10.4. MORE WORKOUT FOR REAL-TIME TALK

PICTURE: A TEAM

Grammar books vary vastly in guidance on Modal verbs and the Conditional or Unreal Past. We can exercise our grammar relativity, to manage.

CHAPTER 10. FORM RELATIVITY GALORE

We can view verb forms as generally relative, for hypotheses. PRESENT forms can tell about the FUTURE. PAST forms can tell about the PRESENT. ANTECEDENT PAST forms can tell about the PAST.

9.4. MODAL RELATIVITY PRACTICE

PICTURE: A RENDERED RAINBOW

Our use of the word "relativity" is not about physics or families. It is linguistic. We can acquire the Modal relativity step-by-step, and spare our arrows. Let us remember they indicate the target time, not the verb form.

9.1. MODAL SYNTAX, GRAMMATICAL PRESENT OR PAST

PICTURE: CLOCKS SHOWING DIFFERENT TIMES

Let us focus on the auxiliary have. Would it make antecedent time extents altogether? Antecedent time extents always would be relative to the head time. To shape up a good idea for head verbs and time, we can venture common sense, as also in literature. The common sense truth here is that it can take real time to make hypotheses, but hypothetical time could never be the same as real time.

8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

PICTURE: EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY, NASA

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change with the time extent (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE). It changes the same in our Fields of Time. We can say that it is the form closest to our cognitive ground. It changes the same for our value ON.

CHAPTER 8. ALCHEMY OF TIME FOR BEGINNERS

Most grammar resources agree that we have four Aspects in English, the Simple, the Progressive (or Continuous), the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive (or Perfect Continuous). By the label, we can say the Perfect Progressive should have features of the Perfect and the Progressive. We extracted general patterns for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect in … Continue reading CHAPTER 8. ALCHEMY OF TIME FOR BEGINNERS

7.1. PRACTICE FOR THE HEART AND THE MIND

The Simple and Progressive Aspects compared: "stative verb" use described with regard to human cognitive activity.

CHAPTER 7. TIME IN THE MIND AND HEART

We may find grammar books to tell about “stative” or “static verbs”. The books give lists of such verbs to remember and not to use with the Progressive. Let us think if we could list all words we might associate with love and hate in the alphabetical order, for example? Listing the words would take a long time, and we can speak, write, and read real-time.

6.4. MORE GRAMMAR AND WORD PRACTICE

Grammar exercises can "buy" us some luck at tests and exams — here we have some more of our grammar "good luck boutique", and good American does not have to be grave serious. More→
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6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

PICTURE: CAMILLE PISSARRO, BOULEVARD MONTMARTRE, MORNING, CLOUDY WEATHER

Mind practice for the Aspect and the time frame.
2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.
8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet. More→
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