8.1. EARTHLING BASIC VARIABLE

PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY,
PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.

 

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.

 

As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.

 

In the auxiliary role, the verb to HAVE works for the framework. We mark it green. As a content verb, it can tell about ownership. We mark it mauve then, as all content verbs.

*****

Madame Règle speaks excellent American English. Her friendship with Jill Smith started over a website forum discussing philosophy and linguistics.

 

They agreed that Latin had had {TO} influence over English and French thought, although the languages belonged to diverse language groups.

 

*****

 

This is one of the reasons for some French reference in our grammar voyage. Latin has affected {TO} both English and French languages.

 

On the other hand, English and French have {ON} very dissimilar shapes. English is a Germanic language, and French belongs with the Romance language group. Some American insignia have {ON} Latin mottos.

 

We could hear or read sometimes that American English is an international language. There are no international languages really. Esperanto does not have {ON} many features of a natural language.

 

We can say that American English is a lingua franca, that is, a tongue spoken worldwide.

 

By origin of the phrase, we can associate a lingua franca with free speech. In Latin, the adjective “francus” also meant someone exempt from service, someone at liberty.

 

The Roman Empire rule over the present-day territory of France collapsed early, and ancient Romans knew the local people as Franks, READ IN WIKIPEDIA.

 

America and France have had {TO} historic ties. The French were American allies in the WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. The Statue of Liberty is a memorial to American independence and alliance with the French.

 

PICTURE: STATUE OF LIBERTY

 

There are many Statues of Liberty. The most famous statues are those in New York and Paris. A French sculptor, FRÉDÉRIC BARTHOLDI, designed the Statue.

 

Bartholdi patented it as Liberty Enlightening the World (La Liberté éclairant le monde, in French). The American statue stands on the Liberty Island, in New York Harbor.

 

PICTURE: LIBERTY ISLAND

*****

 

Madame Règle has {ON} a small book of poetry with her today. She has finished {TO} the book about Descartes. At home, she has {ON} a big volume about influences between French and English thinkers.

 

She has been reading {AT} two book series, poetry or philosophical commentary, one at a time, all this week.

 

Latimer Sauf is not surprised at her reading habit. The special edition of Larousse Gastronomique he got from her last Christmas has {ON} an elevated and celebrated place in his restaurant main hall.

 

The guests have turned {TO} many of the pages so far. He has had {TO} another copy to read at home. He has been studying {AT} it to detail. He has {ON} extra Larousse dishes on his menu.

*****

Let us focus on the grammatical time and cognitive variable.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE been reading; {AT}

 

PRESENT
He HAS been reading; {AT}

 

PAST
He HAD been reading. {AT}

 

We can compare the beginning of our language journey, the Fields of Time (CHAPTER 1).

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO HAVE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

How does the Perfect Progressive change for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE? It is the verb to have to change.

 

The verb to have changes the same as in our Fields of Time, for our cognitive variable {ON}, the Simple Aspect.

 

FUTURE
He WILL HAVE a book; {ON}

 

PRESENT
He HAS a book; {ON}

 

PAST
He HAD a book. {ON}

 

Let us compare the cognitive variable {IN}. In the content role, the verb to have can also tell about eating. Madame Règle likes the extra Larousse dishes by Monsieur Sauf.

 

FUTURE
Tomorrow at this hour, Madame Règle
WILL BE having her extra Larousse and reading a book; {IN}

 

PRESENT
Madame Règle
IS having her extra Larousse and reading a book now; {IN}

 

PAST
When Jill walked into the restaurant yesterday, Madame Règle
WAS having her extra Larousse and reading a book.{IN}

 

Let us compare the variable {ON}. Here are our Fields of Time, again.

 

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

 

FUTURE
She WILL BE at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PRESENT
She IS at the restaurant; {ON}

 

PAST
She WAS at the restaurant. {ON}

 

For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change for the grammatical time. It changes the same in our Fields of Time, the same as for our variable {ON}.

 

Let us compare all Aspects. The elements that adapt for the grammatical time are underlined.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FIRST ELEMENT

 

We can view the value {ON} as a basis for other Aspects.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM A LEARNER, I HAVE A GRAMMAR BOOK

 

We also can focus on the value {ON} and view other Aspects as syntactic expansion.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: I AM -- I HAVE -- I HAVE BEEN LEARNING

 

Please mind that finding a basic value does not impose any particular order to use the values, especially if we come to the resolve that our {ON, IN, TO} and {AT} can be our learned cognitive variables.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us turn to American English as it is really. We do not intend to invent a new language.

This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it.
(NBC Today Sun as in the CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH, COCA.)

TEXT EXTENT: THIS IS A DREAM
SYMBOLICS: SYNTACTIC EXPANSE

The Simple Aspect can tell what we have {ON} our cognitive map. What we perceive does not have to take up an entire extent.

 

Even if we regard an entire cognitive extent, it does not have to imply that we are preoccupied. Another way round, we live on planet Earth, and none of us could preoccupy it.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

TEXT EXTENT: I AM LOVING IT

The Progressive Aspect, the value {IN}, can help mark a matter as different from the regular and basic {ON}.

 

To compare space, we may feel as IN an area, rather than ON a regular cognitive map, for matters we perceive as irregular or EMPHATIC.

 

The Progressive can help delineate in time, on something out of the ordinary, as a dream come true: dreams coming true are not anything regular.

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In this view, we can have the value {AT} for the most divergent from the regular, basic {ON}.
PICTURE: ASPECT SYNTACTIC EXPANSION

 

Could we have a natural feeling to return to the basic variable, after we “go away”? The following example looks spontaneous and shows our matter well.

 

{AT} I’ve been loving it. But {ON} I want to keep doing different things.
(People magazine as in COCA.)

TEXT EXTENTS: HAVE BEEN LOVING -- WANT TO DO

Some classic grammars might not agree to have verbs as “to love” or “to hate” in the Progressive at all. However, if to let anybody PRESCRIBE what language should be like, we might have to recur to MIDDLE ENGLISH.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

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American English is a live language, and live languages also change. Thinking about free speech, let us consider a cognitive difference, for the two forms:
“I hate you”,
or
“I am hating you”.

 

We can compare human perception on physical space.
TEXT EXTENT: I AM HATING YOU

“I am hating you” is {IN} an area only.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HATE YOU

“I hate you” is {ON} the entire extent.

 

Our grammar is correct when it properly renders how we feel and think.

 

To speak American freely, we should choose independently if we say that we are hating or loving something, or that we hate or love it.

 

This can be our earthling proper egoism: we have our inner grammars work for our minds, rather than adapt our minds to rules that cannot be universal, anyway.

 

The variable {ON} can be our earthling and basic variable. Who knows, maybe the ancient Latin rules, from which classic grammars derive, emerged owing to human variables, only they were not called variables then, hence the “stative use of verbs”?

 

Naturally, classicist or generativist, we do not have to be always gravely serious about everything we say.

EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

VARIABLES OR OPTIONS?

We may come across presentations of language as features.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT FEATURES, A CHART

 

An Aspect both Perfect and Progressive would be the Perfect Progressive. An Aspect neither Perfect nor Progressive would be the Simple.

 

Some approaches might attempt a picture for language as made of options. However, our brains are live structures and have simultaneous processes.

 

When we use the Present Simple, our paths for the Perfect Progressive for example do not become “switched off”. If we use the Progressive, we do not exclude a possibility for the same thing to happen also in a manner we describe in the Simple:

“I‘m loving you”,

would not mean

“I don’t love you”.

 

Planet Earth is our natural habitat. When we people think what there is {ON} a geographical map, we do not exclude possibilities for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} places.

 

Humans are likely to learn languages {ON} a planet for an indeterminate future. Even astronauts learn {ON} Earth.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Associating language, thinking, feeling, and generally space is natural. What would feelings, thoughts, or works be — without room?

 

Finally, our variable {ON} does not correspond with an option as OFF. We do not turn our brains off, also when we go to sleep.

 

We can conclude that Aspects are not options. Options can be mutually exclusive. To take one option, we would have to exclude other choices. Variables work together, also simultaneously.

 

Feel welcome to practice.

8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS
BUTTON, 8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

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6.4. MORE GRAMMAR AND WORD PRACTICE

Boutique d’bonheur, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

It is natural to wish someone good luck, with tests and exams. Grammar exercises can “buy” us some luck. They do not have to be difficult, for that. Good luck (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

Exercise 34. All verbs in parentheses will have a closed time frame, and remain {ON} a PAST cognitive ground.

 

1. The kitten (spill) all the milk by the mill down the hill.

 

2. The hedgehog (hide) the apples from the bird in a good jar with a lid.

 

3. The rabbit (strew) the cashews for the jabiru and (go on) making his debut callaloo.

 

4. The gades (lay) a fair-trade plan for a decade.

 

5. The corn-fed chick (flee) the shed for some strick.

 

6. The adept turtle (keep) his hep by the skep except when the bees (sweep).

 

7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.

 

8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast.

 

9. The southern wind (heave) the sea and (sheave) the tides to incline a span unsized in eyes.

 

10. The butterfly (weave) in a cove; the dove taut (think) about a courtly lot.

*****

For spoken American English, please find the Voice of America at VOANEWS.COM. There is worthwhile, standard American English along with materials for learners. The LEARNING ENGLISH site has slow and clear readouts of news.

*****

Exercise 35. Let us try our time frames and logical cues with mapping values. Our pieces of thought are longer, more proportionate to everyday language.

 

We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles.

 

Good American English does not have to be gravely serious (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

WE CAN FIND THE LYRICS ONLINE
We also can visit the official website
THE OFFICIAL SIMON & GARFUNKEL

 

Example: Right after he (1) had fought his dependence on the game of Monopoly, he (2) fell for spinnakers completely. A born and bred Alaskan, he (3) went to cruise the Antarctic with a chute.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 35, ANSWER

 

1. He (4) sold his vintage Chevy and nearly (5) bought a Jeep, when he (6) thought that his vehicle (7) approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost (8) portended a personality change.

 

2. A newspaper article on alpha and beta males seriously (9) disappointed him. He (10) was neither.

 

3. Many years, he (11) has looked for a role model. Nobody (12) has met his expectations on both personality and body build, however, and he (13) gave up trying to have body and mind for separate, on Earth.

 

4. He (14) has pursued some philosophy. At the present, he (15) is pessimistic on a resolve between existence and matter. He (16) thinks he (17) will resort to stoicism.

 

5. His friend (18) says he (19) needs some sense of humor, if he (20) wants to put up with a woman in his life. The woman always (21) is another Self.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Could this be Jim?

 

Exercise 36. We are staying with the Simple pattern {ON} a PAST time extent. We try some syntax for the Negative, too.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 36 TASK ILLUSTRATION

 

Example: Consciously pragmatic, Jill (decide) that tidying on her own (be) N too traditionalist. At least she (remember) where her things usually (be) before she (put) them somewhere completely else.

 

Answer: decided, was not (N, the Negative), remembered, were, put

 

In the beginning, we may care to write up entire answers. Our human memories can learn with writing habits. It is up to us to choose (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Full answer: Consciously pragmatic, Jill decided that tidying on her own was not too traditionalist. At least she remembered where her things usually were before she put them somewhere completely else.

 

1. She never (get) totally honest with anyone, on favorite comedy episodes.

 

2. An article on family roles in kite flying (incline) her towards psychoanalysis for a while. She yet soon (conclude) that she (need) N another grammatical person to be herself. Being herself anyway (happen) to her all the time, and she simply (like) to hold the strings. The West Coast had the weather.

 

3. Disputes on Sandburg and Creeley (bring) her to the belief it (be) never possible to think about one poet strictly, although it (make) no sense sometimes to try talking about two at the same time.

 

4. After some study of a number of concepts on the cosmos, she (picture) the humanity as an odd kind of fish in a series of still larger fish tanks. Early in the series, there (be) N any point to try bringing another fish tank to imagination. It anyway (require) adding more fish tanks.

 

5. She (tolerate) pop music well and (watch) American football with friends, but she always (choose) her fountain pens on her own and (keep) them just for herself.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Could this be Jill?

 

Feel welcome to some more exercise, on the open or closed time frame and the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.
6.5. EXERCISES
BUTTON: 6.5. THE OPEN OR CLOSED TIME FRAME AND THE PRESENT, PAST, OR FUTURE

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6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning, Cloudy Weather, Wikimedia Commons

 

Exercise 32. For our warm-up, let us practice the time frames. We can do the exercise in our minds solely, as in the MIND PRACTICE. Our head verb is to work.

 

Example 1: Monsieur Sauf had worked.
Answer: {TO}, a PAST cognitive ground.
PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT(a time frame open to a reference mark in the PAST)

 

Example 2: Madame Règle will work.
Answer: {ON}, a cognitive ground for the FUTURE.
PICTURE: CLOSED TIME FRAME, FUTURE SIMPLE ARROW CUE(a time frame closed on a FUTURE time reference)

 

Please mind that our grounds for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE are the grammatical time. We do not need insight greater than for classic grammar, to talk about what happened, or to predict on our real-time future.

 

1. Monsieur Sauf worked.

 

2. Monsieur Sauf will have worked.

 

3. Madame Règle has worked.

 

4. Madame Règle works.

*****

One of the worst mistakes in language work is to keep vocabulary practice apart from grammar exercise. We are about avoiding it here.

 

Big dictionaries should not scare us. We do not have to memorize them. We can learn by referring to them.

 

It is good to use monolingual dictionaries and select on word sense. A monolingual dictionary has words and definitions in the same language.

 

Our brains can get the habit to choose on word sense. For example, the AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY has about 10 senses for the verb TO BE.

 

The word MAN has about 20 senses, and one of them is “a human being, a person”.

 

Women also belong with this sense of the word, as in all men are created equal, a phrase we may know from the Declaration of Independence.
FEEL WELCOME TO READ ABOUT THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

 

We may not want to worry about getting the money to buy expensive dictionaries, especially if we are just beginners. There are free dictionary resources, available over the web and in libraries.

 

For American English, there also is THE FREE DICTIONARY, or MERRRIAM-WEBSTER.

 

“Jumping into deep waters” is yet no good strategy for language, and Hispanic learners may like to compare the Spanish DICCIONARIO. People with French or German might like to use LAROUSSE or PONS, respectively.

 

All the websites have extensive free contents.

 

Our Travel in Grammar has a mirror in a Slavic language, Polish.
BUTTON: ZOBACZ PODRÓŻ W GRAMATYCE

 

*****

 

We may look up dictionary definitions, but we people naturally build own, mental lexicons for meaning. The word “mental” means “of the mind”.

 

It comes from the Latin word “mens, mentis”, signifying the mind, disposition, feeling, character, heart, as well as soul. Reading dictionaries can help us build own lexicons in our minds.

 

American English ― the same as any other language ― has formal and standard, as well as colloquial language uses. To be colloquial, a use may depart far from the standard, or even go opposite to it.

 

Colloquially, the word “mental” may refer to insanity. By standard, a “mental lexicon” is a “vocabulary of a mind”. We can decide how we use words. Free speech cannot require that we blindly follow, especially colloquial uses.

 

Let us try to reckon on word sense. The AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY says that stollen is a rich yeast bread containing dried fruit, as raisins, and candied fruit, as citron; chopped nuts, and spices.

 

In other words, stollen can be full-bodied sweetbread with fruit sweetmeats, grated or milled nuts, as well as marzipan or citron.

 

Obviously, own lexicons cannot be always a piece of cake. Let us think about COSMOS, as in the American Heritage dictionary:

 

1. The universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole.
2. An ordered, harmonious whole.
3. Harmony and order as distinct from chaos.
4. pl. cos•mos•es or cosmos Any of various mostly Mexican herbs of the genus Cosmos.

 

We do not have to agree. Human civilizations have had ideas as a “cosmogonic strife”, and the outer space observably clashes, sometimes.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

The cosmos flower grows also in the USA, up to the Olympic Penninsula in Washington (WIKIPEDIA).

 

Here is my idea for the word “cosmos”:
1. space to include the planet Earth ― we can compare the “outer space”;
2. spatial reference to be mapped on itself, as in stereometry, mathematics, information technology, and philosophy
(we can refer to the cosmos and give it attributes, we yet do not include the cosmos in any larger space, to map it);
3. American colorful garden flower to attract birds, also similar to gillyflower in color.

 

PICTURE: WHAT IS THE COSMOS, JOKE
EMOTICON: A JOKE
(Do not underestimate juniors learning, and please remember that the word “dude” is TABOO in official situations.)

 

There are a few kinds of the cosmos flower. The word “cosmos” comes from Greek. Also originally, it happened to refer to the outer space.

 

If we want to find out about the position of the Earth in space, we can visit NASA.GOV. NASA is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of America.

 

A good idea is to read a dictionary “until we get it”. If we are not sure what the “solar system” means, we open the dictionary at “solar” and “system”.

 

Sooner than later, we are going to be able to flip pages and read big dictionaries just like books. Let us try our linguistic natures with real words and big dictionaries.

 

Exercise 33. Natural languages do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds.

 

Let us mind our time frames.
Example: The goldfish awoke, hearing a croak.
Answer: a/wake, {ON} the PAST ground
PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.

 

2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.

 

3. The soybean alone outshone the legumes fair in Bayonne.

 

4. The hornbill had overlooked the rook by the brook.

 

5. The golden frog behind the chilidog overslept and wept.

 

6. The windflower withstood the rude mood in the wood.

 

7. The woodpecker has custom remade the pasquinade to treat his clade.

 

8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet.

 

9. The kinkajou understood that honey was for feel-good.

 

10. The kittiwake has shaken and partaken in casing bacon in Macon.

 

Feel welcome to further practice.
6.4. EXERCISES:
THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

BUTTON: 6.4. EXERCISES, THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

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5.3. PRACTICE: REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

All verbs here can be irregular. Feel welcome to APPENDIX 2: it marks American English forms as AE, when they differ from British forms, BR. We continue practicing abbreviated verb forms, as in EXERCISE 28.

 

’m: am
’re: are
’s: is
’ve: have
’s: has
’d: had

 

We can tell abbreviated “is” from “has” only by their contexts, as both get shortened to ’s.

 

Example: They ‘ve clung.
Answer:
cling, clang, clung.
SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

1. We ’re swimming.

2. It’s shone.

3. You’d gainsaid.

4. She’s eaten.

5. They’d woken.

6. He’s heard.

7. They’re working.

8. She’d spun.

9. It’s crowing.

10. You’ve spoken.

 

Exercise 30. We provide the 2ND and 3RD verb forms. Not every verb in this exercise is irregular. We can write REG next to a regular verb.

 

Example: She ‘s read.
Answer: TO, the PRESENT; read, read, read
PRESENT PERFECT ARROW big

 

1. We’re drawing.

2. She’s sung.

3. You’d written.

4. You’ve colored.

5. They’ve painted.

6. She’s swinging.

7. It’s ringing.

8. She’s left.

9. I’m dreaming.

10. We’ve played.

 

Feel welcome to the second part of the language journey.
PART TWO, CONTENT

BUTTON: PART 2, CONTENT PAGE

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4.2. LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE

Exercise 13. If we never imagined anything, we would be unable to prefigure on things, to predict what happens, before we do something. Imagination is an ability to envision, to form an image.

 

Let us draw concept maps for our physical whereabouts, our every day, and our lives. Our maps do not have to be exact.

 

We only move gradually from a space concept into a time concept. Maps for physical whereabouts would be mostly about space. Maps about lives would focus on time more.

 

We have a few examples here. Please do draw your own maps, put on them as many associations as possible, all in English.

 

A. My physical whereabouts: the map does not have to be exact. It should only show physically nearest objects.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

 

B. My everyday life: the places do not have to be physically close; it is important we associate them with our routine and preferred experiences. This makes them psychologically close.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

C. My life: we may feel like going into the future a little.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK C, LIFE AND FUTURE

EMOTICON: A JOKE 

Exercise 14. We can recognize language content and inner framework. The framework is not about style only. It helps put thought into comprehensible patterns.

 

We use the verbs to be and to have, to build the Progressive or Perfect Aspects. When be and have help build a pattern, they map on time and activity.

 

The mapping is usually an approximation; it even cannot be 100% exact, as there happen to be differences among people, on how to view things.

 

When they map, to be and to have belong with the language framework.

 

When they bring talk about existence (being) or ownership, to be and to have are head verbs. They can head verb phrases, and belong with the content.

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs.
BUTTON, APPENDIX 1: THE VERB

 

Let us decide, where be and have belong with the framework, and where with the content. In the example, the answer is underlined.

 

F: language framework
C: language content

 

Example:
I have brought this for you.
This is a chart for our journey.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

Answer:
have      F or C (framework)
be          F or C (content)

 

1. Mary’s lamb was white as snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

2. As I was going to St. Ives, I was talking with a man of seven wives.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

3. An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, it has borne silver nutmeg and golden pears.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

4. The north wind has blown, we will have snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

5. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown.
be          F or C

 

Exercise 15. Let us exercise our symbolics for time. In our minds, we match a language marker (ON, IN, or TO) with a picture. The simple activity may help more advanced brainwork.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 15, INTRODUCTION

 

Example: Variable {TO}, the PRESENT Field
Answer: have

 

Our purely symbolic behavior might be illustrated as follows.
PICTURE, EXERCISE 15 SYMBOLICS

 

We may view or print the picture below (click to enlarge), and think about the answers, simply looking at the picture.

 

1. Variable {IN}, the PAST Field
2. Variable {ON}, the PAST Field
3. Variable {ON}, the FUTURE Field
4. Variable {TO}, the FUTURE Field
5. Variable {IN}, the FUTURE Field
6. Variable {ON}, the PRESENT Field
7. Variable {IN}, the PRESENT Field
8. Variable {TO}, the PAST Field

*****

We are about to progress into verbal guidance more. Language Mapping does not require that we abandon classic grammar books.

 

We may want to talk about grammar, and classic grammar terms can be useful in this. Exercises 16-21 are to help the ends meet.

*****

Exercise 16. We do not have to feel bound to fields and land travel, to think about grammatical time. We can imagine an eagle route.

 

PICTURE: EAGLE ROUTE WITH ASPECT PATTERNS

 

Our eagle route has four mapping forms. All English languages in the world (American, British, Irish, or any other) have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive.

 

The fourth mapping form is have been ING (the variable AT). We can think about it more in Part Two of our journey.

 

Our inner language does not need to be “fixed”. We do not have to stay by the connotation from exercise 15. It can be “PAST reference” now. Our head verb can be to live.

 

Example: have, PAST reference, he

Answer: He had lived; the Past Perfect.

 

We work minds first: we think the entire exercise over, and we write the answers only if we decide to do so.

 

Grammatical time

Aspect

 

The Simple

The Progressive

The Perfect

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FUTURE FIELDThe Future

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE FUTURE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PRESENTThe Present

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PRESENT

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PASTThe Past

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PAST FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PAST FIELD

 

1. , PRESENT reference, they

2. be, FUTURE reference, you

3. , PAST reference, we

4. have, PRESENT reference, it

5. be, PAST reference, she

6. , FUTURE reference, we

7. have, FUTURE reference, I

8. be, PRESENT reference, he

 

Exercise 17. Time for some work after all the leisure (!)

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Grammar books may differ on Aspect labeling: some will have Progressive tenses for Continuous tenses. Travelers in Grammar stay by the name Progressive.

 

Our connotation now can be “in the Field of the FUTURE. Our head verb can be to guide.

 

Example: Perfect in the Field of the FUTURE, she

Answer: She will have guided. (Future Perfect)

 

Minds first (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

1. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, I

2. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, you

3. Progressive in the Field of the FUTURE, he

4. Progressive in the Field of the PAST, she

5. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, it

6. Perfect in the Field of the PAST, you

7. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, we

8. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, she

 

Exercise 18. Let us put our skills to an ultimate test. We can try to gather our verb forms from pieces. Speaking with someone in a noisy room happens to require such “gathering from pieces”.

 

Again, we may remain by thinking the answers, without writing them or saying. Our head verb may be to continue.

 

Example: ING, it, the PAST Field

Answer: It was continuing.

 

1. 3RD, he, the FUTURE Field

2. ING, she, the PAST Field

3. ING, they, the PRESENT Field

4. 3RD, we, the PAST Field

5. 3RD, you, the FUTURE Field

6. ING, I, in the PAST Field

7. 3RD, it, the PRESENT Field

8. ING, we, the PRESENT Field

9. 3RD, I, the FUTURE Field

10. ING, you, the PAST Field

11. 3RD, she, the PRESENT Field

12. ING, he, the PAST Field

13. 3RD, they, the FUTURE Field

14. ING, we, the FUTURE Field

 

Exercise 19. We can have various head verbs. All verbs here refer to moving about. Let us remember there are many more verbs, in APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3.

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 2
BUTTON, APPENDIX 3

 

Example 1: walk, HAVE in the PRESENT

Answer: Present Perfect, have/has walked

 

We “gather from pieces” as above, we only include the Simple Aspect. We mark it as the indeterminate or infinity.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity symbolizes that it is impossible to calculate all words, phrases, and sentences we humans can make.

 

There is no way to count irregular verb uses alone. They may vary from one geographical area to another, from person to person, or even the same people may change in verb regularity.

 

The Simple pattern can use head verbs to map on grammatical time. Progressive and Perfect patterns use auxiliary verbs for that.

 

Example 2: go, , in the PAST

Answer: went, Past Simple

 

1. hike, BE in the PRESENT

2. trek, , in the FUTURE

3. stride, HAVE in the PAST

4. ramble, HAVE in the FUTURE

5. move, BE in the PAST

6. stroll, , in the PAST

7. tread, , in the PRESENT

8. step, BE in the FUTURE

9. roam, HAVE in the PAST

10. rove, BE in the PRESENT

 

Exercise 20. Now our head verbs all refer to thinking. Let us use the Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect, with the grammatical person (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).
We may fancy our BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS.

 

Example 1:
think, Progressive, in the PAST Field

Answer:
was thinking (I, he, she, it),
were thinking (you, we, they)

 

Example 2:
consider, Simple, in the PAST Field

Answer:
considered (I, you, we, they, he, she, it: all persons)

 

1. reason, Perfect, in the FUTURE Field

2. imagine, Simple, in the FUTURE Field

3. expect, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

4. figure, Perfect, in the PAST Field

5. reckon, Progressive, in the PRESENT Field

6. surmise, Simple, in the PAST Field

7. mediate, Simple, in the PAST Field

8. cogitate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

9. review, Progressive, in the PAST Field

10. anticipate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

 

Exercise 21. Our thinking and inner language are the fastest and most capable to manage our inner grammars.

 

Linguistically, abstract thinking is not about anything unreal. It extracts from experience. It integrates the essentials.

 

Let us try a few hat tricks. The hat, ^ , is a symbol we may use for our language notation. Let us see, if we can take language tasks “at the drop of the hat”, that is, fast and without effort. Below, we can see an extract or essence for our observations so far.

 

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

In this exercise, all verbs relate to comprehension and learning. We can have our language note, TO^PRESENT, for saying, TO a moment with a PRESENT reference. Everyone may write up own notation.

 

Example: gather, TO^PRESENT, she

Answer: She has gathered.

 

1. understand, ON^PRESENT, I

2. learn, IN^FUTURE, we

3. notice, TO^FUTURE, he

4. think, IN^PAST, you

5. study, ON^PAST, they

6. interpret, IN^PRESENT, he

7. discern, TO^PRESENT, she

8. comprehend, ON^FUTURE, we

 

Our language markers ON, IN, TO (and later also AT) grammatically are prepositions. We can have these function words for cognitive variables in inner management of integrated patterns of language.

 

We do not need to be ashamed of the idea in front of school professors (!)

 

Let us mind, we use our markers for the language inner framework. We can compare classic grammars: we do not have to say we are using the Present Simple, whenever we speak or write with the Present Simple pattern.

 

Matters are the same with Language Mapping: we do not have to say or write the prepositions, to use them for mapping.

 

Another way round, we do not have to employ the Progressive, Simple, or Perfect tense patterns to use the words progress, simple, or perfect. Likewise, we can use prepositions for our content regardless of the mapping framework.

 

An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, says example 3 in exercise 14. Our Simple pattern can have an auxiliary. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 5.

BUTTON, CHAPTER 5. THE AFFIRMATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, NEGATIVE, AND NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

3.1. THE FIELDS AND THE RIVER OF TIME

If we take the patterns of the River of Time separately, they become quite many. If we focus on their regularities, they are just a few patterns. Let us return to the picture of the River of Time.

 

PICTURE: RIVER OF TIME CORE VERBS

 

We can isolate two patterns easily. Grammar books name them the Progressive and the Perfect.

 

 

What do the names, Progressive or Perfect, tell in grammar? We most often think about the character of activity or faculty, when we think about its time. Grammars call this character the Aspect. The Progressive and Perfect grammatically are Aspects.

 

An activity in the Progressive Aspect is something in progress. Progress may be a changing condition, state, or activity. It may mean betterment, but it not always does.

 

An activity in the Perfect Aspect is something regarded to a point in time. The name “perfect” comes from Latin. For grammar, it has nothing to do with faults, flaws, or their absence. It tells about effects to a time.

 

To use a Progressive or Perfect pattern, we adapt the be or the have for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE. The verbs to be or to have are then auxiliary verbs, or auxiliaries, in short.

 

PICTURE: RIVER OF TIME VERB AND PATTERN DISCERNMENT

 

The word “auxiliary” comes from Latin. It meant “helping”, “accompanying”. The be and the have as in the Progressive or Perfect help build the patterns. They keep company to head verbs. Our head verbs are words to tell faculties or activities, as to learn, to read, or to write.

 

PICTURE: ‘WILL BE READING’ AUXILIARY AND HEAD VERB

 

Together, the auxiliary and the head verb make the verb phrase. Auxiliaries help tell “where” we are in our thoughts about time, when we use grammatical patterns. The “where” is a figure of speech.

 

There is no single or specific brain area for thoughts. Own language activity is the strongest single factor to unite the working of the human brain entire (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us try the Perfect pattern. It takes the third form. The third form has the ending ED, for regular verbs. For irregular verbs, the ending can be EN.

 

PICTURE: ‘HAD WRITTEN’ AUXILIARY AND HEAD VERB

 

The River of Time has one more pattern, the Simple. It can work without auxiliaries.

 

PICTURE: RIVER OF TIME VERB AND PATTERN DISCERNMENT

 

What does the name Simple tell, in grammar? An activity or faculty in the Simple Aspect does not take on boundaries, as to tell to what time we regard a matter, or whether we have it for something in progress.

 

The name of this Aspect comes from the Latin word simplus. The form is “simple”, because it may work without an auxiliary.

 

An activity or faculty may be not simple at all, and we might use the Simple Aspect, still:

I love grammar
(though it is not an easy feeling).
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

We capitalize, that is, use big letters, to write Aspect names. We use the words “simple”, “progressive”, or “perfect” as parts of noun phrases where the noun ― Aspect ― is a proper noun.

 

We do not use the words Simple, Progressive, Perfect, or Aspect in any sense other than grammatical.

 

To perceive the Simple Aspect, let us try the verb to learn. In American English, it is a regular verb. We can begin with the PAST.

 

Regular verbs take the ending ED, in the Simple Aspect.

I, you, we, they, he, she, it
learned.

 

within the the run of the River through the PRESENT field.
The singular has the feature (E)S.
We say,
he, she, or it
is, has, or does.

 

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT

I, you, we, they
learn;

 

He, she, it
learns.

 

CHAPTER 2 shows the verb will can map on the FUTURE already in its PRESENT form.

PICTURE: THE VERB FORM ‘WILL’ MAPPING ON THE FUTURE

It does not take the feature S. We can say it does not belong with the PRESENT field only.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

I, you, we, they, he, she, it
will learn.

 

Well, we do not know all the way yet, but we are on the other side of the River of Time (!)

 

PICTURE: MORE TO LEARN ACROSS THE RIVER OF TIME

*****

The verb to learn is regular. Both to read and to write are irregular verbs. Appendixes 2 and 3 have irregular verbs listed with regard to their speech sound patterns.

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 2

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 3

*****

It can be any verb, to map the grammatical time in the Simple. We can present the Simple with the infinity symbol.

SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The symbol is to mean that something cannot be exactly calculated, similarly to the Pi, π. It is impossible to calculate natural languages mathematically.

 

We can present extracts for the Progressive, Perfect, as well as the Simple.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT PATTERNS, THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

 

Where is the verb phrase, in the Simple pattern? We might think it takes at least two words, to make a phrase. Phrases yet can work well, if we have them as room we make in our language. Verb phrases are the room for grammatical time.

 

In the Simple Aspect, a single verb may do for this room in the PRESENT or the PAST, if we affirm on something. For the FUTURE, the Simple Aspect takes the auxiliary will. CHAPTER 5 shows the Simple for questions and negatives.

 

When the Simple pattern works without auxiliaries, it is the head verb to map the grammatical time. Let us see our mapping underlined, for all the Aspects so far.
PICTURE: MAPPING THE ASPECT, THE VERB TO LEARN

 

Some grammars use the label “Continuous” for the “Progressive”. They mean the same Aspect, that is, they make the same reference for the character of activity or faculty, and time.

 

There is one more pattern. Grammars name it the Perfect Progressive. We can get to know it better in our further journey. Feel welcome.
3.2. THE PERSON “YOU”

BUTTON: SUBCHAPTER 3.2. THE PERSON 'YOU'

 

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

 

2.1. WORD PRACTICE IN THE FIELDS

We can manage the grammatical time as in fields for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

Verb forms may change for the grammatical time.
Not all are regular in this.

 

Most dictionaries have lists of irregular verbs. The lists show the first, second, and third form, for irregular verbs.

 

AN IRREGULAR VERB

The infinitive: to ring

The base form: ring.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

ring

rang

rung

 

Regular verbs take the ending ED in their second and third forms.

 

A REGULAR VERB

The infinitive: to sound

The base form: sound.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

sound

sounded

sounded

 

We are only beginning our language journey with verbs. For now, we can stay with the first and second forms. Some knowledge on the base and infinitive shapes of verbs should help us work with grammar resources.

 

We build the infinitive with the basic form of the verb and the particleto”.

 

BASE FORM: ring & to
THE INFINITIVE: to ring.

 

For most verbs in English, the base form is going to be the same as the first form.
I will write tomorrow, the FUTURE Field of Time;
(“write” is the first and the basic form of the verb to write).

 

For the verb to be, the base form is different from the first form.
I will be home tomorrow, the FUTURE Field of Time;
(“be” is the base form of the verb to be;
the first forms are am, is, are).

 

We can see the first forms in our PRESENT Field of Time.

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

Human grammars evidently have evolved in our earthly reality.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us note that the particle “to” does not belong only with the infinitive. To tell the difference, we mind if the particle comes with a verb or a noun. The infinitive is a form of a verb.

 

I like to listen to music;
(the PRESENT Field, the infinitive is underlined).

 

I often listen to music;
(the PRESENT Field, no infinitive, music is a noun, that is, a word that can answer the question Who or what?)

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs. APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3 show verb speech sound patterns. Irregular verbs are easier to learn with those language melodies.

 

Exercise 5. Let us put the verbs in forms proper for the indicated grammatical time.

 

 

In simple words,
let us put the verbs in Fields of Time.

 

Our vocoid pattern here is [I:] ― [e:] ― [e:].

 

In simple words,
the language melody for the verbs has a contour as
[I:] ― [e:] ― [e:]

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

leave

left

left

 

Example: PAST (leave)

Answer: left

 

1. FUTURE (leave)

2. PRESENT (mean)

3. PRESENT (meet)

4. PAST (read)

5. FUTURE (sleep)

6. PAST (sweep)

7. PAST (sleep)

8. PRESENT (read)

9. FUTURE (meet)

10. PRESENT (sweep)

 

Exercise 6. We can try our language natures another way round. We tell the Field of Time by the shape of the verb. By standard, we show pronunciation — the way to say a word — in square brackets.

 

Example: left

Answer: (time first) PAST (leave)

 

1. meet(s); 2. read [re: d]; 3. read [rI: d]; 4. will sleep; 5. will leave; 6. met; 7. mean(s); 8. meant; 9. slept; 10. swept.

 

Verbs can make patterns we name the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. Feel welcome to further grammar journey.
CHAPTER 3. TIME IS LIKE A RIVER.

LINK TO CHAPTER 3: THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

APPENDIX 3. IRREGULAR VERBS: VOWEL BACK AND FRONT QUALITIES

We can present irregular verbs looking to vowel back and front qualities.

 

PICTURE: VOWEL CHART, BACK AND FRONT VOWELS

 

As all live languages, American English is not a monolith. It has regional varieties. We mark regional forms as R, “regional”.

 

Regional varieties have second and third forms the same more often — we may compare regional American forms for “chide” or “hide”.

 

SYMBOLICS: STARchide

chid

chid

SYMBOLICS: STARhide

hid

hid

 

Regional variants also resolve into a mid-to-back pattern more often. We may mark this with a tilde, that is, a flourish.

 

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHspin

span R

spun

 

Regular forms may prevail in standard American. They are not a novelty, however. King James’ Bible has a form as “builded”, for example.

 

Archaic or obsolete forms are those out of regular use. We do not predict here which forms might be in live use, therefore we mark forms that occur rarely as A, “aged”.

 

We will find our aged forms especially in poetry. Authors ― also American ― have used the forms for adjectives. We may follow in our wrought writings; we yet always have choice as learned people.

EMOTICON: SMILE

The prejudice about the language standard is that it excludes regional variety or prescribes which verb forms might ever be in use. Neither is true. It is prescriptive attitude to language, and not language itself, to try to make rulings.

 

Irregular verb forms with regard to back and front vowel qualities, back to front.

 

1. Second and third forms [o] – [o]
[o] – [o] – [o]

 

saw

sawed

sawed/sawn

 

[u:] – [o] – [o]

 

lose

lost

lost

shoe

shod/shoed

shod/shoed/shoddenR

shoot

shot

shot/shottenR

 

[ɅI ] — [o] — [o]

 

buy

bought

bought

fight

fought/foutR/fitR

fought/foughtenR/foutR/ fitR

 

[з] — [o] — [o]

 

work

worked/wroughtA (transitive sense)

worked REG / wroughtA (transitive sense)

 

[æ] — [o] — [o]

 

catch

caught/catchedR

caught/catchedR

 

[e:] — [o] — [o]

 

bear

bore

borne/born/boreR

sell

sold

sold

tell

told

told

swear

swore/swareA

sworn/sworeR

tear

tore/tareA

torn/tareA/toreR

tread

trod/treaded

trodden/trodR/treadR

wear

wore

worn/woreR

 

Please compare to bear, to lower the prices; beared [e], beared [e].
Please compare to tear [tI:r], to fill with tears, shed tears; teared [I:], teared [I:]

 

[I] — [o] — [o]

 

think

thought/thunkR
(transitive sense)

thought/ thunkR
(transitive sense)

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHbring

brought/ brangR / brungR/
broughtenR

brought/ brangR / brungR/ broughtenR

seek

sought

sought

shear

sheared/shoreR

sheared/shorn

teach

taught

taught

 

[oI] — [oI] — [oI]

spoil

spoiled /spoilt

spoiled/spoilt

 

[ou] — [ou] — [ou]

 

mow: to cut, crop

mowed

mowed/mown

mow: to pile as in a haymow

mowed

mowed

mow: to make faces

mowed

mowed

sew: to stitch

sewed

sewed/sewn

show

showed

showed/shown

sow

sowed

sowed/sown

 

Please compare to sew, to drain of water; sewed, sewed.

 

[u] — [ou] — [ou]

 

choose

chose

chosen/choseR

 

[ɅI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

shine

shone/shined

shone/shined

 

[eI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

break

broke/brakeR

broken/brokeR

stave

stove/staved

stove/staved

wake

woke/waked

woken/waked/wokeR

 

[ I:] — [ou] — [ou]

 

cleave: to separate, to split

clove/cleaved/cleft/claveA

cloven/cleaved/cleft/

cleave to: to adhere

clove/cleaved/claveA

clove/cleaved

freeze

froze/frizR

frozen/frozeR/frizR

heave

hove/heaved/hovedR

hove/heaved/hovenA&R

speak

spoke/spakeA

spoken/spokeA

steal

stole

stolen/stoleR

weave: to interlace

wove/weaved

woven/weaved

 

Please compare to weave: to waver; weaved [I:], weaved [I:].

 

2. Second and third forms [u:] — [u:]
[æ] — [u:] — [u:]

 

stand

stood

stood

 

3. Second and third forms [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]
[ɅI] — [Ʌu] — [Ʌu]

 

bind

bound

bound/boundedA

find

found

found

grind

ground/grindedR/groundenA

ground/grindedR/ groundenA

wind: to warp

winded [ɅI] / /wound

winded [ɅI] / /wound

wind: to blow a horn

winded [ɅI] / /wound

winded [ɅI] / /wound

 

Please compare to wind, to limit the breath, to expose to wind, dry; winded [ɅI], winded [ɅI].

 

Please compare to wind, to smell a scent; winded [ɅI], winded [ɅI].

 

[ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ]

 

thrust

thrust

thrust

 

[e] — [ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ]

 

get

got/gatA

got/gotten

 

[I] — [Ʌ ] — [Ʌ ]

 

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHcling

clung/clangR

clung

dig

dug

dug

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHfling

flung/flangR

flung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHsling: to throw

slung/slangR

slung

sling: to put in a sling

slung/slinged

slung/slinged

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHslink

slunk/slinkedR/slankR

slunk

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHspin

spun/spanR

spun

stick

stuck

stuck

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHsting

stung/stangR

stung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHstink (TABOO)

stunk/stankR

stunk

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHstring

stringed/strung/strangR

stringed/strung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHswing

swung/swangR

swung

win

won

won

wring

wrung

wrung

 

Please compare to cling: to make a metallic sound; clinged, clinged.

 

Please compare to sling: to drink alcohol (TABOO); slung/slinged, slung/slinged.

 

Please compare to stick: to arrange, to support with a stick; sticked, sticked.

 

Please compare to win: to reside BRE;R (intransitive) winned BRE,R winned BRE.R

 

Please compare to win: to dry BRE;R won BRE,R won BRE.R

 

[ ɅI] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

 

strike

struck

struck/stricken

 

[æ] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

 

hang

hung/hanged

hung/hanged

 

4. Second and third forms [ з ] — [ з ]
[з] — [ з ] — [ з ]

 

burn

burned/burnt/brentA/brunt BRER

burned/burnt/brentA/brunt BRER

learn

learned/learnt BRE

learned/learnt BRE

 

[ I] — [з] — [ з]

 

hear

heard/hearedR / hearnA

heard/hearedR / hearnA

 

5. Second and third form [ e] — [e]
[o] [ e] — [e]

 

hold

held/hiltR

held/holdenA

 

[e] [ e] — [e]

 

bend

bent/bendedR

bent/bendedR

blend: to blind, to deceive A
(transitive only)

blend/blentA

blent/blendedA

blend: to mix

blended REG / blent

blended REG / blent

bless

blessed REG / blest

blessed REG / blest

lend

lent

lent

rend

rended/rent

rended/rent

smell

smelled REG / smelt BRE

smelled/smelt BRE

send

sent

sent

spell

spelled/spelt BRE

spelled/spelt BRE

spend

spent

spent

 

Please compare to bless: to shake, brandish (weapon);A blessedA, blessed.A

 

Please compare to spell: to take turns, to allow to rest; spelled, spelled.

 

Please compare to spell: to becharm; spelled, spelled.

 

[eI] — [e] — [e]

 

gainsay

gainsaid

gainsaid

say

said/saidestA/saidstA

said

 

Please compare to say: to assay, to try, to test; (as)sayed [eI], (as)sayed [eI].

 

[I] — [e] — [e]

 

bereave

bereaved/bereft

bereaved/bereft/bereavenA

bleed

bled/bleededR

bled/bleededR

breed

bred

bred

deal

dealt

dealt

dream

dreamed/dreamt

dreamed/dreamt

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

flee

fled

fled

keep

kept

kept

kneel

kneeled/knelt

kneeled/knelt

lead

led

led

lean

leaned/ leant BRE

leaned/leant BRE

leave

left

left

leap

leaped REG / leapt

leaped REG / leapt

mean

meant/meanedA

meant/meanedA

meet

met

met

read

read

read

sleep

slept

slept

speed

speeded/sped

speeded/sped

sweep

swept

swept

weep

wept

wept

 

Please compare to bleed: to provide, to be drained for, e.g. money (in the passive) TABOO; bleededR [I:] TABOO, bleededR [I:] TABOO.

 

Please compare to bleed: to produce or to make pass (baseball slang) TABOO; bleededR [I:] TABOO, bleededR [I:] TABOO.

 

Please compare to lead [led], to cover in lead; leaded [e], leaded [e].

 

Please compare to lean, to make inclined; leaned [I:], leaned [I:].

 

Please compare to leave,: to produce leaves; leaved [I:], leaved [I:].

 

Please compare to mean: to mediate;A meanedA [I:], meanedA [I:].

 

[eI] — [eI] — [eI]

 

inlay

inlaid

inlaid

lade

laded

laded/laden

lay

laid

laid

make

made

made

pay

paid

paid

shave

shaved

shaved REG /shaven

 

Please compare to pay: to slacken (a rope, for example); paid/payed, paid/payed.

 

Please compare to shave: to reduce in amount; shaved, shaved.

 

[ɅI] — [eI] — [eI]

 

lie: remain in a horizontal position

lay

lain/lienA [Iə]

Please compare to lie [ɅI], to make a false statement; lied [ɅI], lied [ɅI].

 

6. Second and third forms [ I] — [ I]
[ɅI] — [ I] — [ I]

 

bite

bit

bitten/bitR

chide

chided /chid/chodeA

chided /chid/chidden

hide

hid

hidden/hid

light: to brighten

lighted/lit

lighted/lit

light: to dismount

lighted REG / lit

lighted REG / lit

slide

slid/slidedR/slodR

slid/slidedR/sliddenA

 

Please compare to hide: to punish by beating TABOO; hided [ɅI] TABOO, hided [ɅI] TABOO.

 

Please compare to be/feel slided: to be/feel cheated or wasted (in the passive) TABOO; slided [ɅI] TABOO, slided [ɅI] TABOO.

 

Please compare to slip-slide: to become lower in grade; slip-slided [ɅI], slip-slided [ɅI].

 

[I] — [I] — [I]

 

build

built/buildedA

built/buildedA

gild

gilded/gilt

gilded/gilt

gird

girded/girt

girded/girt

hit

hit

hit

knit

knitted/knit/knetR

knitted/knit/knetR

spill

spilled /spilt

spilled /spilt

rid

ridded /rid

ridded /rid

 

Please compare to gird: to strike, to mock BRE; girded BRE, girded BRE.

 

[ I:] — [ I:] — [ I:]

 

beat

beat

beaten/beatR/betR

 

7. A back diphtong can resolve into a front vowel.

 

[ɅI:] — [ou] — [ I:]

 

drive

drove/draveA/drivR/druvR

driven/droveA/ drivR/druvR

ride

rode/ridR/radeR

ridden/ridR/rodeR

rise

rose/riseA/rizR

risen/rizR

rive

rived/rove

rived/riven

shrive

shrived/shrove

shrived/shriven

smite

smote/smit

smitten/smote/smit

stride

strode

stridden

strive

strived/strove

strived/striven/stroveR/

thrive

thrived/throve

thrived/thriven

write

wrote/writR

written/wroteR/writR

 

Most transcriptions consider [ɅI] a diphthong. The [I] never becomes [ I:], however. In articulation, it will become a glide, like the y in “you”.

 

8. Vowel quality can be back to the base form.
[o] — [u] — [o]

 

draw

drew/drawedR

drawn

know

knew/knowedR

known/knowedR

 

[o] — [e] — [o]

 

fall

fell

fallen

 

[ou] — [u] — [ou]

 

blow: to make a current of air

blew/blowedR

blown/blowedR

blow
(to blossom) A

blewA

blown/bloweA

crow

crowed REG / crew

crowed

grow

grew/growedR

grown/growedR

throw

threw/throwedR/trunR

thrown/throwedR

 

[Ʌ] — [æ] — [Ʌ]

 

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHrun

ran/runR

run

 

The mid to back pattern is not only regional.
[Ʌ] — [eI] — [Ʌ]

 

come

came/comeR/comedR

come/comedR

 

[eI] — [U] — [ eI]

 

take

took/takenR

taken/tookR

shake

shook/shakedR/shakenR

shaken/shakedR

 

[I] — [eI] — [I]

 

bid

bade/bid/badA

bidden/bid/bade

give

gave/give/givR/guvR

given/givR/guvR

 

[I:] — [o:] — [I:]

 

see

saw/seedR/seenR

seen/seedR/sawR

 

[ I:] — [o:/e:] — [I:]

 

be

was/were

been

 

[I:] — [eI] — [I:]

 

eat

ate/eatR

eaten/eatR

 

The mid-to-back pattern belongs well with the language standard.
[ɅI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHbegin

began/begunR

begun

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHdrink

drank/drunkR/drinkedR

drunk/drankR/drinkedR/ drunkenA

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHring

rang

rung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHsing

sang/sungR

sung/sangR

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHsink

sank/sunkR

sunk/sunken

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHshrink

shrank/shrunkR

shrunk/shrunken

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHspring

sprang/sprungR

sprung

SYMBOLICS: FLOURISHswim

swam/swumR

swum/swamR

 

Please compare to ring: to put on or form a ring; ringed [I], ringed [I].

 

Please compare to spring: to supply with springs; springed [I] REG / sprung, springed [I] REG / sprung.

 

10. A few verbs keep a front-to-back pattern
[ I] — [æ] — [æ]

 

sit

sat/sotR/sateA

sat/sotR/sittenA

spit

spit/spat

spit/spat/spittedR/spittenA

 

Please compare to spit: to fix (like) with a spit, that is, a pointed rod; spitted, spitted.

 

[e] — [e] — [o]

swell

swelled

swelled/swollen

 

Let us remember about our “verb cradle” from APPENDIX 2. The “cradle” becomes more visible when we compare the “focused” have.
[æ] — [æ] — [æ]

 

have/has

had

had

 

[ou] — [e] — [Ʌ]

 

go

went/goedR

gone/wentR

 

[ɅI] — [U] — [oU]

 

fly

flew

flown

 

[ U] — [I] — [Ʌ]

 

do

did/doneR/didstA

done

 

Let us try an exercise.

 

Exercise 31. Let us think if we could “sum up” verb forms. If we look them up in a dictionary, we will find that their meanings often are not mere sums, and they can vary in regularity.

 

become, befall, beget, behold, beseech, beset, betake, bethink, forbear, forbid, forecast, foreknow, foresee, foretell, forget, forgive, forsake, forswear, hamstring, miscast, misdeal, misgive, mislay, mislead, misspell, misspend, mistake, misunderstand, outbid, outdo, outgo, outgrow, outride, outrun, outshine, overbear, overcast, overcome, overdo, overhang, overhear, overlay, overleap, overlie, overlook, override, overrun, oversee, overshoot, oversleep, overtake, overthrow, partake, recast, remake, repay, rerun, reset, retell, rewrite, unbend, unbind, underbid, undergo, understand, undertake, undo, waylay, withdraw, withold, withstand.

APPENDIX 2. IRREGULAR VERBS, HIGH AND LOW VOWEL QUALITIES

English verbs, except Modal, have three forms. The forms help express thought about Time (PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE) and Aspect (Simple, Progressive, Perfect, or Perfect Progressive).

 

The first form can make the Present Simple:
I write.

 

The second form can make the Past Simple:
I wrote.

 

The third form can make the Perfect Aspect:
I have written (Present),
I had written (Past),
I will have written (Future).

 

We can view the Aspect as the character of activity. The first form and the ending –ING can help express activities that are Progressive in character:
I am writing.
Compare APPENDIX 1, for patterns with ING.

 

Regular verbs take the ending –ED, in the second and third form. Irregular verbs may take various shapes. They happen to have vowel patterns.

 

mean     meant      meant
meet     met      met
read     read      read
[I:]     [e:]     [e:]

 

Outside English-speaking countries, these are mostly American English or British English that people learn for their Englishes. We may compare the two distinct language varieties here.

 

Some verbs are regular in American English, although they are irregular in British English, and the other way round.

 

When the verb can be regular and irregular in American, we list both the forms. When the regular form prevails in American, we can mark it as REG.

 

Dependent on prevalence, we can mark forms that occur mostly in British English as BR. When the form is associated mostly with American English, we can mark it as AE.

 

Please note that literary American English may employ irregular verb forms for versatility, and stay with regular forms for everyday usage.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

chide

chided / chid

chided / chid / chidden

gild

gilded REG / gilt

gilded REG / gilt

learn

learned / learnt BR

learned / learnt BR

 

Let us remember that the speech sound [L] happens to be an individualist, in American English. APPENDIX 1 has more also about this.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

dial

dialed AE
dialled BR

dialed AE
dialled BR

Most dictionaries list irregular verbs alphabetically. We list them looking to speech sound patterns. This makes remembering irregular forms much easier. We might just read a few verbs at a time and begin to remember them. The phonetic transcription is generalized.

 

The vowel chart below shows approximate positions for high, mid, and low vowels in American English. Vowel height regards the position of the tongue in the mouth (high, mid, or low).

 

Please mind that American English is a live language and live languages change. Vowel charts and verb lists are not forever.

 

PICTURE: VOWEL CHART, HIGH AND LOW VOWELS

I(:)

reed, [I] bid

α

lark

o(:)

naught

e(:)

head

a(:)

car

ᴜ(:)

book

æ(:)

cat

Ʌ

not

(:)

earth

 

The colon — [:] — marks the speech sounds we pronounce longer. Vowels often become a bit higher, when prolonged. Please compare “reed” [I:] and “bid” [I].

 

[ə] is for the schwa. It is a neutral vowel sound. We find it in unstressed syllables. If stressed, the schwa most often becomes a full vowel. Some transcriptions consider [Ʌ] a reduced speech sound, too. This is why the table presents it without the colon. The [æ] joins [e] and [Ʌ] qualities.

 

IRREGULAR VERBS WITH REGARD TO VOWEL HEIGHT, HIGH TO LOW

 

We may star American English second and third irregular forms that can be of the same shapes. We do this to notice, not to learn by rote.

 

 

1. Second and third form [I]
[I:] — [I:] — [I:]

 

beat

beat

beaten

lean

leaned REG / leant BR

leaned REG / leant BR

leap

leaped REG / leapt

leaped REG / leapt

 

[I] — [I] — [I]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARbuild

built

built

SYMBOLICS: STARgild

gilded REG / gilt

gilded REG / gilt

SYMBOLICS: STARgird

girded REG / girt

girded REG / girt

SYMBOLICS: STARhit

hit

hit

SYMBOLICS: STARknit

knitted / knit

knitted / knit

SYMBOLICS: STARrid

ridded / rid

ridded / rid

SYMBOLICS: STARspill

spilled REG / spilt

spilled REG / spilt

 

 

[ɅI] — [I] — [I]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARbite

bit

bitten / bit

SYMBOLICS: STARchide

chid / chided

chid / chided / chidden

SYMBOLICS: STARhide

hid

hidden / hid

SYMBOLICS: STARlight

lit / lighted

lit / lighted

SYMBOLICS: STARslide

slid

slid

 

2. Second and third form [ᴜ:]
[ᴜ:] — [ᴜ:] — [ᴜ:]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARhew

hewed REG / hewn

hewed REG / hewn

prove

proved

proved REG / proven

strew

strewed

strewed REG / strewn

 

[æ:] — [ᴜ:] — [ᴜ:]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARstand

stood

stood

 

3. Second and third form [з:]
:] — [з:] — [з:]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARburn

burned REG / burnt

burned REG / burnt

learn

learned / learnt BR

learned / learnt BR

 

[I:] — [з:] — [з:]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARhear

heard

heard

 

4. Second and third form [eI]
[eI] — [eI] — [eI]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARinlay

inlaid

inlaid / inlain BR

lade

laded

laded REG / laden

SYMBOLICS: STARlay

laid

laid / lain BR

SYMBOLICS: STARmake

made

made

SYMBOLICS: STARpay

paid

paid

shave

shaved

shaved REG / shaven

 

[ ɅI] — [eI] — [eI]

 

lie

lay

lain

 

5. Second and third form [e]
[I:] — [e] — [e]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARbereave

bereft / bereaved

bereft / bereaved

SYMBOLICS: STARbleed

bled

bled

SYMBOLICS: STARbreed

bred

bred

SYMBOLICS: STARdeal

dealt

dealt

SYMBOLICS: STARdream

dreamed AE / dreamt

dreamed AE / dreamt

SYMBOLICS: STARfeed

fed

fed

SYMBOLICS: STARfeel

felt

felt

SYMBOLICS: STARflee

fled

fled

SYMBOLICS: STARkeep

kept

kept

SYMBOLICS: STARkneel

knelt / kneeled

knelt / kneeled

SYMBOLICS: STARlead

led

led

SYMBOLICS: STARleave

left

left

SYMBOLICS: STARmean

meant

meant

SYMBOLICS: STARmeet

met

met

SYMBOLICS: STARread

read

read

SYMBOLICS: STARsleep

slept

slept

SYMBOLICS: STARspeed

sped / speeded

sped / speeded

SYMBOLICS: STARsweep

swept

swept

SYMBOLICS: STARweep

wept

wept

 

To remember verb patterns, we may think about the place and manner we make speech sounds.

 

The sounds [p] and [b], or [v] and [f] differ in voicing solely; [l] and [r] share much in place and differ in manner, similarly to [t], [d], [n], and [s]. We can compare the verbs “to beat”, “to lean”, and “to leap”.

 

[eI] — [e] — [e]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARgainsay

gainsaid

gainsaid

SYMBOLICS: STARsay

said

said

 

[e] — [e] — [e]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARbend

bended / bent

bended / bent

SYMBOLICS: STARblend

blended REG / blent

blended REG / blent

SYMBOLICS: STARbless

blessed REG / blest

blessed REG / blest

SYMBOLICS: STARlend

lent

lent

SYMBOLICS: STARrend

rended / rent

rended / rent

SYMBOLICS: STARsend

sent

sent

SYMBOLICS: STARsmell

smelled REG / smelt

smelled REG / smelt

spell

spelled AE / spelt

spelled AE / spelt

SYMBOLICS: STARspend

spent

spent

 

[o] — [e] — [e]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARhold

held

held

 

6. Second and third form [o]
[oI] — [oI] — [oI]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARspoil

spoiled

spoiled REG / spoilt

 

[I:] — [oᴜ] — [oᴜ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARcleave

cleaved REG / clove/cleft

cleaved REG / cloven

SYMBOLICS: STARfreeze

froze

frozen

SYMBOLICS: STARheave

heaved REG / hove

heaved REG / hove

SYMBOLICS: STARspeak

spoke

spoken

SYMBOLICS: STARsteal

stole

stolen

SYMBOLICS: STARweave

wove / weaved

woven / weaved

 

[eI] — [oᴜ] — [oᴜ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARbreak

broke

broken

SYMBOLICS: STARstave

staved REG / stove

staved REG / stove

SYMBOLICS: STARwake

woke / waked

woken / waked

 

[ᴜ:] — [oᴜ] — [oᴜ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARchoose

chose

chosen

 

[oᴜ] — [oᴜ] — [oᴜ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARmow

mowed

mowed REG / mown

SYMBOLICS: STARsew

sewed

sewn / sewed AE

SYMBOLICS: STARshow

showed

shown / showed AE

SYMBOLICS: STARsow

sowed

sown / sowed

 

[ɅI] — [oᴜ] — [oᴜ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARshine

shone / shined AE

shone / shined AE

 

[ I:] — [o] — [o]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARseek

sought

sought

SYMBOLICS: STARteach

taught

taught

SYMBOLICS: STARshear

sheared REG / shore

sheared REG / shorn

 

[ I] — [o] — [o]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARthink

thought

thought

SYMBOLICS: STARbring

brought

brought

 

[ᴜ:] — [o] — [o]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARlose

lost

lost

SYMBOLICS: STARshoe

shod / shoed AE

shod / shoed AE

SYMBOLICS: STARshoot

shot

shot

 

:] — [o] — [o]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARwork

worked REG / wrought

worked REG / wrought

 

[e] — [o] — [o]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARbear

bore

borne / born

SYMBOLICS: STARget

got

gotten AE / got

SYMBOLICS: STARsell

sold

sold

SYMBOLICS: STARswear

swore

sworn

SYMBOLICS: STARtell

told

told

SYMBOLICS: STARtear

tore

torn

SYMBOLICS: STARtread

trod

trodden

SYMBOLICS: STARwear

wore

worn

 

[æ] — [o] — [o]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARcatch

caught

caught

 

[o] — [o] — [o]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARsaw

sawed

sawed REG / sawn

 

[ɅI] — [o] — [o]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARbuy

bought

bought

SYMBOLICS: STARfight

fought

fought

 

7. Second and third form [æ]
[I] — [æ] — [æ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARsit

sat

sat

SYMBOLICS: STARspit

spat / spit AE

spat / spit AE

 

[æ] — [æ] — [æ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARhave/has

had

had

 

8. Second and third form [Ʌ]
[I] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

SYMBOLICS: STARcling

clung

clung

SYMBOLICS: STARdig

dug

dug

SYMBOLICS: STARfling

flung

flung

SYMBOLICS: STARsling

slung

slung

SYMBOLICS: STARslink

slunk / slinked AE

slunk / slinked AE

SYMBOLICS: STARspin

spun

spun

SYMBOLICS: STARstick

stuck

stuck

SYMBOLICS: STARsting

stung

stung

SYMBOLICS: STARstink (TABOO)

stunk (TABOO)

stunk (TABOO)

SYMBOLICS: STARstring

strung

strung

SYMBOLICS: STARswing

swung

swung

SYMBOLICS: STARwin

won

won

SYMBOLICS: STARwring

wrung

wrung

 

[æ] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARhang

hung / hanged AE

hung / hanged AE

 

[ɅI] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STAR strike

struck

struck/stricken

 

[ɅI] — [Ʌᴜ] — [Ʌᴜ]

 

SYMBOLICS: STARbind

bound

bound

SYMBOLICS: STARfind

found

found

SYMBOLICS: STARgrind

ground

ground

SYMBOLICS: STARwind

wound / winded

wound

 

The diphthong [Ʌᴜ] has a low sound, [Ʌ], right next to a high one, [ᴜ]. In speech, this makes the low quality more emphasized. This is why the diphthong is listed as lower than [Ʌ] alone.

 

Dependent on articulatory realization, that is, the way an individual person speaks, the [Ʌ] in [Ʌᴜ] could be even represented as [a:].

 

9. “Craddle” patterns: generally [A] — [B] — [A], that is, returning to first form vowels.

 

[I] — ()— [I]

[I:] — [eI]— [I:]

 

eat

ate

eaten

 

[I:] — [o]— [I:]

 

see

saw

seen

 

[I] — [eI]— [I]

 

bid

bade / bid

bidden / bid

give

gave

given

 

[I:] — [e/o]— [I]

 

be

was / were

been

 

[e] — () — [e]
[eI] — [ᴜ:]— [eI]

 

take

took

taken

shake

shook

shaken

 

[o] — () — [o]

[oᴜ] — [ᴜ]— [oᴜ]

 

blow

blew

blown

crow

crowed REG / crew

crowed

grow

grew

grown

throw

threw

thrown

 

[o] — [ᴜ]— [o]

 

draw

drew

drawn

 

[o] — [e]— [o]

 

fall

fell

fallen

 

[Ʌ] — ()— [Ʌ]

[Ʌ] — [eI]— [Ʌ]

 

come

came

come

 

[Ʌ] — [æ]— [Ʌ]

 

run

ran

run

 

10. We can join perceptions on vowel vertical and horizontal values: if we like, we can call it our “weave”. APPENDIX 3 deals with vowel fronting.

 

Here, we can say irregular verb vowels go down and up, as well as that they go mid-to-back.

 

[I] — [æ]— [Ʌ]

 

begin

began

begun

drink

drank

drunk

ring

rang

rung

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

shrink

shrank / shrunk

shrunk / shrunken

spring

sprang / sprung

sprung

swim

swam

swum

 

Vowel qualities may go up all the way, at the same time becoming fronted.
[ɅI] — [oᴜ]— [I]

 

drive

drove

driven

ride

rode

ridden

rive

rived / rove BR

rived REG / riven

rise

rose

risen

shrive

shrove / shrived AE

shriven / shrived AE

smite

smote

smitten

stride

strode

stridden

strive

strived / strove

strived / striven

thrive

thrived REG / throve

thrived REG / thriven

write

wrote

written

 

Vowel qualities may go up and down, becoming backed as well.
[ᴜ] — [ I]— [ Ʌ]

 

do

did

done

 

[oᴜ] — [e]— [Ʌ]

 

go

went

gone

 

[ɅI] — [ᴜ:] — [oᴜ]

 

fly

flew

flown

 

Some vowel patterns have a tendency to become regular, in American.

 

swell

swelled

swelled REG / swollen

 

Some irregular verbs might not take any “weave” and remain unchanged.

 

put

put

put

burst

burst REG / bursted AE

burst REG / bursted AE

hurt

hurt

hurt

bet

bet

bet

let

let

let

set

set

set

cost

costed AE / cost

costed AE / cost

broadcast

broadcasted AE / broadcast

broadcasted AE / broadcast

cast

cast

cast

cut

cut

cut

thrust

thrust

thrust

 

When we choose to work on particular features, it is important that we do not overemphasize, that is, exaggerate. These are never isolated speech sounds to make speech: language is “woven” more.

EMOTICON: SMILE