10.1. THE UNREAL PAST OR CONDITIONAL: REAL TIME

Let us try a few more quotes.

 

More than that, and breaking precedent once more, I do not intend to commence any sentence with these words ― “If George Washington had been alive today”, or “If Thomas Jefferson”, or “If Alexander Hamilton”, or “If Abraham Lincoln had been alive today…”
Theodore Roosevelt, American President

PICTURE: PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT

PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT

 

Grammar resources might label the quote from Theodore Roosevelt as the 3rd Conditional, Unreal Past, or even the Past Unreal Conditional, dependent on the grammar approach solely.

 

Some of those resources would tell we build the 3rd Conditional of the Past Perfect and the Future in the Past.

 

We would have to recognize the Past Perfect for a potentially Unreal form, then.

 

Worse still, our “Unreal Past Perfect” would be as good as merely a fancy. Please compare a quote from Gerald Ford.

 

If Lincoln were alive today, he’d be turning over in his grave.

 

PICTURE: PRESIDENT GERALD FORDPRESIDENT GERALD FORD.

 

It is not only for our pension plans that we might be unwilling to have the Past Perfect for merely a fancy.

 

With Perfect tenses overall, our syntactic HAVE helps tell about real time. It has an open, real-time frame. To compare physical space, we might think about paths or routes on real ground.

 

{TO} is our cognitive variable.
We have the variable to render duration and time spans.

 

TEXT EXTENT: I HAVE WORKED -- I HAD WORKED

 

With the Unreal grammatical time or Conditional, HAVE brings hypothetical time. It is not part the real map, then.

 

It comes with an auxiliary compass for relative time, and closes the frame for the theory. We attach the auxiliary compass to the Modal.

 

Our cognitive variable is {ON}.

 

TEXT EXTENT: WE MAY HAVE WORKED -- MIGHT HAVE WORKED

Duration and time span become generalized.
We have called it our Modal Net.

 

TEXT EXTENT: MODAL NET, MAY HAVE JUMPED, MIGHT HAVE STOPPED

Whether our verb would be to read, to speak, to run, to stop, or to jump, duration becomes non-essential, with a theory closed frame.

 

The matter is exactly the same with the anchor HAVE in Theodore Roosevelt’s quote. The phrase, “had been alive”, is not concerned with longevity or shortness of life.

 

The phrase narrates about being alive generally, and we could quote Gerald Ford’s wording, “were alive” for an exact paraphrase.

 

Naturally, we might note that live people would not be likely staying in their graves, but our thing here is to work grammar for language uses as they are, even if absolutely abstract or humorous.

EMOTICON: SMILE

We may recur to CHAPTER 10. Our example was
“If you HAD eaten the cookie, you WOULD NOT HAVE had it (at some later, but still PAST time)”.

 

Again, the anchor HAVE pays no heed to the length of time it takes to eat a cookie. It helps mind if the cookie remains, or has been consumed in the course of events.

 

The syntactic role is narrative, not factual.
We may compare SUB-CHAPTER 9.2.
I thought the handle MIGHT HAVE / COULD HAVE broken off.
(It turned out it was still in place.)

 

However we know the theory was against fact, we can tell our story with the anchor HAVE.

 

About stories and their telling, the Conditional or grammatical “unreal time” are often backtrack logic: we look to the consequent, to speculate on the premise.

 

Let us think if language might transfer features.

 

PICTURE: BACKTRACK LOGIC, FEATURE TRANSFER

We can view the phrase had eaten as a transfer of the syntactic anchor from the consequent.

 

We may think about a similar transfer for the Passive, where the object becomes the subject and the predicate adapts.

 

We do not need to view the anchor HAVE as the real-time Past Perfect. For speculation as “had been alive” or “were alive”, the choice is purely stylistic.

 

Let us try another president quote.

*****

“If I had permitted my failures, or what seemed to me at the time a lack of success, to discourage me, I cannot see any way in which I would ever have made progress.”
Calvin Coolidge, American President

PICTURE: PRESIDENT CALVIN COOLIDGE

CALVIN COOLIDGE IN 1910, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

 

Grammar resources might label the above as the 2nd Conditional, or view the phrase “I WOULD have made progress” as a Modal modification of a real-time “I HAVE made progress”.

 

The argument might be, the words definitely refer to a time span, between some time PAST and PRESENT, in which progress has been made.

 

Let us consider two views to our syntactic structures. We began building our language structures joining the grammatical Person, Time, and Aspect.

 

Modal verbs have brought form relativity and auxiliary grammatical time. Let us picture these language components.

 

PICTURE: THE BASIC POOL OF LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

Let us think where the verb TO HAVE might occur, as an auxiliary or head verb.

 

PICTURE: THE VERB ‘TO HAVE’ AS PART THE LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

 

For the auxiliary time, we may compare SUB-CHAPTER 9.1.
Modality is not indispensable:
We can have auxiliary time without it, too.
I am happy to have exercised;
I was happy to have exercised;
I will be happy to have exercised.

 

Let us change the verb “to exercise” into the verb phrase “to make progress”.
I am happy to have made progress;
I was happy to have made progress;
I will be happy to have made progress.

 

Let us modify our infinitive with the Modal form MAY.
I am happy I may have made progress;
I was happy I might have made progress.
I will be happy I may have made progress.

 

We can view phrases as modified, as well. Our view is likely to depend on the context and word sense, namely, if a phrase looks a theory, or not.

 

The progress in Calvin Coolidge quote is not a theory.
I cannot see any way in which I would HAVE made progress.

 

Our symbolics is to help comprehend.
For Calvin Coolidge quote, we can use
MODAL MEDIATION, REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME.
SYMBOLICS: MODAL MEDIATIONPICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

For a theory, we may compare,
But the obstacles, she WOULD HAVE made progress.
But she has not made any progress.
The symbolics to help see the difference can be
A CLOSED MODAL FRAME.
SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME CLOSED FRAME

*****

Let us think how the Modal frame closes. With our modified infinitive above, Modality is attached as a subordinate clause. It does not make the main grammatical time.

 

Let us compare Modality for our main or head, real time.

 

If someone asked,
“What HAS she BEEN doing?”
An answer as,
“She MAY HAVE BEEN working”,
would close the hypothetical time on the grammatical and real-time PRESENT, just as the question.

 

Saying, “She MAY HAVE finished by tomorrow”, or “She WILL HAVE finished by tomorrow”, we would close our hypothetical time on tomorrow.

 

We can use our auxiliary time extent with all grammatical time, but we need to mind the form of the Modal verb alone, for the main time.

 

PRESENT Modal forms tend towards the grammatical PRESENT or FUTURE.

If we say we CAN or MAY work, the hypothesis goes into the FUTURE a little. Our Modal frame remains open. SYMBOLICS: RELATIVE TIME OPEN FRAME

 

Modal shapes we class as PAST tend towards the PAST or PRESENT. It is only with the open frame that we can use PAST Modal forms for the grammatical FUTURE.

 

We might say,
“We COULD do this tomorrow,”
but without auxiliary HAVE.

PICTURE: MODAL VERB TENDENCIES IN THE FIELDS OF TIME

For our main time, we would not produce forms as
*She COULD HAVE / MIGHT HAVE finished by tomorrow.

 

The only exception would be the Modal WILL itself, but it is our regular mapping word for the FUTURE.
She WOULD HAVE finished by tomorrow.

 

The form “CAN” is quite special. We use it to tell what we are really able to do; we have the skill, or even mastery and finesse. Many grammar resources discourage closing the frame on it in the Affirmative, whatever the grammatical time.

 

If we are tentative about a future result, we can say
“Maybe it WILL HAVE ended by tomorrow”.
We may view the structure as the real-time Future Perfect, with an open real-time frame.
PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

*****

Language is not a record or chronicle. It does not require absolute certainty about things coming true, or confirmation in events, for the thought to be real and for the structure to be grammatical.

*****

Do we need to resolve between labels as “Unreal Past” or “Conditional”? Let us mark individual verbs for grammatical form, in these words by Franklin Delano Roosevelt:

 

“No group and no Government CAN (FORM: PRESENT) properly prescribe precisely what SHOULD (FORM: PAST) constitute the body of knowledge with which true education is (FORM: PRESENT) concerned.”

 

It is obvious there must be a relative interpretation for grammatical from, and the extent for this relativity embraces the verb phrase.

 

A verb phrase can be one verb, or a verb structure, as with auxiliary HAVE.

 

Classing entire stretches of language as Conditional or Unreal Past, we might feel lost for the main time. We can stay by terms as “a relative verb form”, or “verb form relativity”.

 

Verb forms would be relative to the main grammatical time, the reference we make for the real time.

*****

Well, we may have worked out some logic. If we were lazy, we would have been doing something else for the past hour.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

For a competent insight into our syntax, let us consider the Progressive. Feel welcome.
10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: 10.2. FORM RELATIVITY: THE PROGRESSIVE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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CHAPTER 9. TO TELL THE FASHION IN VALUABLE TIME

With Modal verbs, our view on time may become as with two hour glasses. Modal verbs do not narrate the real time. Their manner is relative to real time.

 

We also could say that Modal verbs mediate between the grammatical Time and Aspect. The name “modal” comes from the Latin word “modus”, meaning an extent or measure.

 

In CHAPTER 2, we viewed the verb form “will” in our Fields of Time. The form did not belong clearly with the grammatical PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE. The same is true about all Modal verbs.

 

The PRESENT form of the verb WILL can map on the FUTURE.

The PAST form can tell about the PRESENT, as well.

“We will be hiking” (FUTURE);
“We would like to have some tea now” (PRESENT).

 

Some grammars will have Modals for defective verbs. They do not have all the three forms. Let us compare other verbs.

 

REGULAR VERB: TO TRAVEL
INFINITIVE to travel
1ST FORM travel     2ND FORM traveled     3RD FORM traveled
DYNAMIC PARTICIPLE traveling     STATIVE PARTICIPLE traveled

 

IRREGULAR VERB: TO WRITE
INFINITIVE to write
1ST FORM write     2ND FORM wrote     3RD FORM written
DYNAMIC PARTICIPLE writing     STATIVE PARTICIPLE written

 

MODAL VERB FORMS:

MAY
1ST FORM may     2ND FORM might

CAN
1ST FORM can     2ND FORM could

SHALL
1ST FORM shall     2ND FORM should

NEED
1ST FORM need     2ND FORM (needed)     3RD FORM (needed)

MUST
1ST FORM must      2ND FORM (must)

WILL
1ST FORM will     2ND FORM would

*****

Modal verbs can be truly unlike other verbs.

 

They do not have infinitive forms.
We do not say * “to may”.

 

They do not have participle forms.
We do not say * “mayed” or * “maying”.

 

They do not use will for their grammatical FUTURE.
We do not say * “will may”.

 

Their forms can have more than one grammatical time reference.
We could say,
“You might think about reading this all”.
MIGHT is the PAST form of the verb MAY, yet it refers to the grammatical PRESENT here.

 

We also could say,
“As children, they loved the old library,
where they might read as well as play.”

 

MIGHT is the PAST form of the verb MAY,

and it refers to the grammatical PAST.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

We may envisage Modals in logical categories.

 

POTENTIALITY    PROBABILITY    CONTINGENCY    CERTAINTY

 

POTENTIALITY:
Our potential is what we are actually able to do, or something we have real prospects to become able to do. Something potential is something that actually might come into existence.

 

PROBABILITY:
It belongs mostly with guesswork. Humans happen to consider probability in theory making. Possibility is a close synonym. We can have it for equivalent with probability, in grammar.

 

Let us think about Madame Règle. She has the potential to have lunch at Latimer Sauf’s restaurant every day. He always has a table for his friends, and she has enough money.

 

However, her work with Paris haute couture designers happens to keep her over the lunchtime. Her coming to lunch is probable, but not certain.

 

PICTURE: MADAME RÈGLE

 

CERTAINTY:
It requires both potentiality and probability. Let us think about Monsieur Sauf’s birthday. Madame Règle WILL come to meet him. It is certain.

 

CONTINGENCY:
Some books will have something contingent for something likely, and some will say it is something unlikely to happen. We tend to tell likelihood by how often something takes place.

 

Madame Règle has a resolve here. Words have etymologies. The adjective “contingent” comes from the Latin words “tangere, tangens”. The words meant “to touch”, “touching”.

 

Madame Règle has contingency for something touching on, dependent on something else. Let us mind that cause and effect may not depend on simple factors.

*****

Contingency needs a potential for something to happen. What is certain has to be probable.

 

When we speak about own POTENTIAL, we mostly say what we are able to do. To tell own resolves, we most often use the verbs CAN or MAY.

 

We are able to do things only in probable circumstances, even if our abilities are outstanding. CAN and MAY are our most prominent words for PROBABILITY, too.

 

MAY is going to sound a bit more formal. CAN is going to be more colloquial. CAN happens to express probability greater than MAY.

 

CONTINGENCY may require that we adapt own resolves to circumstances. Our Modal verbs to express the extent of that requirement are NEED, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, and HAVE TO.

 

We always use OUGHT TO with the infinitive: “we ought to learn”, “we ought to work”.

 

American English differs from British much, on the verb SHALL. In American, the verb serves to prefigure resolves for potential circumstances:

 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

 

Feel welcome to
GRAMMAR NOTES ON THE US CONSTITUTION.

 

We are not likely to use the Modal verb WILL for CONTINGENCY, if we love independence (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

We people yet can be CERTAIN about own perception and volition. The Modal verbs WILL and MUST can express a strong prediction or resolve.

*****

Let us now think about Modal verbs and the grammatical time. So far, all our contexts allowed second forms, as COULD or MIGHT, to work for the PAST grammatical time.

 

However, is it enough to put a Modal verb into its second form, to express the grammatical PAST?

 

21. You MIGHT use the phone;
(a tentative suggestion in the PRESENT.)
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

21a. You COULD use the phone;
(a tentative suggestion in the PRESENT.)
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

 

Modal second forms may express polite offers and yet stay in the grammatical PRESENT.

*****

Modal forms generally, PAST or PRESENT, influence the language register. The register concerns the styles we use when we speak or write on various occasions. In simple words, it has a lot to do with being polite.

 

CAN is very colloquial in its register for suggestions. It could be rude for a suggestion, when we directly address someone we do not know.

 

Let us imagine we ask,
22. CAN I open the window?
The answer might be
22a. You certainly are capable of that,
but you are not allowed to.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

CAN is not offensive when we simply state on POTENTIAL or provide information — in other words, we talk about an objective circumstance, rather than a subjective resolve.

 

23. Bald eagles CAN fly above clouds.

 

We might use the verb can as in example 23, during formal talks. Modal mediation is important in American English.

 

If we want to negotiate or provide guidance, we should not misinterpret Modal verbs for uncertainty or passiveness.

PICTURE: A BUSINESS TEAM

Modal verbs are a matter of good style, tact, and logic, not only in business talks. When we say something would not work for us, we are as assertive as when we say it is not going to work.

 

Please mind, content as here is not a form of address: I am not writing specifically to any person or persons.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Let us see how Modal verbs can make us sound more objective.

 

23a. Bald eagles fly above clouds.
(We would be likely to say this about a specific area where bald eagles live and fly above clouds, and most likely when we are in that area.)

 

24. Modal verbs CAN express varying degrees of potential, probability, contingency, and certainty.
(The guidance applies generally, about whatever Modal context).

 

In American as well as British English, we mind the Negative Interrogative. Requests with forms as CAN’T or COULDN’T imply that consent is expected.
(We would not readily assume approval from someone like a never-possibly-happy-person, would we?)
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

25. COULDN’T I use your car?
(I expect you are going to allow it.)

 

When someone is not a never-possibly-happy-person, we can ask,
26. COULD I use your car (please)?
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

PAST forms may change the degree of Modality we express. Let us mark this degree in cubes. We can think about mountaineering.

 

PICTURE: A QUICKDRAW

27. Careful with this handle, it MAY break.
SYMBOLICS: 2 CUBES

 

27a. Careful with this handle, it MIGHT break.
SYMBOLICS: 1 CUBE

 

28. Careful with this handle, it CAN break.
SYMBOLICS: 4 CUBES

 

28a. Careful with this handle, it COULD break.
SYMBOLICS: 3 CUBES

*****

We could name the handle in the picture above a quickdraw. We yet can use the examples here to learn flexibility. Modal forms will require that we are flexible.

 

We can begin with simple words. There are multifarious handles in this world. We may need one to break a can of food open, when hiking.

 

PICTURE: A CAN HANDLE

A can, the noun, may mean a metal container. The verb to can may mean putting goods in cans. The auxiliary can is a Modal verb form.

 

Words always can have more than one meaning.
EMOTICON: SMILE

*****

Let us compare other Modal verbs for their degrees of CONTINGENCY or CERTAINTY, respectively.

 

29. The can WILL / HAS TO / MUST break open.
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

30. The can SHOULD / OUGHT TO break open.
SYMBOLICS: 3 CUBES

 

31. The can NEEDS to break open.
SYMBOLICS: 4 CUBES

*****

Modal forms HAVE TO and MUST differ in sense, not in degree of Modality.

 

32. You HAVE TO take care of the handle;
(such are the circumstances).
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

33. You MUST take care of the handle;
(my common sense says so).
SYMBOLICS: 5 CUBES

 

Colloquial American English has phrases as
GOTTA TO
HAVE GOT TO
or
HAS GOT TO,
for CERTAINTY as well as CONTINGENCY.

 

Let us remember that colloquial uses are colloquial because they depart from the standard. We have a note on human mental lexicons in SUB-CHAPTER 6.3. We keep away from informal uses in official contexts.

 

If we are not in a formal situation, and we want to talk common sense, we can say,

34. You GOTTA take care of the handle.

 

Common sense does not mean we should not have any sense of humor.

 

34a. That HAS TO / GOTTA be the handle.PICTURE: THIS HAS TO BE THE HANDLE

 

Colloquial language is mostly banned from schools. We may need some acquaintance with it to comprehend everyday speech, however.

 

Informally, the word “stuff” may mean “talk”, “matter”.

34b. We HAVE TO / GOTTA learn to handle the Modal stuff.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

*****

Much of the above is a strong challenge on our arrow cues: how do we use them with Modal verbs?

 

We can think about the target grammatical time.
35. Alice COULD read when she was five.

PICTURE: ALICE

36. Ten years ago, he got a loan, and COULD start his new business.

PICTURE: MONSIEUR SAUF

For the target grammatical time, we think about the context, not only the language forms. Linguistically, our time reference can be tacit.
Please compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.2.

7. I haven’t seen her today.
PICTURE: THE PRESENT PERFECT ARROW CUE AND AN OPEN TIME FRAME
7a. I didn’t see her today.
PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME
The time reference is tacit, as the word “today” does not decide on grammar.

*****

American English, as any natural language, allows paraphrase. Let us see our target time and frame with paraphrased Modal verbs.
35a. She was able to read.
36a. He was able to open his new business.

PICTURE: THE PAST ARROW CUE AND A CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME

*****

What strategy can we develop for the Modal PAST? We can use syntactic structures. Feel welcome.
CHAPTER 9.1. MODAL SYNTAX, GRAMMATICAL PRESENT OR PAST
BUTTON: 9.1. MODAL SYNTAX, GRAMMATICAL PRESENT OR PAST

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

CHAPTER 7. TIME IN THE MIND AND HEART

When it comes to talk about hearts and minds, we might picture the difference between the Simple and the Progressive as above, one face being joyous, the other unhappy.

 

Saying, “I am hating you”, could be a joke.
Saying, “I hate you”, could declare hatred.

 

Most grammar books tell about “stative” or “static verbs”. The books enumerate such “stative verbs” to remember and never to use with the Progressive.

 

According to those books, we should never come across phrases as “I am loving you”, or “I am hating you”.

 

The fact is such phrases do occur, and we cannot expect of life to be as a grammar book.

 

Let us try things the classic way. Most grammars group the “stative” or “static verbs”. We may collect a few samples and reckon.

 

Our senses:
to feel, hear, look, perceive, see, sense, smell, sound, taste.

 

Our feelings:
to admire, adore, appreciate, cherish, cost, desire, detest, disdain, dislike, esteem, fear, feel, hate, like, loathe, love, prefer, regard, relish, respect, revere, want, wish.

 

Our minds:
to admit, appreciate, appear, assume, believe, belong, choose, cost, disapprove, esteem, expect, feel, hope, know, mean, object, perceive, prefer, realize, recall, recognize, recollect, regard, relish, remember, see, sense, stipulate, suppose, think, understand.

 

Property (things or animals owned):
to belong, charge, have, hold, owe, own, possess, retain, vest.

 

Properties (characteristics, attributes, features):
to appear, appertain, befit, concern, consist, contain, emerge, hold, inhere, keep, matter, seem, show, signify, sound.

 

PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S HABIT
We may be happy with own notes on words.

 

When we want more words, we can use a thesaurus, as at the THESAURUS.COM.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us compare the Simple and the Progressive, using our cognitive variables. We can maintain the infinity symbol for the Simple.
SYMBOLICS: INFINITY

The infinity is not eternity or uncertainty. It is to mind that natural language is not a finished set.

 

 

We can begin with our senses. We have correlated the Simple with the variable {ON}, and the Progressive with the variable {IN}.

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

8. She feels cold. {ON}
Her body feels cold. {ON}

 

We can use ING when we use our sense of touch:

 

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

8a. She is feeling her temperature. {IN}
She is using palpation to feel the temperature. {IN}

 

We may reflect on our sense of touch:

8b. The wind feels cold (right now). {ON}

 

Our moods happen to be dynamic. We could ask,

8c. How are you feeling? {IN}
(How are you taking your own condition, mood?) {IN}

 

To convey the same meaning as in 8c, we also could ask,
8d. How do you feel? {ON}
(How are you taking your own condition, mood?) {IN}

 

The form may not refer to the sense of touch and well, the way we feel about answering can depend on who asks the question.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Our feelings are worth thinking about. We can use introspection.

 

PICTURE: JIM THINKING

 

We probably never say about someone shivering,
8e. She / he *is feeling cold. {IN}

 

This could sound hard-hearted, as if we would be saying someone is just exercising his or her senses, when his or her body temperature is low.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

 

People naturally develop group language use. Our language may vary, dependent on who we speak with: a close friend or a stranger, for example. Grammars usually do not prescribe on group language use. However, we mostly say,

8f. She / he feels cold. {ON}
8g. She / he is cold. {ON}

 

In everyday language, we often use the Modal verb can, to tell about our senses. It may not change the meaning at all,

9. I can feel something strange. ~ I feel something strange. {ON}
9a. I can see something. ~ I see something. {ON}

 

The Modal yet may bring another connotation,
9b. Things can look better. {ON}
(They do not; it needs to stop raining.)

 

Verbs may become phrasal verbs. Their meanings may change then, as with to see about, or to look for.

 

Contemporary American English uses phrasal verbs extensively. We have a few phrasal verbs in our grammar guidance.

 

We can say we catch on a bit of language, when we get to hear or see it. We may catch on to a bit of language and learn it.

 

If we come across something or someone, we meet or find them, often by chance. When we look up dictionaries, we read them. If we look to something, we consider it.

 

We can get to know phrasal verbs better in Part Four.

 

Let us give some more time to eyesight.

10. What are you looking at? {IN}
(What are you viewing?) {IN}

 

10a. What are you looking for? {IN}
(What are you seeking?) {IN}

 

10b. She is seeing him tomorrow. ~ She is meeting him tomorrow. {IN}
10c. She is seeing about getting the new house. ~ She is arranging the purchase of the house. {IN}

 

Let us look to a few more examples about our senses. The meaning may change, if we change the variable.

11. I can hear some strange noise. ~ I hear some strange noise. {ON}
11a. They are hearing new candidates now. {IN}
(They are interviewing or auditioning them.)
11b. You are hearing things. {IN}
(Your nervous system is producing delusions.)

 

The meaning will always depend on the context and the speaker’s intentions. We can call it the locutionary intent, in linguistics.

12. You look great now! {ON}
(I like your appearance now.) {ON}

 

English is as honest as any other language ― in fact, it terms an innocent lie a “white lie”. Imagine a boss wearing a horrible suit. What might others say?
“Interesting, boss”. “Chic.”’
PICTURE: BOB IN TROUBLE

 

“White lies” are usually brief utterances. There is always the hazard of praising the boss while he or she would be deliberately wearing something awful, to tell friends from foes.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can speak about our senses with an open time frame (please compare CHAPTER 6),

 

PICTURE: REAL-TIME OPEN FRAME

 

13. I have not heard from him in years. {TO}
(He hasn’t contacted me in years.) {TO}

 

PICTURE: TO A PRESENT GROUND, AN OPEN TIME FRAME

 

Please compare,
13a. She has never seen anything like this. {TO}
(This is the first time she can see such a strange thing.) {ON}
13b. He has never felt so good. {TO}
(He is now very comfortable.)

 

Our noses are quite a regular sense. We can speak about smell with an open time frame, use the verb can, as well as balance our variables.

14. She has never smelled anything more portending savor. {TO}
(An irresistible scent is coming from the kitchen.) {IN}
14a. I can smell something nice. ~ I smell something nice. {ON}

 

PICTURE: VEG AND A BOWL OF HERBS

 

Fresh herbs can make food healthier and irresistible.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

14b. The roses smell beautiful. {ON}
14c. She is smelling the roses. {IN}
(She is using her sense of smell.) {IN}

 

PICTURE: 101 ROSES

How could 101 roses smell?

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Psycholinguistics says there is always an emotional component in human learning and thinking.

 

Naturally, learning something does not mean automatically loving or hating it. However, if we choose to learn something, it is good to think about the advantages.

 

We humans remember pleasurable experiences much better than unpleasant impressions. Our senses are not our feelings directly, yet human emotionality may require some diplomacy about perception.

 

However tolerant to the verb can, our noses happen to be delicate. We may say,
15. It smells here. {ON}
Actually, we are going to be close to saying,
15a. It stinks here. {ON} TABOO

 

As this could be an ugly and unpleasant thing to say, we can mark this socially uncertain expression as TABOO.

 

We may be more socially agreeable, if we take some responsibility for our perception,
(as liable as we get to be).

EMOTICON: A JOKE

15b. I (think I can) smell something. {ON}

 

We may want our taste buds to make sense, too:
16. I can taste some nice flavor in this. ~ I taste some nice flavor in this. {ON}

 

Same as with other senses, we can use ING to say that we are using our taste buds. When it is our sense of taste to be telling us something, we can simply stay ON our cognitive extent.
16a. The drink tastes sweet. {ON}
(This is what our taste buds are telling.) {IN}
16b. He is tasting the drink. {IN}
(He is trying it.) {IN}

 

Let us think about our variables and recur to CHAPTER 4. If we select part an extent for our view, we may mark we do not mean an entire extent.

 

PICTURE: VALUES ON AND IN, HE IS MAD, HE IS BEING MAD

 

When we use our senses or act on appearance, we can have this for an activity in progress, the same as any other actions we take or carry out. We can follow the dynamic use of verbs, that is, use ING.

 

When we perceive, feel, or think, we may want our linguistic gravitation (compare SUB-CHAPTER 6.2). Our senses, feelings, and thoughts belong with our cognizance. We can stay ON our notional grounds.

 

Let us compare two forms,
What are you hoping for? {IN}
What do you hope for? {ON}

 

The latter form, hope for, would make an impression broader than the form hoping for. To discuss this, we need to talk about…

 

FEELINGS!

We cannot really speak a language if we are unable to speak about our feelings in it. We can present a few stative uses of verbs for feelings, in pairs of antonyms, that is, words of opposite meanings.

 

Thesauruses (or thesauri) mostly abbreviate antonyms as ant, and synonyms as syn.

 

Psycholinguistics says we are all language users. We can use words without carrying out any action about them. Never leaving home, we can speak about space flight, climbing Mount McKinley, or diving in the Milwaukee Deep.

 

Mount McKinley (or Denali) is the highest peak in the USA and North America entire. It is about 20,300 feet above the sea level. Denali is the third most prominent summit in the world. It neighbors on the Wonder Lake.

 

PICTURE: MOUNT DENALI

 

The Milwaukee Deep is the most profound depth in the Atlantic. It belongs with the Puerto Rico trench and is about 27,500 feet. USS Milwaukee discovered it. The USA has borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the east and on the Pacific in the west.

 

PICTURE: MILWAUKEE DEEP

 

Language users as we are, we can present words about feelings in antonyms, without any emotional disturbance or distress.

EMOTICON: SMILE

admire, adore, cherish ~#~ detest, disdain
appreciate, esteem ~#~ disregard
benefit, favor ~#~ cost
dare ~#~ fear
desire, relish ~#~ abhor, reject
like ~#~ dislike
love ~#~ hate, loathe
prefer ~#~ reject
respect, revere ~#~ disparage
want, wish ~#~ have no relish in / taste for

 

PICTURE: DELLA AND THE GLOBE

Could the value ON be our earthling basic variable?
SUB-CHAPTER 8.1 has an idea.

 

We can try pairs of synonyms with our stative uses for thinking. Synonyms are words close in meaning. We yet cannot always use synonyms interchangeably.

accede, agree ~#~ admit, consent
appreciate ~#~ realize
assume ~#~ presume, stipulate
believe ~#~ consider, suppose
expect ~#~ think likely, count upon
feel ~#~ hold, think
forget ~#~ become oblivious of, overlook
know ~#~ be aware of, remember
mean ~#~ intend
object ~#~ disapprove
perceive, sense ~#~ consider, recognize
see ~#~ comprehend, understand
think ~#~ cerebrate

 

PICTURE: DELLA AND OLLIE

 

Human potential for language is inborn. However, ― with each and every language ― we all need to learn speaking and writing. Chatting with minors can be a clever thought (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

We people are language users with regard to thinking and other processes, activities, or experiences. We can speak about Benjamin Franklin, the wave theory of light, or a Pulitzer Prize author, never getting to all the details of the lives, theories, and works.

 

Let us put our words for property together with synonyms and antonyms for us, sometimes rich and sometimes not-so-affluent people who learn.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

belong ~#~ be part of, pertain to  ~#~ be exclusive of
have, hold, own ~#~ possess, retain ~#~ be devoid of
owe ~#~ be indebted ~#~ be creditor to
vest ~#~ charge ~#~ cost

 

Properties happen to come and go. Let us put our stative uses for properties together with their synonyms. When a property (feature, characteristic) is gone, we can use negation.

appear ~#~ look, seem
concern ~#~ be of interest to, relate to
consist ~#~ be composed of, be made up of
consist ~#~ exist
contain ~#~ hold or include within
hold ~#~ remain (valid, true)
matter ~#~ be of importance
signify ~#~ imply, mean
sound, look ~#~ convey an impression

 

*****

 

The above provides quite a thorough analysis of verbs for feeling and thought. To feel is a very interesting verb.

 

We might say, “I feel fresh”, to speak about our senses. We could say, “I feel love”, to speak about our emotions. We also could say, possibly in another context, “I feel this is stupid” [TABOO], to say what we think.

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Natural language does associate feelings and thoughts with spatial variables. “High on emotion” or “in the deepest of our thoughts”, we require some of the notions for space, to think about time and feelings.

 

Cognitive variables naturally can help manage our expression on that.

 

PICTURE: JAMES MADISON, THE 4TH PRESIDENT OF THE USA

 

The advice nearest to my heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the States be cherished and perpetuated,
James Madison, the 4th President of the United States.

 

We can find resources about American presidents at WHITEHOUSE.GOV, the website of the President’s home. It is enough that we type “presidents” in the search field.

 

*****

 

Classing verbs as stative and grouping them in categories befits behaviorist analyses more. Our perspective is psycholinguistic: we stay with cognitive variables.

 

We can agree there might be stative uses of verbs, but we do not list special verbs never to use with the Progressive.

 

If we go WORDNET.PRINCETON.EDU, we get a project with the US National Science foundation, WordNet. It is free to download and use, according to the license. Resources like WordNet help view vocabulary in a connected way.

 

Feel welcome to the practice for the mind and the heart.
7.1. EXERCISES: THE SIMPLE OR THE PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: 7.1. EXERCISES, THE SIMPLE OR THE PROGRESSIVE

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6.5. THE TARGET TIME AND FRAME

Berry target, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

With goals, purposes and targets, the matter is to have what we want, where we want it, and when we want it, like a bowl of berries in the picture above.

 

For language skill, we need to practice linguistic targets.

 

Exercise 37. We have our time frames for our guidance. We choose between the Simple and the Perfect, in the PAST.

 

Please put the verb in the form for the grammatical PAST and give the arrow cue along with the mapping value. In language, we can seek inspiration with words. Let it be a simple chair this time.

 

Example: His parents (surrender) his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan (suggest) playing the musical chairs, Art (throw) in three right hand gloves. One of them (belong) to Ms. Duncan.

 

If we feel we could be better off writing entire answers, we can do so without looking to others. Writing belongs with human fine motor behavior. It is important in integrating language skills.

 

Answer: His parents surrendered his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan suggested playing the musical chairs, Art threw in three right hand gloves. One of them belonged to Ms. Duncan.

 

We can only think about the logical cues and mapping values, as in MIND PRACTICE 1.2.
Answer: {ON}
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. Despite his early predilection for challenge, he (get) himself a chairborne job. His chair (have) an advantage, however. He (design) └┘ it for use by one person exactly

 

2. Originally, he never (expect) of a woman to fill a chair. He (change) his mind when he (perceive), at about 26, that the strategy almost (reduce) └┘ him to his local club armchair, for dialogue.

 

3. He (marry) Jin in summer. They (spend) their countryside honeymoon mostly bringing the chairs from the garden. His friend Jalen (persuade) him to go on a vacation, in a better weather. They (choose) Amtrak to journey. Art and Jin first (meet) in a parlor car. Face to face with their notebooks, they (realize) they were actually chatting with each other over the Unlimited (!)

 

4. He soon (begin) developing his son-in-law attitude. Eva, his mother-in-law, (love) to say nobody should let predecessors set the measure for the chair. Art (have) a reservation. His job (be) └┘ by principle like trying to keep someone on the edge of the seat with soft overboiled noodles. Jalen Seges (agree) that office routines (take) some time.

 

5. Art (know) that contending Eva’s arguments (be) suggestive of trying verbally to captivate a moving rock. Incontrovertibility (belong) with the Seges family ethos. A Yale graduate married to a Harvard grad, Ms. Seges (be) └┘ a woman of resolve, throughout her life. She (talk) table and chairs right when junior (begin) preschool. Her grandchildren would go to best schools, to fill their grandparents’ walnut bobbin chairs.

 

*****

 

Art is thinking about a new job. Routines of predetermined beginning and end are not his nature. With language work, we also can learn to negotiate: we contend the arguments and not the people, for that.

Could we look up the Amtrak Unlimited, Yale, and Harvard over the Internet? Can we comprehend words like “incontrovertibility”, if our dictionary does not have them? There are sample hints down this page.

 

Exercise 38. Please tell the time frames and map values (ON, IN, or TO), along with the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE). We have the arrow cues with every task, if we need them.

 

Example: Her father 1. (be) a nibmeister. She 2. (have) a clear taste for good quality since she 3. (be) a little girl.

CUES
PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES

 

Again, we can think about the frames and variables, minds first or only.
Answer:
(1) was, {ON} PAST;
(2) └┘ has had, {TO} PRESENT;
(3) was, {ON} PAST.

 

A. When she was in her early teens, she 4. (make) a miniature book. It 5. (be) three inches square.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 4-5

 

B. She 6. (keep) the book for her thinktionary. She still 7. (happen) to add words to it, though she 8. (make) many more such books.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 6,7,8

 

C. A young girl, she 9. (put) her miniature book in her jacket pocket and 10. (go) to sit by the river. Whenever a word 11. (come) to her mind, she 12. (write) it in with her miniature fountain pen.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 9-12

 

D. Her handwriting 13. (change) a little, since then. By and large, she 14. (adjust) her letters to the size of her notebook. One day, she 15. (engross) her future husband’s name in her thinktionary. His name 16. (remain) the only word to take a page entire, out of the alphabetical order.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 13-16

 

E. Chantelle 17. (have) a collection of pens. Her favored inkwells 18. (be) glass, silver, and pewter. Her first book 19. (tell) about a girl’s language of the heart.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 17-19

 

*****

 

Form (16) also might be “his name remains”: there are no universal rules to govern contexts, and we are free to decide on our own, dependent on our cognitive mapping.

 

Miniature books belong with arts. Their scopes may be the same as of standard volumes. They are smaller because they are miniaturized. Chantelle’s miniature book is one of the biggest sizes ― it is three inches square.

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S THINKTIONARY

 

The “thinktionary” is a coined word. We can compare it with the word “dictionary”. Everyone can have own thinktionaries. Have we met Chantelle already?

 

HINTS FROM THE KEY

 

We do not have to use Past Perfect forms whenever anything happened earlier or preceded something else. We would need millions of past tense forms to speak about Old English, thinking only about the days and years since those times.

 

Amtrak Unlimited is a forum for Amtrak passengers.

 

Harvard and Yale are two very prominent and competitive American universities.

*****

How do we interpret words as incontrovertibility?
Here is how we can interpret information about words. We do not need to memorize it.

 

Just browsing and reading dictionaries, we might get even surprised with how much we remember and “intuitively” use.

 

We can interpret incontrovertibility by the word build.

 

The American Heritage online will show the word in•con•tro•vert•ible and explain that the verb to con•tro•vert may mean “to raise arguments against; voice opposition to”.

 

We look up the parts in– and –ibility. The particle in– may negate. The particle –ibility can work with a noun and connote “an ability, inclination, or suitability”.

 

However, the particle in– may also mean “having the function of”. We can look up words such as “inbound” or “incant”. Inflammable materials or substances can be highly flammable.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

The verb “to controvert” derives from the noun controversy. The noun consists of the particles contro– and versus.

 

Contro– or contra– can connote “against, opposite, contrasting”. The particle in– does not work in the sense “into” or “within” with the particle con–.

 

The American Heritage dictionary can tell that incontrovertibility relates to the adjective incontrovertible, meaning “impossible to dispute, unquestionable”.

 

In•con•tro•vert•i•ble•ness is another, probable form.

 

We can guess that Art Veltall’s mother-in-law may be a person difficult — but not impossible — to persuade or influence. His wife Jin is some personality, too.

EMOTICON: SMILE

READ HOW TO USE THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY

 

Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS
BUTTON: CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS

*****

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6.4. MORE GRAMMAR AND WORD PRACTICE

Boutique d’bonheur, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

It is natural to wish someone good luck, with tests and exams. Grammar exercises can “buy” us some luck. They do not have to be difficult, for that. Good luck (!)
EMOTICON: SMILE

Exercise 34. All verbs in parentheses will have a closed time frame, and remain {ON} a PAST cognitive ground.

 

1. The kitten (spill) all the milk by the mill down the hill.

 

2. The hedgehog (hide) the apples from the bird in a good jar with a lid.

 

3. The rabbit (strew) the cashews for the jabiru and (go on) making his debut callaloo.

 

4. The gades (lay) a fair-trade plan for a decade.

 

5. The corn-fed chick (flee) the shed for some strick.

 

6. The adept turtle (keep) his hep by the skep except when the bees (sweep).

 

7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.

 

8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast.

 

9. The southern wind (heave) the sea and (sheave) the tides to incline a span unsized in eyes.

 

10. The butterfly (weave) in a cove; the dove taut (think) about a courtly lot.

*****

For spoken American English, please find the Voice of America at VOANEWS.COM. There is worthwhile, standard American English along with materials for learners. The LEARNING ENGLISH site has slow and clear readouts of news.

*****

Exercise 35. Let us try our time frames and logical cues with mapping values. Our pieces of thought are longer, more proportionate to everyday language.

 

We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles.

 

Good American English does not have to be gravely serious (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

WE CAN FIND THE LYRICS ONLINE
We also can visit the official website
THE OFFICIAL SIMON & GARFUNKEL

 

Example: Right after he (1) had fought his dependence on the game of Monopoly, he (2) fell for spinnakers completely. A born and bred Alaskan, he (3) went to cruise the Antarctic with a chute.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 35, ANSWER

 

1. He (4) sold his vintage Chevy and nearly (5) bought a Jeep, when he (6) thought that his vehicle (7) approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost (8) portended a personality change.

 

2. A newspaper article on alpha and beta males seriously (9) disappointed him. He (10) was neither.

 

3. Many years, he (11) has looked for a role model. Nobody (12) has met his expectations on both personality and body build, however, and he (13) gave up trying to have body and mind for separate, on Earth.

 

4. He (14) has pursued some philosophy. At the present, he (15) is pessimistic on a resolve between existence and matter. He (16) thinks he (17) will resort to stoicism.

 

5. His friend (18) says he (19) needs some sense of humor, if he (20) wants to put up with a woman in his life. The woman always (21) is another Self.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

Could this be Jim?

 

Exercise 36. We are staying with the Simple pattern {ON} a PAST time extent. We try some syntax for the Negative, too.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 36 TASK ILLUSTRATION

 

Example: Consciously pragmatic, Jill (decide) that tidying on her own (be) N too traditionalist. At least she (remember) where her things usually (be) before she (put) them somewhere completely else.

 

Answer: decided, was not (N, the Negative), remembered, were, put

 

In the beginning, we may care to write up entire answers. Our human memories can learn with writing habits. It is up to us to choose (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Full answer: Consciously pragmatic, Jill decided that tidying on her own was not too traditionalist. At least she remembered where her things usually were before she put them somewhere completely else.

 

1. She never (get) totally honest with anyone, on favorite comedy episodes.

 

2. An article on family roles in kite flying (incline) her towards psychoanalysis for a while. She yet soon (conclude) that she (need) N another grammatical person to be herself. Being herself anyway (happen) to her all the time, and she simply (like) to hold the strings. The West Coast had the weather.

 

3. Disputes on Sandburg and Creeley (bring) her to the belief it (be) never possible to think about one poet strictly, although it (make) no sense sometimes to try talking about two at the same time.

 

4. After some study of a number of concepts on the cosmos, she (picture) the humanity as an odd kind of fish in a series of still larger fish tanks. Early in the series, there (be) N any point to try bringing another fish tank to imagination. It anyway (require) adding more fish tanks.

 

5. She (tolerate) pop music well and (watch) American football with friends, but she always (choose) her fountain pens on her own and (keep) them just for herself.

EMOTICON: SMILE

Could this be Jill?

 

Feel welcome to some more exercise, on the open or closed time frame and the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.
6.5. EXERCISES
BUTTON: 6.5. THE OPEN OR CLOSED TIME FRAME AND THE PRESENT, PAST, OR FUTURE

*****

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6.2. GRAMMAR COGNITIVE GROUND

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, Morning in Spring (Le Boulevard de Montmartre, Matinée de Printemps), Wikimedia Commons 

 

The picture above is part a CITYSCAPE SERIES by Camille Pissarro. The series shows Boulevard Montmartre at different times of the year, day, and in varied weather.

 

We can think about grammar as allowing varied views on time.

 

Let us imagine an American in Paris (George Gershwin did). The American we imagine could be a young woman. She could be the Jill from the office, the Jill Smith that Jim wanted to meet.

 

Jin was not lying.
Jill is on her vacation.

 

PICTURE: JILL SMITH

Could this be Jill?

 

Jill is a reedy yet energetic figure, her rebellious and dark, almost black hair flying in the mid-September Paris wind. Jill is a very resolute person, one to walk big steps and to breathe deep.

 

Jill is entering a French restaurant ― a place deliberately prudent in its fine interior. She is looking for her friend, Madame Règle. Madame Règle often has her lunch there.

*****

Monsieur Sauf is not the stereotype, for a man to make his living gratifying taste buds. But the large apron knotted on his left hip in a kind of ― Jill, though learned, would never be sure ― stevedore or half hitch, you could think that he is some athlete, here about a plate of Moules Marinière himself. He is the restaurateur.

 

PICTURE: MONSIEUR SAUF

*****

This is not the first time Jill meets Monsieur Sauf. Still, she feels minute in his presence. She asks Monsieur Sauf about Madame Règle. Monsieur Sauf can say, reliant on his knowledge,

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.

 

PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT

 

He also can say,

 

7a. I didn’t see her today.

 

PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

Madame Règle is not a systematic person at all. The only regularity about her would be a small book she always carries fastened to her bag with a scarf or, actually, a variety of scarves of many colors and textures.

 

The book is not the same book every day, and the choice of the scarf sure depends on some totally unpredictable factor, just as the exact time for lunch, for which you might want to assume the broad time frame of about sixty minutes to commence or not to happen altogether.

 

PICTURE: MADAME RÈGLE

 

Madame Règle comes to lunch between 1:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. or does not show up at all. Let us check on the time. It is 1:30.

 

Monsieur Sauf can use expression 7. The expression has an open time frame. Madame Règle still may emerge in the door.

 

7. I haven’t seen her today.

 

PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT

 

Now let us think the time is 2:30. Monsieur Sauf can use expression 7a. The expression has a closed and PAST time frame.

 

Monsieur Sauf knows that Madame Règle is not coming today. The knowledge is part the context.

 

7a. I didn’t see her today.

 

PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

 

What if Jill asks whether Madame Règle was there, let us say, half an hour earlier? Monsieur Sauf may follow his linguistic gravity,

 

7b. I didn’t see her.
(On the cognitive ground: She was not here at the time in the PAST you are asking about.)

 

Jill is a grindstone to turn about good food. There is no telling her that good food could be bad and she esteems the French cuisine.

 

She usually visits Monsieur Sauf’s restaurant when she is in Paris. If she meets Madame Règle, she sure will join her for a meal by a table looking to the Quai de Seine (!)

 

There is an anecdote associated with Benjamin Franklin. A man asked a smith to make his ax especially sharp. The man ended up turning the grindstone himself.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

We can find plenty of facts and trivia about America at ARCHIVE.ORG, a free internet resource.

 

Let us practice our more and more METICULOUS natures in exercises.
6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

BUTTON: 6.3. EXERCISES, THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

*****

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5.3. PRACTICE: REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

All verbs here can be irregular. Feel welcome to APPENDIX 2: it marks American English forms as AE, when they differ from British forms, BR. We continue practicing abbreviated verb forms, as in EXERCISE 28.

 

’m: am
’re: are
’s: is
’ve: have
’s: has
’d: had

 

We can tell abbreviated “is” from “has” only by their contexts, as both get shortened to ’s.

 

Example: They ‘ve clung.
Answer:
cling, clang, clung.
SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

1. We ’re swimming.

2. It’s shone.

3. You’d gainsaid.

4. She’s eaten.

5. They’d woken.

6. He’s heard.

7. They’re working.

8. She’d spun.

9. It’s crowing.

10. You’ve spoken.

 

Exercise 30. We provide the 2ND and 3RD verb forms. Not every verb in this exercise is irregular. We can write REG next to a regular verb.

 

Example: She ‘s read.
Answer: TO, the PRESENT; read, read, read
PRESENT PERFECT ARROW big

 

1. We’re drawing.

2. She’s sung.

3. You’d written.

4. You’ve colored.

5. They’ve painted.

6. She’s swinging.

7. It’s ringing.

8. She’s left.

9. I’m dreaming.

10. We’ve played.

 

Feel welcome to the second part of the language journey.
PART TWO, CONTENT

BUTTON: PART 2, CONTENT PAGE

*****

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5.2. PRACTICE: SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

Exercise 22. Ability to use symbols is very important at school tests and exams. Let us combine the Aspect and Time, to exercise our logical arrows. We try to form our answers solely in our minds: this is where true learning takes shape.

 

Example:
generally {ON} the map in the PAST,
{ON} a PAST time extent
Answer:
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. IN a spot within the FUTURE time extent

2. TO a time within the PAST time extent

3. ON the PRESENT time extent

4. TO a time within the FUTURE time extent

5. TO a time within the PRESENT time extent

6. ON the FUTURE time extent

7. IN a spot in the PAST time extent

8. IN a spot in the PRESENT time extent

 

Exercise 23. Let us now gather from elements, as in PRACTICE 4.2. Let us focus on our symbolic cues.

 

Example: {TO}, 3RD, the PRESENT
Answer:
SYMBOLICS, PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

1. {IN}, ING, the PAST

2. {TO}, 3RD, the PAST

3. {ON}, the FUTURE

4. {IN}, ING, the PRESENT

5. {ON}, the PAST

6. {TO}, 3RD, the FUTURE

7. {ON}, the PRESENT

8. {IN}, ING, the FUTURE

 

Exercise 24. Let us try our language natures another way round. We begin with our arrow cue, to think about language elements.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: be, ING, in the PAST

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 24, TASK

Exercise 25. We can think about Bob and Jemma, along with the task from the previous exercise. Our head verb can be to learn.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: Jemma was learning.

*****

Please mind, we are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are about developing flexible habits. It does not matter in the exercise here, if we say Jemma learns, or Bob learns. It matters to mind we say Bob and Jemma learn, if we want to speak about both of them.

*****

Exercise 26. Let us now try our arrows with Expression. We can mark negative questions as ? N. We leave the affirmative unmarked.

 

Example 1:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, EXAMPLE 1
Answer: Will Bob and Jemma not have earned their credits?

 

Example 2:
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE PERFECT, ARROW
Answer: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, TASK

 

Exercise 27. Let us try our language logic for the Interrogative and Negative, within the PAST time extent only. To learn may remain our head verb. We also can choose to visit APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3, and try other verbs.

VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, EXAMPLE

Answer: Was Jemma learning?

We are staying in the PAST Field of Time.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, TASK

 

Exercise 28. Let us focus on our cognitive values for grammatical time. We use the symbolic cues, too.

 

If the same head verb, to learn, brings monotony, let us remember that APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3 can give us plenty of other verbs.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Example: Had Bob learned?
Answer:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, EXAMPLE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, ANSWER

 

Everyday language has abbreviated forms as doesn’t, hadn’t, and won’t, in everyday language. Let us think about the full forms, for our answers, exercising as in the MIND PRACTICE.

 

1. Jemma doesn’t worry.

2. Bob and Jemma hadn’t worried.

3. Is Jemma smiling?

4. Hasn’t Bob learned?

5. Bob didn’t worry.

6. Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?

7. Will Bob and Jemma smile?

8. Was Bob learning?

9. Bob won’t have failed.

10. Will Jemma be smiling?

 

Please mind, our arrow cues have no reference to weapons. They are the symbols people widely use for guidance. Feel welcome to some more guide exercise.
REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS


5.3. BUTTON, REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

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5.1. THE LOGIC SO FAR

Let us sum up on the logical capacities for language we have recognized so far. We can visualize them as extents.

 

The grammatical Time: Present, Past, or Future. We can recur to CHAPTER 1, for our Fields of Time.

PICTURE: THE THREE FIELDS OF TIME; PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

 

We can envision grammatical time as one extent, which becomes PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE, when we make a particular reference.
PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

We can have a peek into SUBCHAPTER 6.1.

5c. He says (that) he met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

__LOGIC__PAST AND PRESENT EXTENTS OVERLAP

 

The grammatical Aspects: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. We have given them mapping values {ON}, {IN}, and {TO}. The same as with grammatical time, we can think about one extent we choose from, in context.

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

For our speaking and writing, we combine the Aspect and grammatical time.
PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative, or Negative Interrogative. We have separate extents here, as there is no “Affirmative Interrogative” or “Negative Affirmative” syntax.

 

Let us picture all our extents together.
VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

 

The colors here can form part a custom palette. Azure, vert vivant, aqua clair, spring bud green, and smooth marble river stone can help us mark our concepts. Obviously, everyone is welcome to choose own colors.

PICTURE: LOGICAL EXTENTS AND A COLOR PALETTE

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We happen to say the FUTURE brings the things that are BEFORE us. We also happen to say that PAST things are BEHIND us.

 

For a good grammar, it is important that we perceive our target grammatical time. Arrows have been widely known symbols to indicate a flow or direction.

 

PICTURE: AN ARROW SIGN

 

Arrow symbols can be especially useful with Modal verbs, as their forms alone never show one target time.

 

The Simple Aspect can work without an auxiliary. We can represent it with a plain arrow. We begin with the grammatical PRESENT.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

We have pictured the Progressive Aspect as being in a spot, a place in a map. We can represent it with a dot.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

The Perfect Aspect has showed our way to a place or time. We can represent it with an arrow or spearhead added to our simple dart.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE TO

 

Let us try to see our logic as in a chart.

 

PICTURE: TIME AND ASPECT SYMBOLICS, ARROW CHART

 

Please mind that our arrows are not shooting arrows. They are just to help find own way with grammar forms. If we make models to play, we make big models of soft material, as plush, especially if there should be little children around.

 

We can mark our arrows for Expression. The question mark and the letter N can do for the Interrogative and the Negative; we can join the letter and the mark, for the Negative Interrogative; the Affirmative can remain unmarked.

 

The arrows can prove very useful with Modal verbs. Modal forms do not show the target grammatical time. Let us compare.
You might do the exercises tomorrow.

 

The target grammatical time here is the FUTURE. We can use our plain arrow.
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE SIMPLE, ARROW

 

The same form of the Modal verb, might, can tell about the PRESENT.
You might do the exercises now.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

We may try some practice now; we also can look it up when we find fit.
EMOTICON: SMILE
5.2. SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

5.2. BUTTON, EXERCISES WITH SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

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CHAPTER 5. LET US MAKE OWN PATHS ABOUT TIME

Let us visualize the logic we have worked so far. We have combined our core verbs (be, have, do, will), the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE), and tense patterns (Simple, Progressive, and Perfect).

 

Visuals can help mindwork. We may picture colorful extents. One extent may convey the AspectSimple, Progressive, or Perfect.

 

In CHAPTER 4, we gave the Aspect cognitive mapping values, for the sake of a better language economy:
Simple: {ON}
Progressive: {IN}
Perfect: {TO}.

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

 

Another extent can symbolize the grammatical Time — the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

We need one more logical quality in our picture, to be able to affirm, deny, or ask questions. With the regard, grammars recognize the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative. The can make our third logical capability, Expression.

 

We yet do not visualize Expression as one extent.

 

Why is it we can picture the Aspect as one extent? Our mapping values work together, as we saw in CHAPTER 4. We cannot be {IN} an area of a cognitive map, without being {ON} it. CHAPTER 8 shows we can combine the values {IN} and {TO}, and make our fourth mapping variable, {AT}.

 

Why is it we can visualize the grammatical time as one extent? We can never work the PAST or FUTURE without our PRESENT. Part 4 of the grammar journey shows how to make the nodi of time.

 

The word nodus comes from Latin. It also could mean the knot we make, as when we tie our shoes.
EMOTICON: SMILE

However, there are no “Affirmative Interrogative” structures, or syntax for a “Negative Affirmative”. We only may join the Negative and Interrogative, into the Negative Interrogative.

 

Our visuals can combine extents.
VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

 

We can set our third logical effect in the foreground of our picture.

 

VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

Let us now have a look at the making of language patterns, for the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative.

 

We can talk about Bob and Jemma.

PICTURE: BOB AND JEMMA CAN READ

 

We are within the PRESENT time compass now.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENTVISUALS: THE AFFIRMATIVE

Simple: Jemma learns.
Progressive: Bob is reading.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma have worked on language.

 

We are remaining in our PRESENT time extent, and look at the Interrogative.
VISUALS: THE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Does Jemma worry?
Progressive: Is Bob reverberating?
Perfect: Have Bob and Jemma failed?

 

Let us make observations. In our human and logical potential for asking questions, the elements move. Grammars name it the inversion.

 

Jemma is helping Bob.
Is Jemma helping Bob?

 

To grasp inversion, let us think about verbals and nominals. Verbals can make verb phrases, as in tense patterns. Nominals can make noun phrases.

 

Language forms as to play, to be playing, is playing, or having played are verbals. Verbals can tell what there is, happens, or what someone or something does.

 

Language forms as a game, a card game, or the game of the Ziggurat are nominals. Nominals can answer the question Who or What?
(We can learn the game in Part 4 of our journey).
PICTURE: ZIGGURAT GAME CARD, PHONEME [SH]

 

The nominal and the verbal are roles. Let us see them marked for a phrase as
The verb “to be” is an irregular verb:
NOMINAL (What?): The verb “to be”
VERBAL: is
NOMINAL (What?): an irregular verb.

 

Our color code works those roles, not isolated words.
I am a learner.
I am learning.
BUTTON: COLORS CAN HELP READ AND LEARN

 

American English (the same as any English) is an SVO (SUBJECT―VERB―OBJECT) language. To affirm, we begin with the subject and follow up with the verb, which we may complement with an object.

 

If we agree to make subjects from nominals, we can have word movement generally for a highlight.

 

In the famous To be or not to be, that is the question, by Shakespeare, the nominal, the question, is the SUBJECT, only the order of words is changed, for the sake of style. This is why generative grammars recognize language deep structures.

The question is, to be or not to be.

 

Otherwise, we might have difficulty, in telling the verb from the name for it:
Is the verb “to be” an irregular verb?
To be or not to be, that is the question.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

Stylistic movement of words is not anything extraordinary. We may compare Exercise 14 in SUB-CHAPTER 4.2. The auxiliary can take a feature, as –ES, and go before a nominal, or after a pronoun.
The orchard has a little nut tree.
A little nut tree, does the orchard have.
A little nut tree, it does have.

 

The matter is not in formal or colloquial styles. We could say that language has pronouns for shorter nominals.
For emphasis, the Simple Aspect also allows saying,
Do read this all, please.
EMOTICON: SMILE

When we ask questions, auxiliaries move to places before subjects. Dependent on the grammar approach, we may view the word order as VSO then, or basically SVO, still.

 

We can play the Ziggurat.
SUBJECT: We
AUXILIARY: can
HEAD VERB: play.

 

Can we play the Ziggurat?
AUXILIARY: Can
SUBJECT: we
HEAD VERB: play?

 

In the question, “to be playing” remains the verb phrase, and the verb “to playits head. Our mauve head verb does not move.

 

Dependent on the context and style, we also might ask a question, saying
“You can play the Ziggurat?”
The deep structure would be
{Can-you-play-the-Ziggurat}.
There is no syntactic marker for such questions, however, and we cannot show Expression entire as one extent.

 

Anyway, good language means making many extents.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us now have a look at patterns that help deny, in the PRESENT time extent.
VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE

Simple: Jemma does not worry.
Progressive: Bob is not reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma have not failed.

 

We often abbreviate our patterns, in everyday speech.

Simple: Jemma doesn’t worry.
Progressive: Bob isn’t reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma haven’t failed.

 

We can combine the Interrogative and Negative extents, to ask negative questions.
We could ask, “Isn’t Jemma smiling?”
(We really say that Jemma is smiling).

PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES

Simple: Doesn’t Jemma travel in grammar?
Progressive: Isn’t Bob traveling in grammar?
Perfect: Haven’t Bob and Jemma traveled in grammar?

 

Let us compare formal American English, as for school. Formal syntax does not follow abbreviated auxiliaries.

Simple: Does Jemma not travel in grammar?
Progressive: Is Bob not traveling in grammar?
Perfect: Have Bob not traveled in grammar?

 

To focus on word movement and language elements, we can use the Simple Aspect. The verb to do has the auxiliary role here. It takes the ending (ES for the third person singular (he, she, or it), also in the role of the head verb.

The Affirmative: Jemma smileS.
The Interrogative: DoES Jemma travel in grammar?

 

Our logical capacity for denying has the negative element, not. This element can join the auxiliary.
The Negative: Jemma doES not worry.
The Negative Interrogative: DoES Jemma not earn her credits?

 

In everyday language, the forms are most often abbreviated.
The Negative: Jemma doESN’T worry.
The Negative Interrogative: DoESN’T Jemma earn her credits?

 

Appendix 4 has patterns for all aspects, also with abbreviations.

 

What happens, if we change our PRESENT time compass to the FUTURE time extent?

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

Our Expression retains all qualities.

VISUALS: THE AFFIRMATIVE

Simple: Jemma will smile.
Progressive: Bob will be smiling, too.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.

 

The logic for the FUTURE is likely to bring the auxiliary WILL into our scopes. The auxiliary be stays to its basic form (be). PRACTICE 2.1. has notes on verb base forms.

VISUALS: THE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Will Jemma smile?
Progressive: Will Bob be smiling, too?
Perfect: Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?

 

The negative element, not, joins the auxiliary WILL, for the Negative.

VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE

Simple: Jemma will not worry.
Progressive: Bob will not be reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma will not have failed.

 

The phrase will not becomes won’t, in everyday American.

Simple: Jemma won’t worry.
Progressive: Bob won’t be reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma won’t have failed.

 

Again, formal American English will not follow abbreviation.

VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Will she not smile?
Progressive: Will he not be smiling, too?
Perfect: Will they not have earned their credits?

 

Feel welcome to APPENDIX 4

BUTTON: LINK TO SUB-CHAPTER 5.1

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