Most grammar resources agree that we have four Aspects in English, the Simple, the Progressive (or Continuous), the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive (or Perfect Continuous). By the label, we can say the Perfect Progressive should have features of the Perfect and the Progressive. We extracted general patterns for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect in … Continue reading CHAPTER 8. ALCHEMY OF TIME FOR BEGINNERS
When we read dictionaries, we remember that human brains do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds. Let us try our meticulous natures with real words and bigger dictionaries. We mind the time frame.
All verbs here can be irregular. Feel welcome to APPENDIX 2: it marks American English forms as AE, when they differ from British forms, BR. We continue practicing abbreviated verb forms, as in EXERCISE 28. ’m: am ’re: are ’s: is ’ve: have ’s: has ’d: had We can tell abbreviated “is” from … Continue reading 5.3. PRACTICE: REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS
We can envision our grammar journey as traveling in an abstract dimension. However, we can think about the Cartesian coordinates, just as in our natural, three-dimensional realities.
The Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative, for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect Aspects.
Written or spoken texts do not determine our inner language. We can learn to focus on the Aspect, gather our verb forms from elements, as well as take language tasks "at the drop of the hat", when our inner language integrates the essentials.
We practice Aspect names and patterns, with personal pronouns, and for grammatical Time.
We need to make own syntax independently. It is not going to work, if we try to repeat it from memory. We can acquire grammatical patterns, if we focus on the language form strictly. We use virtual words for that.
It is naturally easy, in a standard conversation, to tell if we speak with one or more persons. The pronoun you yet has the same shape, for one person as well as quite a few people. We can try some language psychology.
We recognize Aspect patterns for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect, from uses for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. In simple words, we draw conclusions on the River of Time running through the Fields of Time.