CHAPTER 7. TIME IN THE MIND AND HEART

When it comes to talk about hearts and minds, we might picture the difference between the Simple and the Progressive as above, one face being joyous, the other unhappy.

 

Saying, “I am hating you”, could be a joke.
Saying, “I hate you”, could declare hatred.

 

Most grammar books tell about “stative” or “static verbs”. The books enumerate such “stative verbs” to remember and never to use with the Progressive.

 

According to those books, we should never come across phrases as “I am loving you”, or “I am hating you”.

 

The fact is such phrases do occur, and we cannot expect of life to be as a grammar book.

 

Let us try things the classic way. Most grammars group the “stative” or “static verbs”. We may collect a few samples and reckon.

 

Our senses:
to feel, hear, look, perceive, see, sense, smell, sound, taste.

 

Our feelings:
to admire, adore, appreciate, cherish, cost, desire, detest, disdain, dislike, esteem, fear, feel, hate, like, loathe, love, prefer, regard, relish, respect, revere, want, wish.

 

Our minds:
to admit, appreciate, appear, assume, believe, belong, choose, cost, disapprove, esteem, expect, feel, hope, know, mean, object, perceive, prefer, realize, recall, recognize, recollect, regard, relish, remember, see, sense, stipulate, suppose, think, understand.

 

Property (things or animals owned):
to belong, charge, have, hold, owe, own, possess, retain, vest.

 

Properties (characteristics, attributes, features):
to appear, appertain, befit, concern, consist, contain, emerge, hold, inhere, keep, matter, seem, show, signify, sound.

 

PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S HABIT
We may be happy with own notes on words.

 

When we want more words, we can use a thesaurus, as at the THESAURUS.COM.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Progressive, using our cognitive variables. We can maintain the infinity symbol for the Simple.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity is not eternity or uncertainty. It is to mind that natural language is not a finished set.

 

 

We can begin with our senses. We have correlated the Simple with the variable {ON}, and the Progressive with the variable {IN}.

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

8. She feels cold. {ON}
Her body feels cold. {ON}

 

We can use ING when we use our sense of touch:

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

8a. She is feeling her temperature. {IN}
She is using palpation to feel the temperature. {IN}

 

We may reflect on our sense of touch:

8b. The wind feels cold (right now). {ON}

 

Our moods happen to be dynamic. We could ask,

8c. How are you feeling? {IN}
(How are you taking your own condition, mood?) {IN}

 

To convey the same meaning as in 8c, we also could ask,
8d. How do you feel? {ON}
(How are you taking your own condition, mood?) {IN}

 

The form may not refer to the sense of touch and well, the way we feel about answering can depend on who asks the question.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Our feelings are worth thinking about. We can use introspection.

 

PICTURE: JIM THINKING

 

We probably never say about someone shivering,
8e. She / he *is feeling cold. {IN}

 

This could sound hard-hearted, as if we would be saying someone is just exercising his or her senses, when his or her body temperature is low.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

 

People naturally develop group language use. Our language may vary, dependent on who we speak with: a close friend or a stranger, for example. Grammars usually do not prescribe on group language use. However, we mostly say,

8f. She / he feels cold. {ON}
8g. She / he is cold. {ON}

 

In everyday language, we often use the Modal verb can, to tell about our senses. It may not change the meaning at all,

9. I can feel something strange. ~ I feel something strange. {ON}
9a. I can see something. ~ I see something. {ON}

 

The Modal yet may bring another connotation,
9b. Things can look better. {ON}
(They do not; it needs to stop raining.)

 

Verbs may become phrasal verbs. Their meanings may change then, as with to see about, or to look for.

 

Contemporary American English uses phrasal verbs extensively. We have a few phrasal verbs in our grammar guidance.

 

We can say we catch on a bit of language, when we get to hear or see it. We may catch on to a bit of language and learn it.

 

If we come across something or someone, we meet or find them, often by chance. When we look up dictionaries, we read them. If we look to something, we consider it.

 

We can get to know phrasal verbs better in Part Four.

 

Let us give some more time to eyesight.

10. What are you looking at? {IN}
(What are you viewing?) {IN}

 

10a. What are you looking for? {IN}
(What are you seeking?) {IN}

 

10b. She is seeing him tomorrow. ~ She is meeting him tomorrow. {IN}
10c. She is seeing about getting the new house. ~ She is arranging the purchase of the house. {IN}

 

Let us look to a few more examples about our senses. The meaning may change, if we change the variable.

11. I can hear some strange noise. ~ I hear some strange noise. {ON}
11a. They are hearing new candidates now. {IN}
(They are interviewing or auditioning them.)
11b. You are hearing things. {IN}
(Your nervous system is producing delusions.)

 

The meaning will always depend on the context and the speaker’s intentions. We can call it the locutionary intent, in linguistics.

12. You look great now! {ON}
(I like your appearance now.) {ON}

 

English is as honest as any other language ― in fact, it terms an innocent lie a “white lie”. Imagine a boss wearing a horrible suit. What might others say?
“Interesting, boss”. “Chic.”’
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE

 

“White lies” are usually brief utterances. There is always the hazard of praising the boss while he or she would be deliberately wearing something awful, to tell friends from foes.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can speak about our senses with an open time frame (please compare CHAPTER 6),

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

13. I have not heard from him in years. {TO}
(He hasn’t contacted me in years.) {TO}

 

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND, AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

Please compare,
13a. She has never seen anything like this. {TO}
(This is the first time she can see such a strange thing.) {ON}
13b. He has never felt so good. {TO}
(He is now very comfortable.)

 

Our noses are quite a regular sense. We can speak about smell with an open time frame, use the verb can, as well as balance our variables.

14. She has never smelled anything more portending savor. {TO}
(An irresistible scent is coming from the kitchen.) {IN}
14a. I can smell something nice. ~ I smell something nice. {ON}

 

PICTURE: VEG AND A BOWL OF HERBS

 

Fresh herbs can make food healthier and irresistible.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

14b. The roses smell beautiful. {ON}
14c. She is smelling the roses. {IN}
(She is using her sense of smell.) {IN}

 

PICTURE: 101 ROSES

How could 101 roses smell?

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Psycholinguistics says there is always an emotional component in human learning and thinking.

 

Naturally, learning something does not mean automatically loving or hating it. However, if we choose to learn something, it is good to think about the advantages.

 

We humans remember pleasurable experiences much better than unpleasant impressions. Our senses are not our feelings directly, yet human emotionality may require some diplomacy about perception.

 

However tolerant to the verb can, our noses happen to be delicate. We may say,
15. It smells here. {ON}
Actually, we are going to be close to saying,
15a. It stinks here. {ON} TABOO

 

As this could be an ugly and unpleasant thing to say, we can mark this socially uncertain expression as TABOO.

 

We may be more socially agreeable, if we take some responsibility for our perception,
(as liable as we get to be).

EMOTICON: A JOKE

15b. I (think I can) smell something. {ON}

 

We may want our taste buds to make sense, too:
16. I can taste some nice flavor in this. ~ I taste some nice flavor in this. {ON}

 

Same as with other senses, we can use ING to say that we are using our taste buds. When it is our sense of taste to be telling us something, we can simply stay ON our cognitive extent.
16a. The drink tastes sweet. {ON}
(This is what our taste buds are telling.) {IN}
16b. He is tasting the drink. {IN}
(He is trying it.) {IN}

 

Let us think about our variables and recur to CHAPTER 4. If we select part an extent for our view, we may mark we do not mean an entire extent.

 

PICTURE: VALUES ON AND IN, HE IS MAD, HE IS BEING MAD

 

When we use our senses or act on appearance, we can have this for an activity in progress, the same as any other actions we take or carry out. We can follow the dynamic use of verbs, that is, use ING.

 

When we perceive, feel, or think, we may want our linguistic gravitation (compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.2). Our senses, feelings, and thoughts belong with our cognizance. We can stay ON our notional grounds.

 

Let us compare two forms,
What are you hoping for? {IN}
What do you hope for? {ON}

 

The latter form, hope for, would make an impression broader than the form hoping for. To discuss this, we need to talk about…

 

FEELINGS!

We cannot really speak a language if we are unable to speak about our feelings in it. We can present a few stative uses of verbs for feelings, in pairs of antonyms, that is, words of opposite meanings.

 

Thesauruses (or thesauri) mostly abbreviate antonyms as ant, and synonyms as syn.

 

Psycholinguistics says we are all language users. We can use words without carrying out any action about them. Never leaving home, we can speak about space flight, climbing Mount McKinley, or diving in the Milwaukee Deep.

 

Mount McKinley (or Denali) is the highest peak in the USA and North America entire. It is about 20,300 feet above the sea level. Denali is the third most prominent summit in the world. It neighbors on the Wonder Lake.

 

PICTURE: MOUNT DENALI

 

The Milwaukee Deep is the most profound depth in the Atlantic. It belongs with the Puerto Rico trench and is about 27,500 feet. USS Milwaukee discovered it. The USA has borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the east and on the Pacific in the west.

 

PICTURE: MILWAUKEE DEEP

 

Language users as we are, we can present words about feelings in antonyms, without any emotional disturbance or distress.

EMOTICON: SMILE

admire, adore, cherish ~#~ detest, disdain
appreciate, esteem ~#~ disregard
benefit, favor ~#~ cost
dare ~#~ fear
desire, relish ~#~ abhor, reject
like ~#~ dislike
love ~#~ hate, loathe
prefer ~#~ reject
respect, revere ~#~ disparage
want, wish ~#~ have no relish in / taste for

 

PICTURE: DELLA AND THE GLOBE

Could the value ON be our earthling basic variable?
SUB-CHAPTER 8.1 has an idea.

 

We can try pairs of synonyms with our stative uses for thinking. Synonyms are words close in meaning. We yet cannot always use synonyms interchangeably.

accede, agree ~#~ admit, consent
appreciate ~#~ realize
assume ~#~ presume, stipulate
believe ~#~ consider, suppose
expect ~#~ think likely, count upon
feel ~#~ hold, think
forget ~#~ become oblivious of, overlook
know ~#~ be aware of, remember
mean ~#~ intend
object ~#~ disapprove
perceive, sense ~#~ consider, recognize
see ~#~ comprehend, understand
think ~#~ cerebrate

 

PICTURE: DELLA AND OLLIE

 

Human potential for language is inborn. However, ― with each and every language ― we all need to learn speaking and writing. Chatting with minors can be a clever thought (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

We people are language users with regard to thinking and other processes, activities, or experiences. We can speak about Benjamin Franklin, the wave theory of light, or a Pulitzer Prize author, never getting to all the details of the lives, theories, and works.

 

Let us put our words for property together with synonyms and antonyms for us, sometimes rich and sometimes not-so-affluent people who learn.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

belong ~#~ be part of, pertain to  ~#~ be exclusive of
have, hold, own ~#~ possess, retain ~#~ be devoid of
owe ~#~ be indebted ~#~ be creditor to
vest ~#~ charge ~#~ cost

 

Properties happen to come and go. Let us put our stative uses for properties together with their synonyms. When a property (feature, characteristic) is gone, we can use negation.

appear ~#~ look, seem
concern ~#~ be of interest to, relate to
consist ~#~ be composed of, be made up of
consist ~#~ exist
contain ~#~ hold or include within
hold ~#~ remain (valid, true)
matter ~#~ be of importance
signify ~#~ imply, mean
sound, look ~#~ convey an impression

 

*****

 

The above provides quite a thorough analysis of verbs for feeling and thought. To feel is a very interesting verb.

 

We might say, “I feel fresh”, to speak about our senses. We could say, “I feel love”, to speak about our emotions. We also could say, possibly in another context, “I feel this is stupid” [TABOO], to say what we think.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Natural language does associate feelings and thoughts with spatial variables. “High on emotion” or “in the deepest of our thoughts”, we require some of the notions for space, to think about time and feelings.

 

Cognitive variables naturally can help manage our expression on that.

 

PICTURE: JAMES MADISON, THE 4TH PRESIDENT OF THE USA

 

The advice nearest to my heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the States be cherished and perpetuated,
James Madison, the 4th President of the United States.

 

We can find resources about American presidents at WHITEHOUSE.GOV, the website of the President’s home. It is enough that we type “presidents” in the search field.

 

*****

 

Classing verbs as stative and grouping them in categories befits behaviorist analyses more. Our perspective is psycholinguistic: we stay with cognitive variables.

 

We can agree there might be stative uses of verbs, but we do not list special verbs never to use with the Progressive.

 

If we go WORDNET.PRINCETON.EDU, we get a project with the US National Science foundation, WordNet. It is free to download and use, according to the license. Resources like WordNet help view vocabulary in a connected way.

 

Feel welcome to the practice for the mind and the heart.
7.1. EXERCISES: THE SIMPLE OR THE PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: 7.1. EXERCISES, THE SIMPLE OR THE PROGRESSIVE

*****

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6.5. THE TARGET TIME AND FRAME

Berry target, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

With goals, purposes and targets, the matter is to have what we want, where we want it, and when we want it, like a bowl of berries in the picture above.

 

For language skill, we need to practice linguistic targets.

 

Exercise 37. We have our time frames for our guidance. We choose between the Simple and the Perfect, in the PAST.

 

Please put the verb in the form for the grammatical PAST and give the arrow cue along with the mapping value. In language, we can seek inspiration with words. Let it be a simple chair this time.

 

Example: His parents (surrender) his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan (suggest) playing the musical chairs, Art (throw) in three right hand gloves. One of them (belong) to Ms. Duncan.

 

If we feel we could be better off writing entire answers, we can do so without looking to others. Writing belongs with human fine motor behavior. It is important in integrating language skills.

 

Answer: His parents surrendered his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan suggested playing the musical chairs, Art threw in three right hand gloves. One of them belonged to Ms. Duncan.

 

We can only think about the logical cues and mapping values, as in MIND PRACTICE 1.2.
Answer: {ON}
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. Despite his early predilection for challenge, he (get) himself a chairborne job. His chair (have) an advantage, however. He (design) └┘ it for use by one person exactly

 

2. Originally, he never (expect) of a woman to fill a chair. He (change) his mind when he (perceive), at about 26, that the strategy almost (reduce) └┘ him to his local club armchair, for dialogue.

 

3. He (marry) Jin in summer. They (spend) their countryside honeymoon mostly bringing the chairs from the garden. His friend Jalen (persuade) him to go on a vacation, in a better weather. They (choose) Amtrak to journey. Art and Jin first (meet) in a parlor car. Face to face with their notebooks, they (realize) they were actually chatting with each other over the Unlimited (!)

 

4. He soon (begin) developing his son-in-law attitude. Eva, his mother-in-law, (love) to say nobody should let predecessors set the measure for the chair. Art (have) a reservation. His job (be) └┘ by principle like trying to keep someone on the edge of the seat with soft overboiled noodles. Jalen Seges (agree) that office routines (take) some time.

 

5. Art (know) that contending Eva’s arguments (be) suggestive of trying verbally to captivate a moving rock. Incontrovertibility (belong) with the Seges family ethos. A Yale graduate married to a Harvard grad, Ms. Seges (be) └┘ a woman of resolve, throughout her life. She (talk) table and chairs right when junior (begin) preschool. Her grandchildren would go to best schools, to fill their grandparents’ walnut bobbin chairs.

 

*****

 

Art is thinking about a new job. Routines of predetermined beginning and end are not his nature. With language work, we also can learn to negotiate: we contend the arguments and not the people, for that.

Could we look up the Amtrak Unlimited, Yale, and Harvard over the Internet? Can we comprehend words like “incontrovertibility”, if our dictionary does not have them? There are sample hints down this page.

 

Exercise 38. Please tell the time frames and map values (ON, IN, or TO), along with the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE). We have the arrow cues with every task, if we need them.

 

Example: Her father 1. (be) a nibmeister. She 2. (have) a clear taste for good quality since she 3. (be) a little girl.

CUES
PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES

 

Again, we can think about the frames and variables, minds first or only.
Answer:
(1) was, {ON} PAST;
(2) └┘ has had, {TO} PRESENT;
(3) was, {ON} PAST.

 

A. When she was in her early teens, she 4. (make) a miniature book. It 5. (be) three inches square.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 4-5

 

B. She 6. (keep) the book for her thinktionary. She still 7. (happen) to add words to it, though she 8. (make) many more such books.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 6,7,8

 

C. A young girl, she 9. (put) her miniature book in her jacket pocket and 10. (go) to sit by the river. Whenever a word 11. (come) to her mind, she 12. (write) it in with her miniature fountain pen.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 9-12

 

D. Her handwriting 13. (change) a little, since then. By and large, she 14. (adjust) her letters to the size of her notebook. One day, she 15. (engross) her future husband’s name in her thinktionary. His name 16. (remain) the only word to take a page entire, out of the alphabetical order.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 13-16

 

E. Chantelle 17. (have) a collection of pens. Her favored inkwells 18. (be) glass, silver, and pewter. Her first book 19. (tell) about a girl’s language of the heart.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 17-19

 

*****

 

Form (16) also might be “his name remains”: there are no universal rules to govern contexts, and we are free to decide on our own, dependent on our cognitive mapping.

 

Miniature books belong with arts. Their scopes may be the same as of standard volumes. They are smaller because they are miniaturized. Chantelle’s miniature book is one of the biggest sizes ― it is three inches square.

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S THINKTIONARY

 

The “thinktionary” is a coined word. We can compare it with the word “dictionary”. Everyone can have own thinktionaries. Have we met Chantelle already?

 

HINTS FROM THE KEY

 

We do not have to use Past Perfect forms whenever anything happened earlier or preceded something else. We would need millions of past tense forms to speak about Old English, thinking only about the days and years since those times.

 

Amtrak Unlimited is a forum for Amtrak passengers.

 

Harvard and Yale are two very prominent and competitive American universities.

*****

How do we interpret words as incontrovertibility?
Here is how we can interpret information about words. We do not need to memorize it.

 

Just browsing and reading dictionaries, we might get even surprised with how much we remember and “intuitively” use.

 

We can interpret incontrovertibility by the word build.

 

The American Heritage online will show the word in•con•tro•vert•ible and explain that the verb to con•tro•vert may mean “to raise arguments against; voice opposition to”.

 

We look up the parts in– and –ibility. The particle in– may negate. The particle –ibility can work with a noun and connote “an ability, inclination, or suitability”.

 

However, the particle in– may also mean “having the function of”. We can look up words such as “inbound” or “incant”. Inflammable materials or substances can be highly flammable.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

The verb “to controvert” derives from the noun controversy. The noun consists of the particles contro– and versus.

 

Contro– or contra– can connote “against, opposite, contrasting”. The particle in– does not work in the sense “into” or “within” with the particle con–.

 

The American Heritage dictionary can tell that incontrovertibility relates to the adjective incontrovertible, meaning “impossible to dispute, unquestionable”.

 

In•con•tro•vert•i•ble•ness is another, probable form.

 

We can guess that Art Veltall’s mother-in-law may be a person difficult — but not impossible — to persuade or influence. His wife Jin is some personality, too.

EMOTICON: SMILE

READ HOW TO USE THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY

 

Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS
BUTTON: CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS

*****

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6.4. MORE GRAMMAR AND WORD PRACTICE

Boutique d’bonheur, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

It is natural to wish someone good luck, with tests and exams. Grammar exercises can “buy” us some luck. They do not have to be difficult, for that. Good luck (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

Exercise 34. All verbs in parentheses will have a closed time frame, and remain {ON} a PAST cognitive ground.

 

1. The kitten (spill) all the milk by the mill down the hill.

 

2. The hedgehog (hide) the apples from the bird in a good jar with a lid.

 

3. The rabbit (strew) the cashews for the jabiru and (go on) making his debut callaloo.

 

4. The gades (lay) a fair-trade plan for a decade.

 

5. The corn-fed chick (flee) the shed for some strick.

 

6. The adept turtle (keep) his hep by the skep except when the bees (sweep).

 

7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.

 

8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast.

 

9. The southern wind (heave) the sea and (sheave) the tides to incline a span unsized in eyes.

 

10. The butterfly (weave) in a cove; the dove taut (think) about a courtly lot.

*****

For spoken American English, please find the Voice of America at VOANEWS.COM. There is worthwhile, standard American English along with materials for learners. The LEARNING ENGLISH site has slow and clear readouts of news.

*****

Exercise 35. Let us try our time frames and logical cues with mapping values. Our pieces of thought are longer, more proportionate to everyday language.

 

We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles.

 

Good American English does not have to be gravely serious (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

WE CAN FIND THE LYRICS ONLINE
We also can visit the official website
THE OFFICIAL SIMON & GARFUNKEL

 

Example: Right after he (1) had fought his dependence on the game of Monopoly, he (2) fell for spinnakers completely. A born and bred Alaskan, he (3) went to cruise the Antarctic with a chute.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 35, ANSWER

 

1. He (4) sold his vintage Chevy and nearly (5) bought a Jeep, when he (6) thought that his vehicle (7) approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost (8) portended a personality change.

 

2. A newspaper article on alpha and beta males seriously (9) disappointed him. He (10) was neither.

 

3. Many years, he (11) has looked for a role model. Nobody (12) has met his expectations on both personality and body build, however, and he (13) gave up trying to have body and mind for separate, on Earth.

 

4. He (14) has pursued some philosophy. At the present, he (15) is pessimistic on a resolve between existence and matter. He (16) thinks he (17) will resort to stoicism.

 

5. His friend (18) says he (19) needs some sense of humor, if he (20) wants to put up with a woman in his life. The woman always (21) is another Self.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Could this be Jim?

 

Exercise 36. We are staying with the Simple pattern {ON} a PAST time extent. We try some syntax for the Negative, too.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 36 TASK ILLUSTRATION

 

Example: Consciously pragmatic, Jill (decide) that tidying on her own (be) N too traditionalist. At least she (remember) where her things usually (be) before she (put) them somewhere completely else.

 

Answer: decided, was not (N, the Negative), remembered, were, put

 

In the beginning, we may care to write up entire answers. Our human memories can learn with writing habits. It is up to us to choose (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Full answer: Consciously pragmatic, Jill decided that tidying on her own was not too traditionalist. At least she remembered where her things usually were before she put them somewhere completely else.

 

1. She never (get) totally honest with anyone, on favorite comedy episodes.

 

2. An article on family roles in kite flying (incline) her towards psychoanalysis for a while. She yet soon (conclude) that she (need) N another grammatical person to be herself. Being herself anyway (happen) to her all the time, and she simply (like) to hold the strings. The West Coast had the weather.

 

3. Disputes on Sandburg and Creeley (bring) her to the belief it (be) never possible to think about one poet strictly, although it (make) no sense sometimes to try talking about two at the same time.

 

4. After some study of a number of concepts on the cosmos, she (picture) the humanity as an odd kind of fish in a series of still larger fish tanks. Early in the series, there (be) N any point to try bringing another fish tank to imagination. It anyway (require) adding more fish tanks.

 

5. She (tolerate) pop music well and (watch) American football with friends, but she always (choose) her fountain pens on her own and (keep) them just for herself.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Could this be Jill?

 

Feel welcome to some more exercise, on the open or closed time frame and the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.
6.5. EXERCISES
BUTTON: 6.5. THE OPEN OR CLOSED TIME FRAME AND THE PRESENT, PAST, OR FUTURE

*****

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6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning, Cloudy Weather, Wikimedia Commons

 

Exercise 32. For our warm-up, let us practice the time frames. We can do the exercise in our minds solely, as in the MIND PRACTICE. Our head verb is to work.

 

Example 1: Monsieur Sauf had worked.
Answer: {TO}, a PAST cognitive ground.
PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT(a time frame open to a reference mark in the PAST)

 

Example 2: Madame Règle will work.
Answer: {ON}, a cognitive ground for the FUTURE.
PICTURE: CLOSED TIME FRAME, FUTURE SIMPLE ARROW CUE(a time frame closed on a FUTURE time reference)

 

Please mind that our grounds for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE are the grammatical time. We do not need insight greater than for classic grammar, to talk about what happened, or to predict on our real-time future.

 

1. Monsieur Sauf worked.

 

2. Monsieur Sauf will have worked.

 

3. Madame Règle has worked.

 

4. Madame Règle works.

*****

One of the worst mistakes in language work is to keep vocabulary practice apart from grammar exercise. We are about avoiding it here.

 

Big dictionaries should not scare us. We do not have to memorize them. We can learn by referring to them.

 

It is good to use monolingual dictionaries and select on word sense. A monolingual dictionary has words and definitions in the same language.

 

Our brains can get the habit to choose on word sense. For example, the AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY has about 10 senses for the verb TO BE.

 

The word MAN has about 20 senses, and one of them is “a human being, a person”.

 

Women also belong with this sense of the word, as in all men are created equal, a phrase we may know from the Declaration of Independence.
FEEL WELCOME TO READ ABOUT THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

 

We may not want to worry about getting the money to buy expensive dictionaries, especially if we are just beginners. There are free dictionary resources, available over the web and in libraries.

 

For American English, there also is THE FREE DICTIONARY, or MERRRIAM-WEBSTER.

 

“Jumping into deep waters” is yet no good strategy for language, and Hispanic learners may like to compare the Spanish DICCIONARIO. People with French or German might like to use LAROUSSE or PONS, respectively.

 

All the websites have extensive free contents.

 

Our Travel in Grammar has a mirror in a Slavic language, Polish.
BUTTON: ZOBACZ PODRÓŻ W GRAMATYCE

 

*****

 

We may look up dictionary definitions, but we people naturally build own, mental lexicons for meaning. The word “mental” means “of the mind”.

 

It comes from the Latin word “mens, mentis”, signifying the mind, disposition, feeling, character, heart, as well as soul. Reading dictionaries can help us build own lexicons in our minds.

 

American English ― the same as any other language ― has formal and standard, as well as colloquial language uses. To be colloquial, a use may depart far from the standard, or even go opposite to it.

 

Colloquially, the word “mental” may refer to insanity. By standard, a “mental lexicon” is a “vocabulary of a mind”. We can decide how we use words. Free speech cannot require that we blindly follow, especially colloquial uses.

 

Let us try to reckon on word sense. The AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY says that stollen is a rich yeast bread containing dried fruit, as raisins, and candied fruit, as citron; chopped nuts, and spices.

 

In other words, stollen can be full-bodied sweetbread with fruit sweetmeats, grated or milled nuts, as well as marzipan or citron.

 

Obviously, own lexicons cannot be always a piece of cake. Let us think about COSMOS, as in the American Heritage dictionary:

 

1. The universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole.
2. An ordered, harmonious whole.
3. Harmony and order as distinct from chaos.
4. pl. cos•mos•es or cosmos Any of various mostly Mexican herbs of the genus Cosmos.

 

We do not have to agree. Human civilizations have had ideas as a “cosmogonic strife”, and the outer space observably clashes, sometimes.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

The cosmos flower grows also in the USA, up to the Olympic Penninsula in Washington (WIKIPEDIA).

 

Here is my idea for the word “cosmos”:
1. space to include the planet Earth ― we can compare the “outer space”;
2. spatial reference to be mapped on itself, as in stereometry, mathematics, information technology, and philosophy
(we can refer to the cosmos and give it attributes, we yet do not include the cosmos in any larger space, to map it);
3. American colorful garden flower to attract birds, also similar to gillyflower in color.

 

PICTURE: WHAT IS THE COSMOS, JOKE
EMOTICON: A JOKE
(Do not underestimate juniors learning, and please remember that the word “dude” is TABOO in official situations.)

 

There are a few kinds of the cosmos flower. The word “cosmos” comes from Greek. Also originally, it happened to refer to the outer space.

 

If we want to find out about the position of the Earth in space, we can visit NASA.GOV. NASA is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of America.

 

A good idea is to read a dictionary “until we get it”. If we are not sure what the “solar system” means, we open the dictionary at “solar” and “system”.

 

Sooner than later, we are going to be able to flip pages and read big dictionaries just like books. Let us try our linguistic natures with real words and big dictionaries.

 

Exercise 33. Natural languages do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds.

 

Let us mind our time frames.
Example: The goldfish awoke, hearing a croak.
Answer: a/wake, {ON} the PAST ground
PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.

 

2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.

 

3. The soybean alone outshone the legumes fair in Bayonne.

 

4. The hornbill had overlooked the rook by the brook.

 

5. The golden frog behind the chilidog overslept and wept.

 

6. The windflower withstood the rude mood in the wood.

 

7. The woodpecker has custom remade the pasquinade to treat his clade.

 

8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet.

 

9. The kinkajou understood that honey was for feel-good.

 

10. The kittiwake has shaken and partaken in casing bacon in Macon.

 

Feel welcome to further practice.
6.4. EXERCISES:
THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

BUTTON: 6.4. EXERCISES, THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

*****

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6.1. OUR LINGUISTIC GRAVITY: THE NOTIONAL GROUND

As we saw in CHAPTER 6, concepts of a time frame and a cognitive ground can help comprehend the difference between the Simple and Perfect Aspects.

 

The Simple Aspect would have a closed time frame.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

We could say,
5b. He loves to hear about Jim’s little cousin. He met the kid last summer.

 

PICTURE: PAST AND PRESENT TIME EXTENTS

 

We close the frame when we have the cognitive ground, as we saw also with example 2, in CHAPTER 6.

 

5a. He met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

In example 5a, the phrase “last summer” gives the cognitive ground for the verb form “met”. The verb form precedes the phrase, we yet always know what we want to say before we say it.

 

Our closing the frame does not mean we have to view the PRESENT for strictly separate from the PAST or FUTURE. We could say,

 

5c. He says (that) he met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

__LOGIC__PAST AND PRESENT EXTENTS OVERLAP

 

The Perfect Aspect would have an open time frame. We do not close this time frame on any particular real-time extent. It always tells about a span.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

We could not say,

5d. *He has met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

PICTURE: BROKEN SYNTAX, PAST AND PRESENT EXTENTS

 

(An asterisk can mark an incorrect expression. Informally, we may name a mistake a serious blunder.)

EMOTICON: A JOKE

We also could not say,

5e. *He says (that) he has met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

__LOGIC__TWO PRESENT EXTENTS ONE PAST BROKEN

 

To speak about the present and the past or future, we keep one time reference for one sentence or clause head.

 

We have those heads marked in ink blue, in all our examples here.

 

If we put both closed and open time frames with one sentence or clause head, our syntax will be broken.

 

5f. *He (says that he) has met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

PICTURE: BROKEN SYNTAX, TIME FRAME ERROR

*****

The open time frame may suggest effects, highlights, as well as prospects.

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

6. He has written ten books.

(He is likely to write more; his writing belongs with the PRESENT.)

 

6a. He wrote ten books.

(Maybe he is not going to write any more; his writing belongs with a closed time frame in the PAST.)

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Let us now think about our cognitive ground as with gravity. Let us say we speak about last year. The time reference, last year, gives us the notional ground.

 

6b. He wrote the book last summer.

(It does not matter, if his writing belongs with the PRESENT or PAST. We have the notional ground and this makes our gravity work.)

 

To respond to 6b, many classic grammar books might advise to use the Present Perfect.

6d. I have/haven’t seen the book.

 

Pragmatically, we would be making quite a broad open time frame with that, however. The frame would emphasize the time span. This is why in everyday American we happen to get forms as here.

 

6d. I never read / saw the book.

 

Language allows to pool the cognitive information and say we never saw or read the book the author wrote last year.

 

It is for the sake of the cognitive ground that most people would add some circumstance, to affirm.

 

6e. I saw it at our book fair/ that year, etc.

*****

It is not just a concept that human brains can do logic. The sooner we begin to work on it, the better.

PICTURE: JIM AND HIS LITTLE COUSIN A-LI
EMOTICON: SMILE

Feel welcome to further language journey.
6.2. ASPECT COGNITIVE VARIABLE AND TIME FRAME
BUTTON: 6.2. ASPECT COGNITIVE VARIABLE AND TIME FRAME

*****

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5.3. PRACTICE: REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

All verbs here can be irregular. Feel welcome to APPENDIX 2: it marks American English forms as AE, when they differ from British forms, BR. We continue practicing abbreviated verb forms, as in EXERCISE 28.

 

’m: am
’re: are
’s: is
’ve: have
’s: has
’d: had

 

We can tell abbreviated “is” from “has” only by their contexts, as both get shortened to ’s.

 

Example: They ‘ve clung.
Answer:
cling, clang, clung.
SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

1. We ’re swimming.

2. It’s shone.

3. You’d gainsaid.

4. She’s eaten.

5. They’d woken.

6. He’s heard.

7. They’re working.

8. She’d spun.

9. It’s crowing.

10. You’ve spoken.

 

Exercise 30. We provide the 2ND and 3RD verb forms. Not every verb in this exercise is irregular. We can write REG next to a regular verb.

 

Example: She ‘s read.
Answer: TO, the PRESENT; read, read, read
PRESENT PERFECT ARROW big

 

1. We’re drawing.

2. She’s sung.

3. You’d written.

4. You’ve colored.

5. They’ve painted.

6. She’s swinging.

7. It’s ringing.

8. She’s left.

9. I’m dreaming.

10. We’ve played.

 

Feel welcome to the second part of the language journey.
PART TWO, CONTENT

BUTTON: PART 2, CONTENT PAGE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

5.2. PRACTICE: SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

Exercise 22. Ability to use symbols is very important at school tests and exams. Let us combine the Aspect and Time, to exercise our logical arrows. We try to form our answers solely in our minds: this is where true learning takes shape.

 

Example:
generally {ON} the map in the PAST,
{ON} a PAST time extent
Answer:
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. IN a spot within the FUTURE time extent

2. TO a time within the PAST time extent

3. ON the PRESENT time extent

4. TO a time within the FUTURE time extent

5. TO a time within the PRESENT time extent

6. ON the FUTURE time extent

7. IN a spot in the PAST time extent

8. IN a spot in the PRESENT time extent

 

Exercise 23. Let us now gather from elements, as in PRACTICE 4.2. Let us focus on our symbolic cues.

 

Example: {TO}, 3RD, the PRESENT
Answer:
SYMBOLICS, PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

1. {IN}, ING, the PAST

2. {TO}, 3RD, the PAST

3. {ON}, the FUTURE

4. {IN}, ING, the PRESENT

5. {ON}, the PAST

6. {TO}, 3RD, the FUTURE

7. {ON}, the PRESENT

8. {IN}, ING, the FUTURE

 

Exercise 24. Let us try our language natures another way round. We begin with our arrow cue, to think about language elements.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: be, ING, in the PAST

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 24, TASK

Exercise 25. We can think about Bob and Jemma, along with the task from the previous exercise. Our head verb can be to learn.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: Jemma was learning.

*****

Please mind, we are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are about developing flexible habits. It does not matter in the exercise here, if we say Jemma learns, or Bob learns. It matters to mind we say Bob and Jemma learn, if we want to speak about both of them.

*****

Exercise 26. Let us now try our arrows with Expression. We can mark negative questions as ? N. We leave the affirmative unmarked.

 

Example 1:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, EXAMPLE 1
Answer: Will Bob and Jemma not have earned their credits?

 

Example 2:
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE PERFECT, ARROW
Answer: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, TASK

 

Exercise 27. Let us try our language logic for the Interrogative and Negative, within the PAST time extent only. To learn may remain our head verb. We also can choose to visit APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3, and try other verbs.

VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, EXAMPLE

Answer: Was Jemma learning?

We are staying in the PAST Field of Time.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, TASK

 

Exercise 28. Let us focus on our cognitive values for grammatical time. We use the symbolic cues, too.

 

If the same head verb, to learn, brings monotony, let us remember that APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3 can give us plenty of other verbs.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Example: Had Bob learned?
Answer:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, EXAMPLE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, ANSWER

 

Everyday language has abbreviated forms as doesn’t, hadn’t, and won’t, in everyday language. Let us think about the full forms, for our answers, exercising as in the MIND PRACTICE.

 

1. Jemma doesn’t worry.

2. Bob and Jemma hadn’t worried.

3. Is Jemma smiling?

4. Hasn’t Bob learned?

5. Bob didn’t worry.

6. Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?

7. Will Bob and Jemma smile?

8. Was Bob learning?

9. Bob won’t have failed.

10. Will Jemma be smiling?

 

Please mind, our arrow cues have no reference to weapons. They are the symbols people widely use for guidance. Feel welcome to some more guide exercise.
REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS


5.3. BUTTON, REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

*****

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4.2. LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE

Exercise 13. If we never imagined anything, we would be unable to prefigure on things, to predict what happens, before we do something. Imagination is an ability to envision, to form an image.

 

Let us draw concept maps for our physical whereabouts, our every day, and our lives. Our maps do not have to be exact.

 

We only move gradually from a space concept into a time concept. Maps for physical whereabouts would be mostly about space. Maps about lives would focus on time more.

 

We have a few examples here. Please do draw your own maps, put on them as many associations as possible, all in English.

 

A. My physical whereabouts: the map does not have to be exact. It should only show physically nearest objects.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

 

B. My everyday life: the places do not have to be physically close; it is important we associate them with our routine and preferred experiences. This makes them psychologically close.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

C. My life: we may feel like going into the future a little.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK C, LIFE AND FUTURE

EMOTICON: A JOKE 

Exercise 14. We can recognize language content and inner framework. The framework is not about style only. It helps put thought into comprehensible patterns.

 

We use the verbs to be and to have, to build the Progressive or Perfect Aspects. When be and have help build a pattern, they map on time and activity.

 

The mapping is usually an approximation; it even cannot be 100% exact, as there happen to be differences among people, on how to view things.

 

When they map, to be and to have belong with the language framework.

 

When they bring talk about existence (being) or ownership, to be and to have are head verbs. They can head verb phrases, and belong with the content.

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs.
BUTTON, APPENDIX 1: THE VERB

 

Let us decide, where be and have belong with the framework, and where with the content. In the example, the answer is underlined.

 

F: language framework
C: language content

 

Example:
I have brought this for you.
This is a chart for our journey.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

Answer:
have      F or C (framework)
be          F or C (content)

 

1. Mary’s lamb was white as snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

2. As I was going to St. Ives, I was talking with a man of seven wives.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

3. An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, it has borne silver nutmeg and golden pears.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

4. The north wind has blown, we will have snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

5. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown.
be          F or C

 

Exercise 15. Let us exercise our symbolics for time. In our minds, we match a language marker (ON, IN, or TO) with a picture. The simple activity may help more advanced brainwork.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 15, INTRODUCTION

 

Example: Variable {TO}, the PRESENT Field
Answer: have

 

Our purely symbolic behavior might be illustrated as follows.
PICTURE, EXERCISE 15 SYMBOLICS

 

We may view or print the picture below (click to enlarge), and think about the answers, simply looking at the picture.

 

1. Variable {IN}, the PAST Field
2. Variable {ON}, the PAST Field
3. Variable {ON}, the FUTURE Field
4. Variable {TO}, the FUTURE Field
5. Variable {IN}, the FUTURE Field
6. Variable {ON}, the PRESENT Field
7. Variable {IN}, the PRESENT Field
8. Variable {TO}, the PAST Field

*****

We are about to progress into verbal guidance more. Language Mapping does not require that we abandon classic grammar books.

 

We may want to talk about grammar, and classic grammar terms can be useful in this. Exercises 16-21 are to help the ends meet.

*****

Exercise 16. We do not have to feel bound to fields and land travel, to think about grammatical time. We can imagine an eagle route.

 

PICTURE: EAGLE ROUTE WITH ASPECT PATTERNS

 

Our eagle route has four mapping forms. All English languages in the world (American, British, Irish, or any other) have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive.

 

The fourth mapping form is have been ING (the variable AT). We can think about it more in Part Two of our journey.

 

Our inner language does not need to be “fixed”. We do not have to stay by the connotation from exercise 15. It can be “PAST reference” now. Our head verb can be to live.

 

Example: have, PAST reference, he

Answer: He had lived; the Past Perfect.

 

We work minds first: we think the entire exercise over, and we write the answers only if we decide to do so.

 

Grammatical time

Aspect

 

The Simple

The Progressive

The Perfect

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FUTURE FIELDThe Future

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE FUTURE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PRESENTThe Present

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PRESENT

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PASTThe Past

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PAST FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PAST FIELD

 

1. , PRESENT reference, they

2. be, FUTURE reference, you

3. , PAST reference, we

4. have, PRESENT reference, it

5. be, PAST reference, she

6. , FUTURE reference, we

7. have, FUTURE reference, I

8. be, PRESENT reference, he

 

Exercise 17. Time for some work after all the leisure (!)

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Grammar books may differ on Aspect labeling: some will have Progressive tenses for Continuous tenses. Travelers in Grammar stay by the name Progressive.

 

Our connotation now can be “in the Field of the FUTURE. Our head verb can be to guide.

 

Example: Perfect in the Field of the FUTURE, she

Answer: She will have guided. (Future Perfect)

 

Minds first (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

1. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, I

2. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, you

3. Progressive in the Field of the FUTURE, he

4. Progressive in the Field of the PAST, she

5. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, it

6. Perfect in the Field of the PAST, you

7. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, we

8. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, she

 

Exercise 18. Let us put our skills to an ultimate test. We can try to gather our verb forms from pieces. Speaking with someone in a noisy room happens to require such “gathering from pieces”.

 

Again, we may remain by thinking the answers, without writing them or saying. Our head verb may be to continue.

 

Example: ING, it, the PAST Field

Answer: It was continuing.

 

1. 3RD, he, the FUTURE Field

2. ING, she, the PAST Field

3. ING, they, the PRESENT Field

4. 3RD, we, the PAST Field

5. 3RD, you, the FUTURE Field

6. ING, I, in the PAST Field

7. 3RD, it, the PRESENT Field

8. ING, we, the PRESENT Field

9. 3RD, I, the FUTURE Field

10. ING, you, the PAST Field

11. 3RD, she, the PRESENT Field

12. ING, he, the PAST Field

13. 3RD, they, the FUTURE Field

14. ING, we, the FUTURE Field

 

Exercise 19. We can have various head verbs. All verbs here refer to moving about. Let us remember there are many more verbs, in APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3.

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 2
BUTTON, APPENDIX 3

 

Example 1: walk, HAVE in the PRESENT

Answer: Present Perfect, have/has walked

 

We “gather from pieces” as above, we only include the Simple Aspect. We mark it as the indeterminate or infinity.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity symbolizes that it is impossible to calculate all words, phrases, and sentences we humans can make.

 

There is no way to count irregular verb uses alone. They may vary from one geographical area to another, from person to person, or even the same people may change in verb regularity.

 

The Simple pattern can use head verbs to map on grammatical time. Progressive and Perfect patterns use auxiliary verbs for that.

 

Example 2: go, , in the PAST

Answer: went, Past Simple

 

1. hike, BE in the PRESENT

2. trek, , in the FUTURE

3. stride, HAVE in the PAST

4. ramble, HAVE in the FUTURE

5. move, BE in the PAST

6. stroll, , in the PAST

7. tread, , in the PRESENT

8. step, BE in the FUTURE

9. roam, HAVE in the PAST

10. rove, BE in the PRESENT

 

Exercise 20. Now our head verbs all refer to thinking. Let us use the Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect, with the grammatical person (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).
We may fancy our BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS.

 

Example 1:
think, Progressive, in the PAST Field

Answer:
was thinking (I, he, she, it),
were thinking (you, we, they)

 

Example 2:
consider, Simple, in the PAST Field

Answer:
considered (I, you, we, they, he, she, it: all persons)

 

1. reason, Perfect, in the FUTURE Field

2. imagine, Simple, in the FUTURE Field

3. expect, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

4. figure, Perfect, in the PAST Field

5. reckon, Progressive, in the PRESENT Field

6. surmise, Simple, in the PAST Field

7. mediate, Simple, in the PAST Field

8. cogitate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

9. review, Progressive, in the PAST Field

10. anticipate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

 

Exercise 21. Our thinking and inner language are the fastest and most capable to manage our inner grammars.

 

Linguistically, abstract thinking is not about anything unreal. It extracts from experience. It integrates the essentials.

 

Let us try a few hat tricks. The hat, ^ , is a symbol we may use for our language notation. Let us see, if we can take language tasks “at the drop of the hat”, that is, fast and without effort. Below, we can see an extract or essence for our observations so far.

 

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

In this exercise, all verbs relate to comprehension and learning. We can have our language note, TO^PRESENT, for saying, TO a moment with a PRESENT reference. Everyone may write up own notation.

 

Example: gather, TO^PRESENT, she

Answer: She has gathered.

 

1. understand, ON^PRESENT, I

2. learn, IN^FUTURE, we

3. notice, TO^FUTURE, he

4. think, IN^PAST, you

5. study, ON^PAST, they

6. interpret, IN^PRESENT, he

7. discern, TO^PRESENT, she

8. comprehend, ON^FUTURE, we

 

Our language markers ON, IN, TO (and later also AT) grammatically are prepositions. We can have these function words for cognitive variables in inner management of integrated patterns of language.

 

We do not need to be ashamed of the idea in front of school professors (!)

 

Let us mind, we use our markers for the language inner framework. We can compare classic grammars: we do not have to say we are using the Present Simple, whenever we speak or write with the Present Simple pattern.

 

Matters are the same with Language Mapping: we do not have to say or write the prepositions, to use them for mapping.

 

Another way round, we do not have to employ the Progressive, Simple, or Perfect tense patterns to use the words progress, simple, or perfect. Likewise, we can use prepositions for our content regardless of the mapping framework.

 

An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, says example 3 in exercise 14. Our Simple pattern can have an auxiliary. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 5.

BUTTON, CHAPTER 5. THE AFFIRMATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, NEGATIVE, AND NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

*****

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CHAPTER 4. TIME RAMBLES DIFFERENT WITH DIFFERENT PEOPLE

Even if we know very many grammar rules, it is how we do in real time to matter. We may like to set own pace, with time and language. To achieve this, we make our language thinking economical.

 

Our human minds naturally can associate time and place (CHAPTER 1). There are a few words quite often in use, to talk about places in English, as on, in, and to.

 

We have found out about three Aspects so far, the Simple, the Progressive, and the Perfect. Let us put together the Aspects and the basic ways we orientate in physical space.

 

For this, we do not need to imagine spaceships or submarines. After all, human grammars have evolved on the surface of planet Earth, and this is where we can begin. Curious or fast a learner, feel welcome to CHAPTER 8.1: we talk about the earthling basic cognitive variable.

 

Now and here, let us take a picture we could use to make a map.

 

PICTURE: A SUBURBAN AREA, AERIAL VIEW

 

Geographical maps are about particular localities, and we cannot have our grammars limited to spatial whereabouts. Let us process the picture. It is to symbolize an extent we can flexibly use to visualize grammar.

 

 

The Simple: we can use it to speak about habits, as well as feelings and thoughts — all that does not change often. We may do something usually, as well as… never. The Simple can help tell what generally existed, exists, or we think will exist ON a cognitive map.

 

We extracted the overall pattern for the Simple Aspect in Chapter 3.1.

 

TEXT: THE SIMPLE ASPECT PATTERN

 

PICTURE: LANGUAGE USE EXAMPLES, COGNITIVE VALUE ON

 

The Progressive can help tell something was, is, or will be IN progress, or IN its course. To visualize this Aspect, we may picture activity or faculties as in an area.

 

PICTURE: LANGUAGE USE EXAMPLES, COGNITIVE VALUE IN

 

We have extracted the general pattern for the Progressive, too.

 

TEXT: THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT PATTERN

 

The Perfect: we can use it to say what had taken place, has taken place, or will have taken place TO a moment in time. The moment does not have to mark the end of the state, activity, or faculty work. We may compare this to a way to a place. We know the general pattern for the Perfect Aspect.

 

TEXT: THE PERFECT ASPECT PATTERN

 

PICTURE: LANGUAGE USE EXAMPLES, COGNITIVE VALUE TO

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Grammar schools may vary on word forms such as on, in, to, or at, and these can be adverbs, sometimes. Further, adverbs may go into categories as manner or place, dependent on the grammar approach only.

 

LINK: WHAT IS LANGUAGE FORM?

Let us remember that word forms are language forms. In French, we could say sur, in German auf, and in Russian на (Latin alphabet na), in contexts we say on, in English.

 

We can resolve we use ON, IN, and TO as prepositions. Our prepositions can connect our thinking about time and language as if we had a map with language markers.

 

The idea can work just the same wherever we are and whatever the hour, and we do not have to flip grammar book pages for own grammars.

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We recognize the Aspects by their patterns. We always build the Progressive with be, and the Perfect with have. All Aspects can work with will in the FUTURE Field of Time. Chapter 5 shows the Simple with the auxiliary do.

 

PICTURE: THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT ASPECT PATTERNS

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

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At the same time, let us mind that we are not building a system. Systems need to be finite. Language is not a finite entity: it is not possible to count all phrases and collocations we people are able to produce.

 

We can have our core verbs (BE, HAVE, DO, WILL), time extents (PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE), and tense patterns (SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, PERFECT), for a logical array, or set.

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Such linguistic arrays are not merely collections. They work interconnected. Let us see on an example.

 

Jake is being mad. He is not really mad. He is really only pretending.

 

PICTURE: VALUES ON AND IN, HE IS MAD, HE IS BEING MAD

John is mad angry now. His investment has not worked.

 

The verb to be puts us ON the map. We cannot be IN an area of a cognitive map, without being ON the map.

 

If we select part an extent for our view, we mark we do not mean an entire extent:

He is being mad {IN}. He is sane {ON}.

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With classic grammars, we may learn we use the Present Progressive for things happening “now”. We may get to associate the Progressive with words as “now” or “then”.

 

We yet could not follow any such idea to speak about the way we feel or think. Even if talking about a present minute, we would hear or say,

 

I am happy now,
I think I like it now;
(Present Simple).

 

We can learn to grant extents:

I am hating you {IN}.
(It does not mean I always hate you {ON}).

 

We may notice that such extents can explain many everyday language uses. Classic grammars might discredit them, as the uses do not belong under classic explanations. Our grammar is yet concerned with American English as it is: the title of this chapter says time rambles different, though classic grammars would advise differently.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Whether American or British the English, it is the objective reality that people live ON Earth, happen to be IN geographical areas, and may learn and remember ways TO places. Relating this reality and language does not break scholarly rules.

 

Chapter 5 adds Expression to our picture. Expression regards the Affirmative, Interrogative, or Negative.

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Let us try some work with variables and extents. We can think how we have traveled so far. Here, we can use the Present Perfect. Our Present Perfect pattern is “have traveled”.

 

PICTURE: TEXT EXTENT, WE HAVE TRAVELED

 

To review what we have done TO this point in our travel in grammar, we do not have to use the Present Perfect all the time.

 

We can say we made our passage with the Stones of Time and traversed the River of Time. We could see ourselves as on a map. We pictured ourselves in an area, and we held in view our way to a place.

 

PICTURE: TEXT EXTENT, HELD, PICTURED, COULD SEE, HAVE TRAVELED

 

We may think about all those as about localities at which we were during our travel. We can use the Past Simple. Our Past Simple forms here are “made”, “traversed”, “saw”, “pictured”, “held”, and “were”.

 

PICTURE: TEXT EXTENT, WE TRAVERSED THE RIVER OF TIME

 

It is when we want to mark activity as relative to the PRESENT that we use the Present Perfect. Otherwise, we can just stay {ON} our maps.

 

For this chapter, we can say we have connected a perspective on the Fields of Time with an abstract map.

 

In Chapter 5, we might say we connected the perspective and abstract mapping in Chapter 4.

 

We also might say we have connected the perspective and mapping, if we look to the beginning of the grammar work.

 

This is why the grammar course is a “travel in grammar”: the place we are in our narrative may influence the grammatical form for speaking about the content.

 

Our follow up is to help learn independently to decide, how we view our reality and express this view.

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This is abstract, conceptual thinking to manage grammars in all languages. We need it for our American English, too. We can visualize the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect — together, as abstract variables.

 

PICTURE: 3 VARIABLES AS ABSTRACT VALUES

 

Exercising concepts, we do not have to limit our language skills to a prospect of moving on land solely. Bald eagles happen to sojourn in woods deep as natural language grammars. They know some more of the way. Shall we follow the eagle to the Rockies?

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: EAGLES ALSO SOJOURN

 

For centuries, humans have used symbols to encourage thinking. Concepts here do not come from Greek Anaximander, we yet may compare ideas.

 

PICTURE: EAGLES ROUTE IN THE ROCKIES, VALUES ON, IN, TO, AND AT

 

American eagles can fly very high. The bald eagle symbolizes good language skills, in our grammar course. The bald eagle is a national symbol of the United States of America.

 

 

To become high-fliers, we must learn independently to determine our extent and ground in language. However language may influence thinking, there cannot be grammar or other rule good to regulate human thought. Our way with language cannot be as in the picture below.

 

PICTURE: NOT THE WAY THROUGH THE RIVER OF TIME

 

Feel welcome to the exercises (!)
4.2. EXERCISES: LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE.
LINK 4.1. LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE

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3.2. THE PERSON ‘YOU’

It is naturally easy, in a standard conversation, to tell if we speak with one or more persons. However, the pronoun you has the same shape, whether it refers to one person, or even quite a few people.

PICTURE: THE PERSON 'YOU'

 

 

Language grammar also does tell, if we talk about many or one, person or another object of thought.

 

The grammatical singular tells about one person, thing, or another object of thought. The plural tells about two or more objects of thought.

 

 

Singular

Plural

First person

I

we

Second person

you

you

Third person

he, she, it

they

 

Words as I, you, we, they, he, she, or it grammatically are personal pronouns.

 

The Latin name for a pronoun was “pro-nomen”, which meant “in the place of a noun”. Pronouns can take the same places as nouns, in written or spoken language.

 

Why is it we have the same word shape, you, for one person as well as two or many, in English? Common sense, if we say we are “beside ourselves”, we use a figure of speech.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us look to our core verbs, to be and to have, to view personal pronouns as evolving around the first person singular, the pronoun I. We can interpret the personal pronoun “you” as more or less — “not me”. Everybody is always own self.

PICTURE: PERSONAL PRONOUNS WITH THE VERBS TO BE AND TO HAVE

 

We can think about the grammatical person we as made of the persons you and me. The pronoun we happens to be used for a personally neutral figure of speech, by authors. It can help avoid speculation on differences between you and me.

 

In grammar guidance, it might feel cumbersome to tell or read, You need to think about this, or You need the exercise.
(How could I even know you?)

EMOTICON: SMILE

We could describe the third person singular — he, she, and it — as “not you and not me” in the singular. This third person singular is the most different from the first, the pronoun I, which has had uses in literature.

 

Both the verbs, to be and and to have, differ for the third and first person. By the way, other people would say he or she about us, especially if not in touch. Ourselves, we always say I, as everyone is own best permanent company.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

We can think the third person plural they means “not you and not me”, in the plural. It is less marked for difference, as we never literally think about ourselves in the plural. We only use figures of speech.

 

Further, we could say, “She told me”. We also could say, “I told her”. The forms “me” and “her” are the objects of the verb. All personal pronouns have the grammatically objective uses.

 

Singular

Plural

First person

me
(I)

us
(we)

Second person

you
(you)

you
(you)

Third person

him, her, it
(he, she, it)

them
(they)

 

English also has the “generic you”. The form means anyone or everyone, then:
If you eat a cookie, you don’t keep it.
However, in contexts as exams (when we are one side of the conversation and the examiner or examiners are the other), or when we chat with one person only, the “generic you” is likely to be interpreted as the second grammatical person. This further supports the thought that the pronoun “you” connotes a sense as “not me”.

 

Everyday Englishes also have forms as youse, yous, or you’s. Dependent on individual speakers, the forms youse, yous, or you’s can put the form “you” in the plural, as for nouns, or combine the verb singular feature ―s, when directed to one person.

 

Feature transfer already has happened, in the history of English languages. For example, the Progressive can be derived from the Middle Ages gerund, as in
He was on reading;
(the word “reading” is a nominal, it is a gerund).
›››
He was reading;
(the word “reading” is a verbal, it makes a Progressive pattern).

 

Please mind, forms yous, youse, or you’s are informal. Feel welcome to our big chart for all persons and three paths.

BUTTON, 3.3. ALL PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THREE ASPECTS

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH