

PAST:
I had been reading.

 

PICTURE: THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ASPECT PATTERN

 

Let us think how to build this pattern. We can reckon the verb to be from the Progressive takes the place for the head verb in the Perfect pattern.

 

PICTURE: THE MERGER OF THE PROGRESSIVE AND THE PERFECT

 

The verb to have in the Perfect attracts the third form. The Progressive auxiliary be takes on the third form, within the Perfect pattern.

 

PICTURE: THE VERB TO BE TAKES ON THE 3RD FORM

 

We can have the Perfect Progressive for a merger of the Perfect and the Progressive. Our alchemy makes room for the head verb in the merged, Progressive pattern.

 

PICTURE: ROOM FOR THE HEAD VERB IN THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 

We have correlated the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect Aspects with cognitive mapping values, {ON}, {IN}, and {TO}.
Please compare CHAPTER 4.

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

We can use the Perfect to say what has progressed TO a time.

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE TO

 

We can use the Progressive to tell what is progressing IN a time.

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

The two combined, the Perfect Progressive can help tell what has been progressing IN a stretch of time we refer TO another time.

 

PICTURE: THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE MERGER

 

What language marker (preposition) could we choose for our merged variable? We could think about “into”, to join the “in” and “to”.

 

However, “into” may mean the same as “in” or “to” alone, dependent on the context. The westerly wind frolicked into eddies, in exercise 44 (SUB-CHAPTER 7.1).

 

“Into” may make an impression more formal or emphatic than “in” or “to” on their own.

 

Let us think about the preposition AT.

Something has been progressing AT this time.

PICTURE: PERFECT PROGRESSIVE MAPPING VALUES COMBINED

 

If our moment in time belongs with the FUTURE, we can say,
AT a time, something will have been progressing.

 

If our moment belongs with the PAST, we can say,
AT a time, something had been progressing.

 

Some grammar books will associate our feature {TO} with the Aspect we also can name the Perfect Simple. Some may have the name Perfect Continuous, for our variable {AT}.

 

Psycholinguistics says that naming processes do not change the ways language forms can work for brains. Book authors are people, and people happen to differ in approaches. Language forms can work regardless of grammar labels.

 

Our visualization is not to fix a picture for language. We do not have to stay with the same visuals for all time. We can present our mapping on one extent, as well as a few extents.

 

PICTURE: 4 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

SYMBOLICS: MANY MAPS WITH VARIABLES

 

We can merge our Progressive and Perfect arrow cues (please refer to SUB-CHAPTER 5.1).

 

Perfect tenses have an open time frame: they connote another, simultaneous reference in time.

 

Let us think about the Perfect Simple. The PRESENT Perfect Simple can embrace some time with reference TO the PRESENT.

 

17. Madame Règle has lived in Paris for fifteen years.

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

The open frame here looks TO the PRESENT, regarding a time fifteen years ago.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: LIVES IN PARIS -- MOVED TO PARIS

 

The PAST Perfect Simple can refer one time in the PAST TO another time in the PAST.

 

17a. Before moving to Paris, Madame Règle had lived and worked in Lyon, the silk capital of France, for five years.

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

The open time frame looks TO the PAST, regarding a time five years before.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: MOVED TO PARIS -- LIVED IN LYON

 

The FUTURE Perfect Simple may look to a time span from the PRESENT TO the FUTURE. Our basic or nodal time reference is the PRESENT, but we can think about the PAST as well.

 

17b. Tomorrow, Madame Règle will have lived and worked in France for twenty years.
(Altogether, in France, she has lived in Lyons and Paris.)

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

TEXT EXTENTS: WILL BE 20 YEARS -- LIVES IN PARIS

 

Madame Règle is an avid reader. She never really reads one book only. She usually has a small book with her, tied to her bag with a colorful scarf like with a string. She says that actually being able to look at a book makes it more present to her mind. At the same time, there is always another, bigger book she reads at home.

 

PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S THINKTIONARY

 

The practiced school habit of stringing books together might have had its advantages. Jill shares the behavior sometimes.

 

The Perfect Progressive makes a dual time reference and has an open time frame, the same as Perfect Simple. The Perfect Progressive can highlight a process, its time span or dynamism.

 

Let us think about the verb to read. We write the verb to read identically in the first, second, and third form. We say it differently.

 

1st form     2nd form     3rd form

 

read     read     read

 

[rI:d]     [re:d]     [re:d]

 

The verb to have takes the third form.

 

17c. Madame Règle has read [re:d] a book about a French thinker, René Descartes.
(She has finished.) {TO}

 

When we merge the Perfect and the Progressive, our pattern has room for the head verb in the Progressive.

 

PICTURE: HAS BEEN READING, FORM MERGER

 

17d. She has been reading [rI:dI Ƞ] a series of philosophical commentary books.
(Her reading is still in progress, she has not finished yet.) {AT}

 

We do NOT use the third form twice, and we do not add the ING to it. The following example shows the potential error.

17e. She has been * [re:dI Ƞ].

 

Let us return to our variable {ON}. Could we have it for our basic cognitive reference? Feel welcome to further journey.
8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE
BUTTON: 8.1 EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

APPENDIX 4. PATTERNS FOR ALL ASPECTS

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR:
I, me

 

OTHER PERSONS:
you, we, they, he, she, it

 

THE SIMPLE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: ON

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

THE SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:

I will write.
Short form
I’ll write.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will write.
Short form
You’ll (we’ll, they’ll, he’ll, she’ll, it’ll) write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:
I write.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) write.
He (she, it) writes.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:
I wrote.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) wrote.

*****

THE SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

 

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Do I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Do you (we, they) write?

Does he (she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Did I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Did you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

THE SIMPLE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I will not write.
Short form
I won’t write.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not write.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I do not write.
Short form
I don’t write.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they) do not write.
He (she, it) does not write.
Short form
You (we, they) don’t write.
He (she, it) doesn’t write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I did not write.
Short form
I didn’t write.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they, he, she, it) did not write.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) didn’t write.

*****

THE SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I not write?
Short form
Won’t I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not write?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Do I not write?
Short form
Don’t I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Do you (we, they) not write?
Does he (she, it) not write?
Short form
Don’t you (we, they) write?

Doesn’t he (she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Did I not write?
Short form
Didn’t I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Did you (we, they, he, she, it) not write?
Short form
Didn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: IN

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

THE PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:

I will be writing.
Short form
I’ll be writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will be writing.
Short form
You’ll be (we’ll be, they’ll be, he’ll be, she’ll be, it’ll be) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:
I am writing.
Short form
I’m writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) are writing.
He (she, it) is writing.
Short form
You’re (we’re, they’re) writing.
He’s (she’s, it’s) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:
I was writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they) were writing.
He (she, it) was writing.

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I be writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) be writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Am I writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Are you (we, they) writing?
Is he (she, it) writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Was I writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Were you (we, they) writing?
Was he (she, it) writing?

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I will not be writing.
Short form
I won’t be writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
 You (we, they, he, she, it) will not be writing.
Short form
 You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t be writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I am not writing.
Short form
I’m not writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) are not writing.
 He (she, it) is not writing.
Short form
You’re not (we’re not, they’re not) writing.
 He’s not (she’s not, it’s not) writing.
Alternately
You (we, they) aren’t writing.
 He (she, it) isn’t writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I was not writing.
Short form
I wasn’t writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) were not writing.
He (she, it) was not writing.
Short form
You (we, they) weren’t writing.
He (she, it) wasn’t writing.

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I not be writing?
Short form
Won’t I be writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not be writing?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) be writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Am I not writing?
(There is no standard short form;
there is only the colloquial form “ain’t”.)

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Are you (we, they) not writing?

 Is he (she, it) not writing?
Short form
Aren’t you (we, they) writing?

Isn’t he (she, it) writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Was I not writing?
Short form
Wasn’t I writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Were you (we, they) not writing?
Was he (she, it) not writing?
Short form
Weren’t you  (we, they) writing?
Wasn’t he  (she, it) writing?

*****

THE PERFECT ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: TO

COGNITIVE VARIABLES: VALUE TO

THE PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:

I will have written.
Short form
 I’ll have written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will have written.
Short form
You’ll have (we’ll have, they’ll have, he’ll have, she’ll have, it’ll have) written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:
I have written.
Short form
I’ve written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) have written.

He (she, it) has written.
Short form
You’ve (we’ve, they’ve) written.
He’s (she’s, it’s) written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:
I had written.
Short form
I’d written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) had written.
Short form
You ’d (we’d, they’d, he’d, she’d) written.
No form as * “it’d” has been practiced, spoken or written;
it is phonologically implausible. We always use the full form, e.g.
It (the computer) had written it would surrender.

*****

THE PERFECT INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Will I have written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) have written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Have I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Have you (we, they) written?

Has he (she, it) written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Had I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) written?

*****

THE PERFECT NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT NEGATIVE
I will not have written.
Short form
I won’t have written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not have written.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t have written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT NEGATIVE
I have not written.
Short form
I haven’t written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) have not written.

He (she, it) has not written.
Short form
You (we, they) haven’t written.

He (she, it) hasn’t written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT NEGATIVE
I had not written.
Short form
I hadn’t written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) had not written.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) hadn’t written.

*****

THE PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Will I not have written?
Short form
Won’t I have written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not have written?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) have written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Have I not written?
Short form
Haven’t I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Have you (we, they) not written?

Has he (she, it) not written?
Short form
Haven’t you (we, they) written?

Hasn’t he (she, it) written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Had I not written?
Short form
Hadn’t I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) not written?
Short form
Hadn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) written?

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: AT

COGNITIVE VARIABLES: VALUE AT

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I will have been writing.
Short form
I’ll have been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will have been writing.
Short form
You’ll have been (we’ll have been, they’ll have been, he’ll have been, she’ll have been, it’ll have been) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I have been writing.
Short form
I’ ve been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) have been writing.

He (she, it) has been writing.
Short form
You’ve been (we’ve been, they’ve been) writing.
He’s been (she’s been, it’s been) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I had been writing.
Short form
I’ d been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) had been writing.
Short form
You’d been (we’d been, they’d been, he’d been, she’d been) writing.
As with the Perfect Simple pattern, no form as “it’d been” would have been practiced.

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE
Will I have been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) have been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

Have I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Have you (we, they) been writing?
Has he (she, it) been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

Had I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) been writing?

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I will not have been writing.
Short form
I won’t have been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not have been writing.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t have been writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I have not been writing.
Short form
I haven’t been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) have not been writing.

He (she, it) has not been writing.
Short form
You (we, they) haven’t been writing.

He (she, it) hasn’t been writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I had not been writing.
Short form
I hadn’t been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) had not been writing.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) hadn’t been writing.

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Will I not have been writing?
Short form
Won’t I have been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not have been writing?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) have been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Have I not been writing?
Short form
Haven’t I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Have you (we, they) not been writing?

Has he (she, it) not been writing?
Short form
Haven’t you (we, they) been writing?

Hasn’t he (she, it) been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Had I not been writing?
Short form
Hadn’t I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) not been writing?
Short form
Hadn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) been writing?