6.2. GRAMMAR COGNITIVE GROUND

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning in Spring (Le Boulevard de Montmartre, Matinée de Printemps), Wikimedia Commons 

 

The picture above is part a CITYSCAPE SERIES by Camille Pissarro. The series shows Boulevard Montmartre at different times of the year, day, and in varied weather.

 

We can think about grammar as allowing varied views on time.

 

Let us imagine an American in Paris (George Gershwin did). The American we imagine could be a young woman. She could be the Jill from the office, the Jill Smith that Jim wanted to meet.

 

Jin was not lying.
Jill is on her vacation.

 

PICTURE: JILL SMITH

Could this be Jill?

 

Jill is a reedy yet energetic figure, her rebellious and dark, almost black hair flying in the mid-September Paris wind. Jill is a very resolute person, one to walk big steps and to breathe deep.

 

Jill is entering a French restaurant ― a place deliberately prudent in its fine interior. She is looking for her friend, Madame Règle. Madame Règle often has her lunch there.

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Monsieur Sauf is not the stereotype, for a man to make his living gratifying taste buds. But the large apron knotted on his left hip in a kind of ― Jill, though learned, would never be sure ― stevedore or half hitch, you could think that he is some athlete, here about a plate of Moules Marinière himself. He is the restaurateur.

 

PICTURE: MONSIEUR SAUF

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This is not the first time Jill meets Monsieur Sauf. Still, she feels minute in his presence. She asks Monsieur Sauf about Madame Règle. Monsieur Sauf can say, reliant on his knowledge,

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.

 

PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT

 

He also can say,

 

7a. I didn’t see her today.

 

PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

Madame Règle is not a systematic person at all. The only regularity about her would be a small book she always carries fastened to her bag with a scarf or, actually, a variety of scarves of many colors and textures.

 

The book is not the same book every day, and the choice of the scarf sure depends on some totally unpredictable factor, just as the exact time for lunch, for which you might want to assume the broad time frame of about sixty minutes to commence or not to happen altogether.

 

PICTURE: MADAME RÈGLE

 

Madame Règle comes to lunch between 1:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. or does not show up at all. Let us check on the time. It is 1:30.

 

Monsieur Sauf can use expression 7. The expression has an open time frame. Madame Règle still may emerge in the door.

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.

 

PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT

 

Now let us think the time is 2:30. Monsieur Sauf can use expression 7a. The expression has a closed and PAST time frame.

 

Monsieur Sauf knows that Madame Règle is not coming today. The knowledge is part the context.

 

7a. I didn’t see her today.

 

PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

What if Jill asks whether Madame Règle was there, let us say, half an hour earlier? Monsieur Sauf may follow his linguistic gravity,

 

7b. I didn’t see her.
(On the cognitive ground: She was not here at the time in the PAST you are asking about.)

 

Jill is a grindstone to turn about good food. There is no telling her that good food could be bad and she esteems the French cuisine.

 

She usually visits Monsieur Sauf’s restaurant when she is in Paris. If she meets Madame Règle, she sure will join her for a meal by a table looking to the Quai de Seine (!)

 

There is an anecdote associated with Benjamin Franklin. A man asked a smith to make his ax especially sharp. The man ended up turning the grindstone himself.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can find plenty of facts and trivia about America at ARCHIVE.ORG, a free internet resource.

 

Let us practice our more and more METICULOUS natures in exercises.
6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

BUTTON: 6.3. EXERCISES, THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

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6.1. OUR LINGUISTIC GRAVITY: THE NOTIONAL GROUND

As we saw in CHAPTER 6, concepts of a time frame and a cognitive ground can help comprehend the difference between the Simple and Perfect Aspects.

 

The Simple Aspect would have a closed time frame.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

We could say,
5b. He loves to hear about Jim’s little cousin. He met the kid last summer.

 

PICTURE: PAST AND PRESENT TIME EXTENTS

 

We close the frame when we have the cognitive ground, as we saw also with example 2, in CHAPTER 6.

 

5a. He met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

In example 5a, the phrase “last summer” gives the cognitive ground for the verb form “met”. The verb form precedes the phrase, we yet always know what we want to say before we say it.

 

Our closing the frame does not mean we have to view the PRESENT for strictly separate from the PAST or FUTURE. We could say,

 

5c. He says (that) he met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

__LOGIC__PAST AND PRESENT EXTENTS OVERLAP

 

The Perfect Aspect would have an open time frame. We do not close this time frame on any particular real-time extent. It always tells about a span.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

We could not say,

5d. *He has met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

PICTURE: BROKEN SYNTAX, PAST AND PRESENT EXTENTS

 

(An asterisk can mark an incorrect expression. Informally, we may name a mistake a serious blunder.)

EMOTICON: A JOKE

We also could not say,

5e. *He says (that) he has met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

__LOGIC__TWO PRESENT EXTENTS ONE PAST BROKEN

 

To speak about the present and the past or future, we keep one time reference for one sentence or clause head.

 

We have those heads marked in ink blue, in all our examples here.

 

If we put both closed and open time frames with one sentence or clause head, our syntax will be broken.

 

5f. *He (says that he) has met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

PICTURE: BROKEN SYNTAX, TIME FRAME ERROR

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The open time frame may suggest effects, highlights, as well as prospects.

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

6. He has written ten books.

(He is likely to write more; his writing belongs with the PRESENT.)

 

6a. He wrote ten books.

(Maybe he is not going to write any more; his writing belongs with a closed time frame in the PAST.)

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME CLOSED FRAME

 

Let us now think about our cognitive ground as with gravity. Let us say we speak about last year. The time reference, last year, gives us the notional ground.

 

6b. He wrote the book last summer.

(It does not matter, if his writing belongs with the PRESENT or PAST. We have the notional ground and this makes our gravity work.)

 

To respond to 6b, many classic grammar books might advise to use the Present Perfect.

6d. I have/haven’t seen the book.

 

Pragmatically, we would be making quite a broad open time frame with that, however. The frame would emphasize the time span. This is why in everyday American we happen to get forms as here.

 

6d. I never read / saw the book.

 

Language allows to pool the cognitive information and say we never saw or read the book the author wrote last year.

 

It is for the sake of the cognitive ground that most people would add some circumstance, to affirm.

 

6e. I saw it at our book fair/ that year, etc.

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It is not just a concept that human brains can do logic. The sooner we begin to work on it, the better.

PICTURE: JIM AND HIS LITTLE COUSIN A-LI
EMOTICON: SMILE

Feel welcome to further language journey.
6.2. ASPECT COGNITIVE VARIABLE AND TIME FRAME
BUTTON: 6.2. ASPECT COGNITIVE VARIABLE AND TIME FRAME

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5.3. PRACTICE: REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

All verbs here can be irregular. Feel welcome to APPENDIX 2: it marks American English forms as AE, when they differ from British forms, BR. We continue practicing abbreviated verb forms, as in EXERCISE 28.

 

’m: am
’re: are
’s: is
’ve: have
’s: has
’d: had

 

We can tell abbreviated “is” from “has” only by their contexts, as both get shortened to ’s.

 

Example: They ‘ve clung.
Answer:
cling, clang, clung.
SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

1. We ’re swimming.

2. It’s shone.

3. You’d gainsaid.

4. She’s eaten.

5. They’d woken.

6. He’s heard.

7. They’re working.

8. She’d spun.

9. It’s crowing.

10. You’ve spoken.

 

Exercise 30. We provide the 2ND and 3RD verb forms. Not every verb in this exercise is irregular. We can write REG next to a regular verb.

 

Example: She ‘s read.
Answer: TO, the PRESENT; read, read, read
PRESENT PERFECT ARROW big

 

1. We’re drawing.

2. She’s sung.

3. You’d written.

4. You’ve colored.

5. They’ve painted.

6. She’s swinging.

7. It’s ringing.

8. She’s left.

9. I’m dreaming.

10. We’ve played.

 

Feel welcome to the second part of the language journey.
PART TWO, CONTENT

BUTTON: PART 2, CONTENT PAGE

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5.2. PRACTICE: SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

Exercise 22. Ability to use symbols is very important at school tests and exams. Let us combine the Aspect and Time, to exercise our logical arrows. We try to form our answers solely in our minds: this is where true learning takes shape.

 

Example:
generally {ON} the map in the PAST,
{ON} a PAST time extent
Answer:
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. IN a spot within the FUTURE time extent

2. TO a time within the PAST time extent

3. ON the PRESENT time extent

4. TO a time within the FUTURE time extent

5. TO a time within the PRESENT time extent

6. ON the FUTURE time extent

7. IN a spot in the PAST time extent

8. IN a spot in the PRESENT time extent

 

Exercise 23. Let us now gather from elements, as in PRACTICE 4.2. Let us focus on our symbolic cues.

 

Example: {TO}, 3RD, the PRESENT
Answer:
SYMBOLICS, PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

1. {IN}, ING, the PAST

2. {TO}, 3RD, the PAST

3. {ON}, the FUTURE

4. {IN}, ING, the PRESENT

5. {ON}, the PAST

6. {TO}, 3RD, the FUTURE

7. {ON}, the PRESENT

8. {IN}, ING, the FUTURE

 

Exercise 24. Let us try our language natures another way round. We begin with our arrow cue, to think about language elements.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: be, ING, in the PAST

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 24, TASK

Exercise 25. We can think about Bob and Jemma, along with the task from the previous exercise. Our head verb can be to learn.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: Jemma was learning.

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Please mind, we are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are about developing flexible habits. It does not matter in the exercise here, if we say Jemma learns, or Bob learns. It matters to mind we say Bob and Jemma learn, if we want to speak about both of them.

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Exercise 26. Let us now try our arrows with Expression. We can mark negative questions as ? N. We leave the affirmative unmarked.

 

Example 1:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, EXAMPLE 1
Answer: Will Bob and Jemma not have earned their credits?

 

Example 2:
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE PERFECT, ARROW
Answer: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, TASK

 

Exercise 27. Let us try our language logic for the Interrogative and Negative, within the PAST time extent only. To learn may remain our head verb. We also can choose to visit APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3, and try other verbs.

VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, EXAMPLE

Answer: Was Jemma learning?

We are staying in the PAST Field of Time.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, TASK

 

Exercise 28. Let us focus on our cognitive values for grammatical time. We use the symbolic cues, too.

 

If the same head verb, to learn, brings monotony, let us remember that APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3 can give us plenty of other verbs.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Example: Had Bob learned?
Answer:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, EXAMPLE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, ANSWER

 

Everyday language has abbreviated forms as doesn’t, hadn’t, and won’t, in everyday language. Let us think about the full forms, for our answers, exercising as in the MIND PRACTICE.

 

1. Jemma doesn’t worry.

2. Bob and Jemma hadn’t worried.

3. Is Jemma smiling?

4. Hasn’t Bob learned?

5. Bob didn’t worry.

6. Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?

7. Will Bob and Jemma smile?

8. Was Bob learning?

9. Bob won’t have failed.

10. Will Jemma be smiling?

 

Please mind, our arrow cues have no reference to weapons. They are the symbols people widely use for guidance. Feel welcome to some more guide exercise.
REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS


5.3. BUTTON, REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

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CHAPTER 5. LET US MAKE OWN PATHS ABOUT TIME

Let us visualize the logic we have worked so far. We have combined our core verbs (be, have, do, will), the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE), and tense patterns (Simple, Progressive, and Perfect).

 

Visuals can help mindwork. We may picture colorful extents. One extent may convey the AspectSimple, Progressive, or Perfect.

 

In CHAPTER 4, we gave the Aspect cognitive mapping values, for the sake of a better language economy:
Simple: {ON}
Progressive: {IN}
Perfect: {TO}.

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

 

Another extent can symbolize the grammatical Time — the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

We need one more logical quality in our picture, to be able to affirm, deny, or ask questions. With the regard, grammars recognize the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative. The can make our third logical capability, Expression.

 

We yet do not visualize Expression as one extent.

 

Why is it we can picture the Aspect as one extent? Our mapping values work together, as we saw in CHAPTER 4. We cannot be {IN} an area of a cognitive map, without being {ON} it. CHAPTER 8 shows we can combine the values {IN} and {TO}, and make our fourth mapping variable, {AT}.

 

Why is it we can visualize the grammatical time as one extent? We can never work the PAST or FUTURE without our PRESENT. Part 4 of the grammar journey shows how to make the nodi of time.

 

The word nodus comes from Latin. It also could mean the knot we make, as when we tie our shoes.
EMOTICON: SMILE

However, there are no “Affirmative Interrogative” structures, or syntax for a “Negative Affirmative”. We only may join the Negative and Interrogative, into the Negative Interrogative.

 

Our visuals can combine extents.
VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

 

We can set our third logical effect in the foreground of our picture.

 

VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

Let us now have a look at the making of language patterns, for the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative.

 

We can talk about Bob and Jemma.

PICTURE: BOB AND JEMMA CAN READ

 

We are within the PRESENT time compass now.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENTVISUALS: THE AFFIRMATIVE

Simple: Jemma learns.
Progressive: Bob is reading.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma have worked on language.

 

We are remaining in our PRESENT time extent, and look at the Interrogative.
VISUALS: THE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Does Jemma worry?
Progressive: Is Bob reverberating?
Perfect: Have Bob and Jemma failed?

 

Let us make observations. In our human and logical potential for asking questions, the elements move. Grammars name it the inversion.

 

Jemma is helping Bob.
Is Jemma helping Bob?

 

To grasp inversion, let us think about verbals and nominals. Verbals can make verb phrases, as in tense patterns. Nominals can make noun phrases.

 

Language forms as to play, to be playing, is playing, or having played are verbals. Verbals can tell what there is, happens, or what someone or something does.

 

Language forms as a game, a card game, or the game of the Sound are nominals. Nominals can answer the question Who or What?
(We can learn the game in Part 4 of our journey).
PHONEME SH

 

The nominal and the verbal are roles. Let us see them marked for a phrase as
The verb “to be” is an irregular verb:
NOMINAL (What?): The verb “to be”
VERBAL: is
NOMINAL (What?): an irregular verb.

 

Our color code works those roles, not isolated words.
I am a learner.
I am learning.
BUTTON: COLORS CAN HELP READ AND LEARN

 

American English (the same as any English) is an SVO (SUBJECT―VERB―OBJECT) language. To affirm, we begin with the subject and follow up with the verb, which we may complement with an object.

 

If we agree to make subjects from nominals, we can have word movement generally for a highlight.

 

In the famous To be or not to be, that is the question, by Shakespeare, the nominal, the question, is the SUBJECT, only the order of words is changed, for the sake of style. This is why generative grammars recognize language deep structures.

The question is, to be or not to be.

 

Otherwise, we might have difficulty, in telling the verb from the name for it:
Is the verb “to be” an irregular verb?
To be or not to be, that is the question.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

Stylistic movement of words is not anything extraordinary. We may compare Exercise 14 in SUB-CHAPTER 4.2. The auxiliary can take a feature, as –ES, and go before a nominal, or after a pronoun.
The orchard has a little nut tree.
A little nut tree, does the orchard have.
A little nut tree, it does have.

 

The matter is not in formal or colloquial styles. We could say that language has pronouns for shorter nominals.
For emphasis, the Simple Aspect also allows saying,
Do read this all, please.
EMOTICON: SMILE

When we ask questions, auxiliaries move to places before subjects. Dependent on the grammar approach, we may view the word order as VSO then, or basically SVO, still.

 

We can play the Sound.
SUBJECT: We
AUXILIARY: can
HEAD VERB: play.

 

Can we play the Sound?
AUXILIARY: Can
SUBJECT: we
HEAD VERB: play?

 

In the question, “to be playing” remains the verb phrase, and the verb “to playits head. Our mauve head verb does not move.

 

Dependent on the context and style, we also might ask a question, saying
“You can play the Sound?”
The deep structure would be
{Can-you-play-the-Sound}.
There is no syntactic marker for such questions, however, and we cannot show Expression entire as one extent.

 

Anyway, good language means making many extents.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us now have a look at patterns that help deny, in the PRESENT time extent.
VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE

Simple: Jemma does not worry.
Progressive: Bob is not reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma have not failed.

 

We often abbreviate our patterns, in everyday speech.

Simple: Jemma doesn’t worry.
Progressive: Bob isn’t reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma haven’t failed.

 

We can combine the Interrogative and Negative extents, to ask negative questions.
We could ask, “Isn’t Jemma smiling?”
(We really say that Jemma is smiling).

PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES

Simple: Doesn’t Jemma travel in grammar?
Progressive: Isn’t Bob traveling in grammar?
Perfect: Haven’t Bob and Jemma traveled in grammar?

 

Let us compare formal American English, as for school. Formal syntax does not follow abbreviated auxiliaries.

Simple: Does Jemma not travel in grammar?
Progressive: Is Bob not traveling in grammar?
Perfect: Have Bob not traveled in grammar?

 

To focus on word movement and language elements, we can use the Simple Aspect. The verb to do has the auxiliary role here. It takes the ending (ES for the third person singular (he, she, or it), also in the role of the head verb.

The Affirmative: Jemma smileS.
The Interrogative: DoES Jemma travel in grammar?

 

Our logical capacity for denying has the negative element, not. This element can join the auxiliary.
The Negative: Jemma doES not worry.
The Negative Interrogative: DoES Jemma not earn her credits?

 

In everyday language, the forms are most often abbreviated.
The Negative: Jemma doESN’T worry.
The Negative Interrogative: DoESN’T Jemma earn her credits?

 

Appendix 4 has patterns for all aspects, also with abbreviations.

 

What happens, if we change our PRESENT time compass to the FUTURE time extent?

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

Our Expression retains all qualities.

VISUALS: THE AFFIRMATIVE

Simple: Jemma will smile.
Progressive: Bob will be smiling, too.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.

 

The logic for the FUTURE is likely to bring the auxiliary WILL into our scopes. The auxiliary be stays to its basic form (be). PRACTICE 2.1. has notes on verb base forms.

VISUALS: THE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Will Jemma smile?
Progressive: Will Bob be smiling, too?
Perfect: Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?

 

The negative element, not, joins the auxiliary WILL, for the Negative.

VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE

Simple: Jemma will not worry.
Progressive: Bob will not be reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma will not have failed.

 

The phrase will not becomes won’t, in everyday American.

Simple: Jemma won’t worry.
Progressive: Bob won’t be reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma won’t have failed.

 

Again, formal American English will not follow abbreviation.

VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Will she not smile?
Progressive: Will he not be smiling, too?
Perfect: Will they not have earned their credits?

 

Feel welcome to APPENDIX 4

BUTTON: LINK TO SUB-CHAPTER 5.1

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4.2. LANGUAGE MAP PRACTICE

Exercise 13. If we never imagined anything, we would be unable to prefigure on things, to predict what happens, before we do something. Imagination is an ability to envision, to form an image.

 

Let us draw concept maps for our physical whereabouts, our every day, and our lives. Our maps do not have to be exact.

 

We only move gradually from a space concept into a time concept. Maps for physical whereabouts would be mostly about space. Maps about lives would focus on time more.

 

We have a few examples here. Please do draw your own maps, put on them as many associations as possible, all in English.

 

A. My physical whereabouts: the map does not have to be exact. It should only show physically nearest objects.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

 

B. My everyday life: the places do not have to be physically close; it is important we associate them with our routine and preferred experiences. This makes them psychologically close.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK A, PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

C. My life: we may feel like going into the future a little.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 13 TASK C, LIFE AND FUTURE

EMOTICON: A JOKE 

Exercise 14. We can recognize language content and inner framework. The framework is not about style only. It helps put thought into comprehensible patterns.

 

We use the verbs to be and to have, to build the Progressive or Perfect Aspects. When be and have help build a pattern, they map on time and activity.

 

The mapping is usually an approximation; it even cannot be 100% exact, as there happen to be differences among people, on how to view things.

 

When they map, to be and to have belong with the language framework.

 

When they bring talk about existence (being) or ownership, to be and to have are head verbs. They can head verb phrases, and belong with the content.

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs.
BUTTON, APPENDIX 1: THE VERB

 

Let us decide, where be and have belong with the framework, and where with the content. In the example, the answer is underlined.

 

F: language framework
C: language content

 

Example:
I have brought this for you.
This is a chart for our journey.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

Answer:
have      F or C (framework)
be          F or C (content)

 

1. Mary’s lamb was white as snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

2. As I was going to St. Ives, I was talking with a man of seven wives.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

3. An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, it has borne silver nutmeg and golden pears.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

4. The north wind has blown, we will have snow.
have      F or C
be          F
or C

 

5. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown.
be          F or C

 

Exercise 15. Let us exercise our symbolics for time. In our minds, we match a language marker (ON, IN, or TO) with a picture. The simple activity may help more advanced brainwork.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 15, INTRODUCTION

 

Example: Variable {TO}, the PRESENT Field
Answer: have

 

Our purely symbolic behavior might be illustrated as follows.
PICTURE, EXERCISE 15 SYMBOLICS

 

We may view or print the picture below (click to enlarge), and think about the answers, simply looking at the picture.

 

1. Variable {IN}, the PAST Field
2. Variable {ON}, the PAST Field
3. Variable {ON}, the FUTURE Field
4. Variable {TO}, the FUTURE Field
5. Variable {IN}, the FUTURE Field
6. Variable {ON}, the PRESENT Field
7. Variable {IN}, the PRESENT Field
8. Variable {TO}, the PAST Field

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We are about to progress into verbal guidance more. Language Mapping does not require that we abandon classic grammar books.

 

We may want to talk about grammar, and classic grammar terms can be useful in this. Exercises 16-21 are to help the ends meet.

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Exercise 16. We do not have to feel bound to fields and land travel, to think about grammatical time. We can imagine an eagle route.

 

PICTURE: EAGLE ROUTE WITH ASPECT PATTERNS

 

Our eagle route has four mapping forms. All English languages in the world (American, British, Irish, or any other) have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive.

 

The fourth mapping form is have been ING (the variable AT). We can think about it more in Part Two of our journey.

 

Our inner language does not need to be “fixed”. We do not have to stay by the connotation from exercise 15. It can be “PAST reference” now. Our head verb can be to live.

 

Example: have, PAST reference, he

Answer: He had lived; the Past Perfect.

 

We work minds first: we think the entire exercise over, and we write the answers only if we decide to do so.

 

Grammatical time

Aspect

 

The Simple

The Progressive

The Perfect

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FUTURE FIELDThe Future

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE FUTURE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FUTURE FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PRESENTThe Present

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PRESENT

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PRESENT FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE FIELD OF THE PASTThe Past

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE INDEFINITE IN THE FIELD OF THE PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO BE IN THE PAST FIELD

PICTURE: EXERCISE 16, THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PAST FIELD

 

1. , PRESENT reference, they

2. be, FUTURE reference, you

3. , PAST reference, we

4. have, PRESENT reference, it

5. be, PAST reference, she

6. , FUTURE reference, we

7. have, FUTURE reference, I

8. be, PRESENT reference, he

 

Exercise 17. Time for some work after all the leisure (!)

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Grammar books may differ on Aspect labeling: some will have Progressive tenses for Continuous tenses. Travelers in Grammar stay by the name Progressive.

 

Our connotation now can be “in the Field of the FUTURE. Our head verb can be to guide.

 

Example: Perfect in the Field of the FUTURE, she

Answer: She will have guided. (Future Perfect)

 

Minds first (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

1. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, I

2. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, you

3. Progressive in the Field of the FUTURE, he

4. Progressive in the Field of the PAST, she

5. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, it

6. Perfect in the Field of the PAST, you

7. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, we

8. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, she

 

Exercise 18. Let us put our skills to an ultimate test. We can try to gather our verb forms from pieces. Speaking with someone in a noisy room happens to require such “gathering from pieces”.

 

Again, we may remain by thinking the answers, without writing them or saying. Our head verb may be to continue.

 

Example: ING, it, the PAST Field

Answer: It was continuing.

 

1. 3RD, he, the FUTURE Field

2. ING, she, the PAST Field

3. ING, they, the PRESENT Field

4. 3RD, we, the PAST Field

5. 3RD, you, the FUTURE Field

6. ING, I, in the PAST Field

7. 3RD, it, the PRESENT Field

8. ING, we, the PRESENT Field

9. 3RD, I, the FUTURE Field

10. ING, you, the PAST Field

11. 3RD, she, the PRESENT Field

12. ING, he, the PAST Field

13. 3RD, they, the FUTURE Field

14. ING, we, the FUTURE Field

 

Exercise 19. We can have various head verbs. All verbs here refer to moving about. Let us remember there are many more verbs, in APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3.

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 2
BUTTON, APPENDIX 3

 

Example 1: walk, HAVE in the PRESENT

Answer: Present Perfect, have/has walked

 

We “gather from pieces” as above, we only include the Simple Aspect. We mark it as the indeterminate or infinity.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity symbolizes that it is impossible to calculate all words, phrases, and sentences we humans can make.

 

There is no way to count irregular verb uses alone. They may vary from one geographical area to another, from person to person, or even the same people may change in verb regularity.

 

The Simple pattern can use head verbs to map on grammatical time. Progressive and Perfect patterns use auxiliary verbs for that.

 

Example 2: go, , in the PAST

Answer: went, Past Simple

 

1. hike, BE in the PRESENT

2. trek, , in the FUTURE

3. stride, HAVE in the PAST

4. ramble, HAVE in the FUTURE

5. move, BE in the PAST

6. stroll, , in the PAST

7. tread, , in the PRESENT

8. step, BE in the FUTURE

9. roam, HAVE in the PAST

10. rove, BE in the PRESENT

 

Exercise 20. Now our head verbs all refer to thinking. Let us use the Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect, with the grammatical person (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).
We may fancy our BIG CHART FOR THREE PERSONS AND PATHS.

 

Example 1:
think, Progressive, in the PAST Field

Answer:
was thinking (I, he, she, it),
were thinking (you, we, they)

 

Example 2:
consider, Simple, in the PAST Field

Answer:
considered (I, you, we, they, he, she, it: all persons)

 

1. reason, Perfect, in the FUTURE Field

2. imagine, Simple, in the FUTURE Field

3. expect, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

4. figure, Perfect, in the PAST Field

5. reckon, Progressive, in the PRESENT Field

6. surmise, Simple, in the PAST Field

7. mediate, Simple, in the PAST Field

8. cogitate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

9. review, Progressive, in the PAST Field

10. anticipate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field

 

Exercise 21. Our thinking and inner language are the fastest and most capable to manage our inner grammars.

 

Linguistically, abstract thinking is not about anything unreal. It extracts from experience. It integrates the essentials.

 

Let us try a few hat tricks. The hat, ^ , is a symbol we may use for our language notation. Let us see, if we can take language tasks “at the drop of the hat”, that is, fast and without effort. Below, we can see an extract or essence for our observations so far.

 

PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

In this exercise, all verbs relate to comprehension and learning. We can have our language note, TO^PRESENT, for saying, TO a moment with a PRESENT reference. Everyone may write up own notation.

 

Example: gather, TO^PRESENT, she

Answer: She has gathered.

 

1. understand, ON^PRESENT, I

2. learn, IN^FUTURE, we

3. notice, TO^FUTURE, he

4. think, IN^PAST, you

5. study, ON^PAST, they

6. interpret, IN^PRESENT, he

7. discern, TO^PRESENT, she

8. comprehend, ON^FUTURE, we

 

Our language markers ON, IN, TO (and later also AT) grammatically are prepositions. We can have these function words for cognitive variables in inner management of integrated patterns of language.

 

We do not need to be ashamed of the idea in front of school professors (!)

 

Let us mind, we use our markers for the language inner framework. We can compare classic grammars: we do not have to say we are using the Present Simple, whenever we speak or write with the Present Simple pattern.

 

Matters are the same with Language Mapping: we do not have to say or write the prepositions, to use them for mapping.

 

Another way round, we do not have to employ the Progressive, Simple, or Perfect tense patterns to use the words progress, simple, or perfect. Likewise, we can use prepositions for our content regardless of the mapping framework.

 

An exquisite, little nut tree I do have, says example 3 in exercise 14. Our Simple pattern can have an auxiliary. Feel welcome to CHAPTER 5.

BUTTON, CHAPTER 5. THE AFFIRMATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, NEGATIVE, AND NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

3.1. THE FIELDS AND THE RIVER OF TIME

If we take the patterns of the River of Time separately, they become quite many. If we focus on their regularities, they are just a few patterns. Let us return to the picture of the River of Time.

 

PICTURE: RIVER OF TIME CORE VERBS

 

We can isolate two patterns easily. Grammar books name them the Progressive and the Perfect.

 

 

What do the names, Progressive or Perfect, tell in grammar? We most often think about the character of activity or faculty, when we think about its time. Grammars call this character the Aspect. The Progressive and Perfect grammatically are Aspects.

 

An activity in the Progressive Aspect is something in progress. Progress may be a changing condition, state, or activity. It may mean betterment, but it not always does.

 

An activity in the Perfect Aspect is something regarded to a point in time. The name “perfect” comes from Latin. For grammar, it has nothing to do with faults, flaws, or their absence. It tells about effects to a time.

 

To use a Progressive or Perfect pattern, we adapt the be or the have for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE. The verbs to be or to have are then auxiliary verbs, or auxiliaries, in short.

 

PICTURE: RIVER OF TIME VERB AND PATTERN DISCERNMENT

 

The word “auxiliary” comes from Latin. It meant “helping”, “accompanying”. The be and the have as in the Progressive or Perfect help build the patterns. They keep company to head verbs. Our head verbs are words to tell faculties or activities, as to learn, to read, or to write.

 

PICTURE: ‘WILL BE READING’ AUXILIARY AND HEAD VERB

 

Together, the auxiliary and the head verb make the verb phrase. Auxiliaries help tell “where” we are in our thoughts about time, when we use grammatical patterns. The “where” is a figure of speech.

 

There is no single or specific brain area for thoughts. Own language activity is the strongest single factor to unite the working of the human brain entire (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us try the Perfect pattern. It takes the third form. The third form has the ending ED, for regular verbs. For irregular verbs, the ending can be EN.

 

PICTURE: ‘HAD WRITTEN’ AUXILIARY AND HEAD VERB

 

The River of Time has one more pattern, the Simple. It can work without auxiliaries.

 

PICTURE: RIVER OF TIME VERB AND PATTERN DISCERNMENT

 

What does the name Simple tell, in grammar? An activity or faculty in the Simple Aspect does not take on boundaries, as to tell to what time we regard a matter, or whether we have it for something in progress.

 

The name of this Aspect comes from the Latin word simplus. The form is “simple”, because it may work without an auxiliary.

 

An activity or faculty may be not simple at all, and we might use the Simple Aspect, still:

I love grammar
(though it is not an easy feeling).
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

We capitalize, that is, use big letters, to write Aspect names. We use the words “simple”, “progressive”, or “perfect” as parts of noun phrases where the noun ― Aspect ― is a proper noun.

 

We do not use the words Simple, Progressive, Perfect, or Aspect in any sense other than grammatical.

 

To perceive the Simple Aspect, let us try the verb to learn. In American English, it is a regular verb. We can begin with the PAST.

 

Regular verbs take the ending ED, in the Simple Aspect.

I, you, we, they, he, she, it
learned.

 

within the the run of the River through the PRESENT field.
The singular has the feature (E)S.
We say,
he, she, or it
is, has, or does.

 

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT

I, you, we, they
learn;

 

He, she, it
learns.

 

CHAPTER 2 shows the verb will can map on the FUTURE already in its PRESENT form.

PICTURE: THE VERB FORM ‘WILL’ MAPPING ON THE FUTURE

It does not take the feature S. We can say it does not belong with the PRESENT field only.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

I, you, we, they, he, she, it
will learn.

 

Well, we do not know all the way yet, but we are on the other side of the River of Time (!)

 

PICTURE: MORE TO LEARN ACROSS THE RIVER OF TIME

*****

The verb to learn is regular. Both to read and to write are irregular verbs. Appendixes 2 and 3 have irregular verbs listed with regard to their speech sound patterns.

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 2

 

BUTTON, APPENDIX 3

*****

It can be any verb, to map the grammatical time in the Simple. We can present the Simple with the infinity symbol.

SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The symbol is to mean that something cannot be exactly calculated, similarly to the Pi, π. It is impossible to calculate natural languages mathematically.

 

We can present extracts for the Progressive, Perfect, as well as the Simple.

 

PICTURE: ASPECT PATTERNS, THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

 

Where is the verb phrase, in the Simple pattern? We might think it takes at least two words, to make a phrase. Phrases yet can work well, if we have them as room we make in our language. Verb phrases are the room for grammatical time.

 

In the Simple Aspect, a single verb may do for this room in the PRESENT or the PAST, if we affirm on something. For the FUTURE, the Simple Aspect takes the auxiliary will. CHAPTER 5 shows the Simple for questions and negatives.

 

When the Simple pattern works without auxiliaries, it is the head verb to map the grammatical time. Let us see our mapping underlined, for all the Aspects so far.
PICTURE: MAPPING THE ASPECT, THE VERB TO LEARN

 

Some grammars use the label “Continuous” for the “Progressive”. They mean the same Aspect, that is, they make the same reference for the character of activity or faculty, and time.

 

There is one more pattern. Grammars name it the Perfect Progressive. We can get to know it better in our further journey. Feel welcome.
3.2. THE PERSON “YOU”

BUTTON: SUBCHAPTER 3.2. THE PERSON 'YOU'

 

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

 

2.1. WORD PRACTICE IN THE FIELDS

We can manage the grammatical time as in fields for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

Verb forms may change for the grammatical time.
Not all are regular in this.

 

Most dictionaries have lists of irregular verbs. The lists show the first, second, and third form, for irregular verbs.

 

AN IRREGULAR VERB

The infinitive: to ring

The base form: ring.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

ring

rang

rung

 

Regular verbs take the ending ED in their second and third forms.

 

A REGULAR VERB

The infinitive: to sound

The base form: sound.

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

sound

sounded

sounded

 

We are only beginning our language journey with verbs. For now, we can stay with the first and second forms. Some knowledge on the base and infinitive shapes of verbs should help us work with grammar resources.

 

We build the infinitive with the basic form of the verb and the particleto”.

 

BASE FORM: ring & to
THE INFINITIVE: to ring.

 

For most verbs in English, the base form is going to be the same as the first form.
I will write tomorrow, the FUTURE Field of Time;
(“write” is the first and the basic form of the verb to write).

 

For the verb to be, the base form is different from the first form.
I will be home tomorrow, the FUTURE Field of Time;
(“be” is the base form of the verb to be;
the first forms are am, is, are).

 

We can see the first forms in our PRESENT Field of Time.

PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE

Human grammars evidently have evolved in our earthly reality.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us note that the particle “to” does not belong only with the infinitive. To tell the difference, we mind if the particle comes with a verb or a noun. The infinitive is a form of a verb.

 

I like to listen to music;
(the PRESENT Field, the infinitive is underlined).

 

I often listen to music;
(the PRESENT Field, no infinitive, music is a noun, that is, a word that can answer the question Who or what?)

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs. APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3 show verb speech sound patterns. Irregular verbs are easier to learn with those language melodies.

 

Exercise 5. Let us put the verbs in forms proper for the indicated grammatical time.

 

 

In simple words,
let us put the verbs in Fields of Time.

 

Our vocoid pattern here is [I:] ― [e:] ― [e:].

 

In simple words,
the language melody for the verbs has a contour as
[I:] ― [e:] ― [e:]

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

leave

left

left

 

Example: PAST (leave)

Answer: left

 

1. FUTURE (leave)

2. PRESENT (mean)

3. PRESENT (meet)

4. PAST (read)

5. FUTURE (sleep)

6. PAST (sweep)

7. PAST (sleep)

8. PRESENT (read)

9. FUTURE (meet)

10. PRESENT (sweep)

 

Exercise 6. We can try our language natures another way round. We tell the Field of Time by the shape of the verb. By standard, we show pronunciation — the way to say a word — in square brackets.

 

Example: left

Answer: (time first) PAST (leave)

 

1. meet(s); 2. read [re: d]; 3. read [rI: d]; 4. will sleep; 5. will leave; 6. met; 7. mean(s); 8. meant; 9. slept; 10. swept.

 

Verbs can make patterns we name the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. Feel welcome to further grammar journey.
CHAPTER 3. TIME IS LIKE A RIVER.

LINK TO CHAPTER 3: THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

COLORS CAN HELP READ AND LEARN

A color code can make reading and learning easier. Let us begin with verbs.

 

Some verb forms can work as head verbs and as auxiliaries. We color verb auxiliary roles green and head roles mauve.

 

When verbs head verb phrases, they tell the activity or faculty. When they are auxiliary, they always require another verb.

 

Auxiliaries help build language patterns, as the Simple, Progressive, or Perfect (SUB-CHAPTER 3.1).

 

PICTURE: ‘WILL BE READING’ AUXILIARY AND HEAD VERB

We could say,

I am a learner;
I am learning.

 

We also could say,
I have a grammar book;
I have learned grammar.

 

To avoid confusion, we can use invented words. Virtual words can be fun. Kids use them regularly, following own natural intuitions. We can use the trick when we are older, too.

 

PICTURE: KIDS WITH AMERICAN FLAGS

 

In our exercises, we usually begin with virtual word practice, and work on real words only after. We can focus on meaning better, when we are familiar with language structures.

 

We can try a virtual form “bimo” for an invented verb, with the forms and in the places for head verbs. This can help us focus on syntax.
I am bimoing.
I have bimoed.

 

We can have two invented verbs, bimo and thimo, as well as two invented nouns, phimo and reemo.

 

Our virtual verbs are gillyflower. Our invented nouns can be carrot. The colors are much less likely to occur in print, even color print, and invented words are just to help exercise.

 

They are not to replace language.
Virtual words can help learn speech sounds.

 

PICTURE: VIRTUAL WORDS

The words have the sounds [f], [b], [th], and [r] in the same position. The sounds may be difficult to learners, just as telling [I] from [I:].

 

We have the sounds in “thimo” and “reemo”, to practice.
5.2. PRACTICE: VIRTUAL WORDS AND REAL SYNTAX
10.3. WORKOUR FOR REAL-TIME TALK: LEARN TO SAY THIMO

 

Kids might say things as “phimo bimoes reemo” not only for fun, but also for real language exercise. Virtual words allow practice at the level of language form solely. This means we work as in school, only with shortcuts.

EMOTICON: SMILE

In our language journey, pronouns and nouns are ink blue. Highlights and mapping extents are blue. We avoid color red, for the prevalent and adverse associations with prescriptive opinion on error.