6.5. THE TARGET TIME AND FRAME

Berry target, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.

 

With goals, purposes and targets, the matter is to have what we want, where we want it, and when we want it, like a bowl of berries in the picture above.

 

For language skill, we need to practice linguistic targets.

 

Exercise 37. We have our time frames for our guidance. We choose between the Simple and the Perfect, in the PAST.

 

Please put the verb in the form for the grammatical PAST and give the arrow cue along with the mapping value. In language, we can seek inspiration with words. Let it be a simple chair this time.

 

Example: His parents (surrender) his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan (suggest) playing the musical chairs, Art (throw) in three right hand gloves. One of them (belong) to Ms. Duncan.

 

If we feel we could be better off writing entire answers, we can do so without looking to others. Writing belongs with human fine motor behavior. It is important in integrating language skills.

 

Answer: His parents surrendered his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan suggested playing the musical chairs, Art threw in three right hand gloves. One of them belonged to Ms. Duncan.

 

We can only think about the logical cues and mapping values, as in MIND PRACTICE 1.2.
Answer: {ON}
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. Despite his early predilection for challenge, he (get) himself a chairborne job. His chair (have) an advantage, however. He (design) └┘ it for use by one person exactly

 

2. Originally, he never (expect) of a woman to fill a chair. He (change) his mind when he (perceive), at about 26, that the strategy almost (reduce) └┘ him to his local club armchair, for dialogue.

 

3. He (marry) Jin in summer. They (spend) their countryside honeymoon mostly bringing the chairs from the garden. His friend Jalen (persuade) him to go on a vacation, in a better weather. They (choose) Amtrak to journey. Art and Jin first (meet) in a parlor car. Face to face with their notebooks, they (realize) they were actually chatting with each other over the Unlimited (!)

 

4. He soon (begin) developing his son-in-law attitude. Eva, his mother-in-law, (love) to say nobody should let predecessors set the measure for the chair. Art (have) a reservation. His job (be) └┘ by principle like trying to keep someone on the edge of the seat with soft overboiled noodles. Jalen Seges (agree) that office routines (take) some time.

 

5. Art (know) that contending Eva’s arguments (be) suggestive of trying verbally to captivate a moving rock. Incontrovertibility (belong) with the Seges family ethos. A Yale graduate married to a Harvard grad, Ms. Seges (be) └┘ a woman of resolve, throughout her life. She (talk) table and chairs right when junior (begin) preschool. Her grandchildren would go to best schools, to fill their grandparents’ walnut bobbin chairs.

 

*****

 

Art is thinking about a new job. Routines of predetermined beginning and end are not his nature. With language work, we also can learn to negotiate: we contend the arguments and not the people, for that.

Could we look up the Amtrak Unlimited, Yale, and Harvard over the Internet? Can we comprehend words like “incontrovertibility”, if our dictionary does not have them? There are sample hints down this page.

 

Exercise 38. Please tell the time frames and map values (ON, IN, or TO), along with the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE). We have the arrow cues with every task, if we need them.

 

Example: Her father 1. (be) a nibmeister. She 2. (have) a clear taste for good quality since she 3. (be) a little girl.

CUES
PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES

 

Again, we can think about the frames and variables, minds first or only.
Answer:
(1) was, {ON} PAST;
(2) └┘ has had, {TO} PRESENT;
(3) was, {ON} PAST.

 

A. When she was in her early teens, she 4. (make) a miniature book. It 5. (be) three inches square.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 4-5

 

B. She 6. (keep) the book for her thinktionary. She still 7. (happen) to add words to it, though she 8. (make) many more such books.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 6,7,8

 

C. A young girl, she 9. (put) her miniature book in her jacket pocket and 10. (go) to sit by the river. Whenever a word 11. (come) to her mind, she 12. (write) it in with her miniature fountain pen.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 9-12

 

D. Her handwriting 13. (change) a little, since then. By and large, she 14. (adjust) her letters to the size of her notebook. One day, she 15. (engross) her future husband’s name in her thinktionary. His name 16. (remain) the only word to take a page entire, out of the alphabetical order.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 13-16

 

E. Chantelle 17. (have) a collection of pens. Her favored inkwells 18. (be) glass, silver, and pewter. Her first book 19. (tell) about a girl’s language of the heart.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 17-19

 

*****

 

Form (16) also might be “his name remains”: there are no universal rules to govern contexts, and we are free to decide on our own, dependent on our cognitive mapping.

 

Miniature books belong with arts. Their scopes may be the same as of standard volumes. They are smaller because they are miniaturized. Chantelle’s miniature book is one of the biggest sizes ― it is three inches square.

EMOTICON: SMILE
PICTURE: CHANTELLE'S THINKTIONARY

 

The “thinktionary” is a coined word. We can compare it with the word “dictionary”. Everyone can have own thinktionaries. Have we met Chantelle already?

 

HINTS FROM THE KEY

 

We do not have to use Past Perfect forms whenever anything happened earlier or preceded something else. We would need millions of past tense forms to speak about Old English, thinking only about the days and years since those times.

 

Amtrak Unlimited is a forum for Amtrak passengers.

 

Harvard and Yale are two very prominent and competitive American universities.

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How do we interpret words as incontrovertibility?
Here is how we can interpret information about words. We do not need to memorize it.

 

Just browsing and reading dictionaries, we might get even surprised with how much we remember and “intuitively” use.

 

We can interpret incontrovertibility by the word build.

 

The American Heritage online will show the word in•con•tro•vert•ible and explain that the verb to con•tro•vert may mean “to raise arguments against; voice opposition to”.

 

We look up the parts in– and –ibility. The particle in– may negate. The particle –ibility can work with a noun and connote “an ability, inclination, or suitability”.

 

However, the particle in– may also mean “having the function of”. We can look up words such as “inbound” or “incant”. Inflammable materials or substances can be highly flammable.

EMOTICON: SERIOUS

The verb “to controvert” derives from the noun controversy. The noun consists of the particles contro– and versus.

 

Contro– or contra– can connote “against, opposite, contrasting”. The particle in– does not work in the sense “into” or “within” with the particle con–.

 

The American Heritage dictionary can tell that incontrovertibility relates to the adjective incontrovertible, meaning “impossible to dispute, unquestionable”.

 

In•con•tro•vert•i•ble•ness is another, probable form.

 

We can guess that Art Veltall’s mother-in-law may be a person difficult — but not impossible — to persuade or influence. His wife Jin is some personality, too.

EMOTICON: SMILE

READ HOW TO USE THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY

 

Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS
BUTTON: CHAPTER 7. STATIVE USE OF VERBS

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5.3. PRACTICE: REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

All verbs here can be irregular. Feel welcome to APPENDIX 2: it marks American English forms as AE, when they differ from British forms, BR. We continue practicing abbreviated verb forms, as in EXERCISE 28.

 

’m: am
’re: are
’s: is
’ve: have
’s: has
’d: had

 

We can tell abbreviated “is” from “has” only by their contexts, as both get shortened to ’s.

 

Example: They ‘ve clung.
Answer:
cling, clang, clung.
SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

 

1. We ’re swimming.

2. It’s shone.

3. You’d gainsaid.

4. She’s eaten.

5. They’d woken.

6. He’s heard.

7. They’re working.

8. She’d spun.

9. It’s crowing.

10. You’ve spoken.

 

Exercise 30. We provide the 2ND and 3RD verb forms. Not every verb in this exercise is irregular. We can write REG next to a regular verb.

 

Example: She ‘s read.
Answer: TO, the PRESENT; read, read, read
PRESENT PERFECT ARROW big

 

1. We’re drawing.

2. She’s sung.

3. You’d written.

4. You’ve colored.

5. They’ve painted.

6. She’s swinging.

7. It’s ringing.

8. She’s left.

9. I’m dreaming.

10. We’ve played.

 

Feel welcome to the second part of the language journey.
PART TWO, CONTENT

BUTTON: PART 2, CONTENT PAGE

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5.2. PRACTICE: SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

Exercise 22. Ability to use symbols is very important at school tests and exams. Let us combine the Aspect and Time, to exercise our logical arrows. We try to form our answers solely in our minds: this is where true learning takes shape.

 

Example:
generally {ON} the map in the PAST,
{ON} a PAST time extent
Answer:
SYMBOLICS: PAST SIMPLE, ARROW

 

1. IN a spot within the FUTURE time extent

2. TO a time within the PAST time extent

3. ON the PRESENT time extent

4. TO a time within the FUTURE time extent

5. TO a time within the PRESENT time extent

6. ON the FUTURE time extent

7. IN a spot in the PAST time extent

8. IN a spot in the PRESENT time extent

 

Exercise 23. Let us now gather from elements, as in PRACTICE 4.2. Let us focus on our symbolic cues.

 

Example: {TO}, 3RD, the PRESENT
Answer:
SYMBOLICS, PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW

1. {IN}, ING, the PAST

2. {TO}, 3RD, the PAST

3. {ON}, the FUTURE

4. {IN}, ING, the PRESENT

5. {ON}, the PAST

6. {TO}, 3RD, the FUTURE

7. {ON}, the PRESENT

8. {IN}, ING, the FUTURE

 

Exercise 24. Let us try our language natures another way round. We begin with our arrow cue, to think about language elements.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: be, ING, in the PAST

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 24, TASK

Exercise 25. We can think about Bob and Jemma, along with the task from the previous exercise. Our head verb can be to learn.

Example:
SYMBOLICS: PAST PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
Answer: Jemma was learning.

*****

Please mind, we are not practicing behaviorist reflexes. We are about developing flexible habits. It does not matter in the exercise here, if we say Jemma learns, or Bob learns. It matters to mind we say Bob and Jemma learn, if we want to speak about both of them.

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Exercise 26. Let us now try our arrows with Expression. We can mark negative questions as ? N. We leave the affirmative unmarked.

 

Example 1:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, EXAMPLE 1
Answer: Will Bob and Jemma not have earned their credits?

 

Example 2:
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE PERFECT, ARROW
Answer: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 26, TASK

 

Exercise 27. Let us try our language logic for the Interrogative and Negative, within the PAST time extent only. To learn may remain our head verb. We also can choose to visit APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3, and try other verbs.

VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, EXAMPLE

Answer: Was Jemma learning?

We are staying in the PAST Field of Time.

 

PICTURE: EXERCISE 27, TASK

 

Exercise 28. Let us focus on our cognitive values for grammatical time. We use the symbolic cues, too.

 

If the same head verb, to learn, brings monotony, let us remember that APPENDIX 2 or APPENDIX 3 can give us plenty of other verbs.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Example: Had Bob learned?
Answer:
PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, EXAMPLE

PICTURE: EXERCISE 28, ANSWER

 

Everyday language has abbreviated forms as doesn’t, hadn’t, and won’t, in everyday language. Let us think about the full forms, for our answers, exercising as in the MIND PRACTICE.

 

1. Jemma doesn’t worry.

2. Bob and Jemma hadn’t worried.

3. Is Jemma smiling?

4. Hasn’t Bob learned?

5. Bob didn’t worry.

6. Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?

7. Will Bob and Jemma smile?

8. Was Bob learning?

9. Bob won’t have failed.

10. Will Jemma be smiling?

 

Please mind, our arrow cues have no reference to weapons. They are the symbols people widely use for guidance. Feel welcome to some more guide exercise.
REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS


5.3. BUTTON, REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

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5.1. THE LOGIC SO FAR

Let us sum up on the logical capacities for language we have recognized so far. We can visualize them as extents.

 

The grammatical Time: Present, Past, or Future. We can recur to CHAPTER 1, for our Fields of Time.

PICTURE: THE THREE FIELDS OF TIME; PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

 

We can envision grammatical time as one extent, which becomes PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE, when we make a particular reference.
PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

We can have a peek into SUBCHAPTER 6.1.

5c. He says (that) he met Jim’s little cousin last summer.

 

__LOGIC__PAST AND PRESENT EXTENTS OVERLAP

 

The grammatical Aspects: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. We have given them mapping values {ON}, {IN}, and {TO}. The same as with grammatical time, we can think about one extent we choose from, in context.

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

For our speaking and writing, we combine the Aspect and grammatical time.
PICTURE: 3 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

 

Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative, or Negative Interrogative. We have separate extents here, as there is no “Affirmative Interrogative” or “Negative Affirmative” syntax.

 

Let us picture all our extents together.
VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

 

The colors here can form part a custom palette. Azure, vert vivant, aqua clair, spring bud green, and smooth marble river stone can help us mark our concepts. Obviously, everyone is welcome to choose own colors.

PICTURE: LOGICAL EXTENTS AND A COLOR PALETTE

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We happen to say the FUTURE brings the things that are BEFORE us. We also happen to say that PAST things are BEHIND us.

 

For a good grammar, it is important that we perceive our target grammatical time. Arrows have been widely known symbols to indicate a flow or direction.

 

PICTURE: AN ARROW SIGN

 

Arrow symbols can be especially useful with Modal verbs, as their forms alone never show one target time.

 

The Simple Aspect can work without an auxiliary. We can represent it with a plain arrow. We begin with the grammatical PRESENT.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

 

We have pictured the Progressive Aspect as being in a spot, a place in a map. We can represent it with a dot.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

 

The Perfect Aspect has showed our way to a place or time. We can represent it with an arrow or spearhead added to our simple dart.

 

SYMBOL: PRESENT PERFECT, ARROW
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE TO

 

Let us try to see our logic as in a chart.

 

PICTURE: TIME AND ASPECT SYMBOLICS, ARROW CHART

 

Please mind that our arrows are not shooting arrows. They are just to help find own way with grammar forms. If we make models to play, we make big models of soft material, as plush, especially if there should be little children around.

 

We can mark our arrows for Expression. The question mark and the letter N can do for the Interrogative and the Negative; we can join the letter and the mark, for the Negative Interrogative; the Affirmative can remain unmarked.

 

The arrows can prove very useful with Modal verbs. Modal forms do not show the target grammatical time. Let us compare.
You might do the exercises tomorrow.

 

The target grammatical time here is the FUTURE. We can use our plain arrow.
SYMBOLICS: FUTURE SIMPLE, ARROW

 

The same form of the Modal verb, might, can tell about the PRESENT.
You might do the exercises now.
SYMBOLICS: PRESENT SIMPLE, ARROW

We may try some practice now; we also can look it up when we find fit.
EMOTICON: SMILE
5.2. SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

5.2. BUTTON, EXERCISES WITH SYMBOLIC CUES AND REAL SYNTAX

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CHAPTER 5. LET US MAKE OWN PATHS ABOUT TIME

Let us visualize the logic we have worked so far. We have combined our core verbs (be, have, do, will), the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE), and tense patterns (Simple, Progressive, and Perfect).

 

Visuals can help mindwork. We may picture colorful extents. One extent may convey the AspectSimple, Progressive, or Perfect.

 

In CHAPTER 4, we gave the Aspect cognitive mapping values, for the sake of a better language economy:
Simple: {ON}
Progressive: {IN}
Perfect: {TO}.

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

 

Another extent can symbolize the grammatical Time — the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

PICTURE: EXTENT, THREE VALUES FOR THE GRAMMATICAL TIME

 

We need one more logical quality in our picture, to be able to affirm, deny, or ask questions. With the regard, grammars recognize the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative. The can make our third logical capability, Expression.

 

We yet do not visualize Expression as one extent.

 

Why is it we can picture the Aspect as one extent? Our mapping values work together, as we saw in CHAPTER 4. We cannot be {IN} an area of a cognitive map, without being {ON} it. CHAPTER 8 shows we can combine the values {IN} and {TO}, and make our fourth mapping variable, {AT}.

 

Why is it we can visualize the grammatical time as one extent? We can never work the PAST or FUTURE without our PRESENT. Part 4 of the grammar journey shows how to make the nodi of time.

 

The word nodus comes from Latin. It also could mean the knot we make, as when we tie our shoes.
EMOTICON: SMILE

However, there are no “Affirmative Interrogative” structures, or syntax for a “Negative Affirmative”. We only may join the Negative and Interrogative, into the Negative Interrogative.

 

Our visuals can combine extents.
VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

 

We can set our third logical effect in the foreground of our picture.

 

VISUALS: TIME, ASPECT, AND EXPRESSION EXTENTS

Let us now have a look at the making of language patterns, for the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative.

 

We can talk about Bob and Jemma.

Feel welcome to meet them
OFF THE RECORD.

PICTURE: BOB AND JEMMA CAN READ

 

We are within the PRESENT time compass now.

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENTVISUALS: THE AFFIRMATIVE

Simple: Jemma learns.
Progressive: Bob is reading.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma have worked on language.

 

We are remaining in our PRESENT time extent, and look at the Interrogative.
VISUALS: THE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Does Jemma worry?
Progressive: Is Bob reverberating?
Perfect: Have Bob and Jemma failed?

 

Let us make observations. In our human and logical potential for asking questions, the elements move. Grammars name it the inversion.

 

Jemma is helping Bob.
Is Jemma helping Bob?

 

To grasp inversion, let us think about verbals and nominals. Verbals can make verb phrases, as in tense patterns. Nominals can make noun phrases.

 

Language forms as to play, to be playing, is playing, or having played are verbals. Verbals can tell what there is, happens, or what someone or something does.

 

Language forms as a game, a card game, or the game of the Sound are nominals. Nominals can answer the question Who or What?
(We can learn the game in Part 4 of our journey).
PHONEME SH

 

The nominal and the verbal are roles. Let us see them marked for a phrase as
The verb “to be” is an irregular verb:
NOMINAL (What?): The verb “to be”
VERBAL: is
NOMINAL (What?): an irregular verb.

 

Our color code works those roles, not isolated words.
I am a learner.
I am learning.
BUTTON: COLORS CAN HELP READ AND LEARN

 

American English (the same as any English) is an SVO (SUBJECT―VERB―OBJECT) language. To affirm, we begin with the subject and follow up with the verb, which we may complement with an object.

 

If we agree to make subjects from nominals, we can have word movement generally for a highlight.

 

In the famous To be or not to be, that is the question, by Shakespeare, the nominal, the question, is the SUBJECT, only the order of words is changed, for the sake of style. This is why generative grammars recognize language deep structures.

The question is, to be or not to be.

 

Otherwise, we might have difficulty, in telling the verb from the name for it:
Is the verb “to be” an irregular verb?
To be or not to be, that is the question.
EMOTICON: A JOKE

Stylistic movement of words is not anything extraordinary. We may compare Exercise 14 in SUB-CHAPTER 4.2. The auxiliary can take a feature, as –ES, and go before a nominal, or after a pronoun.
The orchard has a little nut tree.
A little nut tree, does the orchard have.
A little nut tree, it does have.

 

The matter is not in formal or colloquial styles. We could say that language has pronouns for shorter nominals.
For emphasis, the Simple Aspect also allows saying,
Do read this all, please.
EMOTICON: SMILE

When we ask questions, auxiliaries move to places before subjects. Dependent on the grammar approach, we may view the word order as VSO then, or basically SVO, still.

 

We can play the Sound.
SUBJECT: We
AUXILIARY: can
HEAD VERB: play.

 

Can we play the Sound?
AUXILIARY: Can
SUBJECT: we
HEAD VERB: play?

 

In the question, “to be playing” remains the verb phrase, and the verb “to playits head. Our mauve head verb does not move.

 

Dependent on the context and style, we also might ask a question, saying
“You can play the Sound?”
The deep structure would be
{Can-you-play-the-Sound}.
There is no syntactic marker for such questions, however, and we cannot show Expression entire as one extent.

 

Anyway, good language means making many extents.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

Let us now have a look at patterns that help deny, in the PRESENT time extent.
VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE

Simple: Jemma does not worry.
Progressive: Bob is not reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma have not failed.

 

We often abbreviate our patterns, in everyday speech.

Simple: Jemma doesn’t worry.
Progressive: Bob isn’t reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma haven’t failed.

 

We can combine the Interrogative and Negative extents, to ask negative questions.
We could ask, “Isn’t Jemma smiling?”
(We really say that Jemma is smiling).

PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES

Simple: Doesn’t Jemma travel in grammar?
Progressive: Isn’t Bob traveling in grammar?
Perfect: Haven’t Bob and Jemma traveled in grammar?

 

Let us compare formal American English, as for school. Formal syntax does not follow abbreviated auxiliaries.

Simple: Does Jemma not travel in grammar?
Progressive: Is Bob not traveling in grammar?
Perfect: Have Bob not traveled in grammar?

 

To focus on word movement and language elements, we can use the Simple Aspect. The verb to do has the auxiliary role here. It takes the ending (ES for the third person singular (he, she, or it), also in the role of the head verb.

The Affirmative: Jemma smileS.
The Interrogative: DoES Jemma travel in grammar?

 

Our logical capacity for denying has the negative element, not. This element can join the auxiliary.
The Negative: Jemma doES not worry.
The Negative Interrogative: DoES Jemma not earn her credits?

 

In everyday language, the forms are most often abbreviated.
The Negative: Jemma doESN’T worry.
The Negative Interrogative: DoESN’T Jemma earn her credits?

 

Appendix 4 has patterns for all aspects, also with abbreviations.

 

What happens, if we change our PRESENT time compass to the FUTURE time extent?

VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE

Our Expression retains all qualities.

VISUALS: THE AFFIRMATIVE

Simple: Jemma will smile.
Progressive: Bob will be smiling, too.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma will have earned their credits.

 

The logic for the FUTURE is likely to bring the auxiliary WILL into our scopes. The auxiliary be stays to its basic form (be). PRACTICE 2.1. has notes on verb base forms.

VISUALS: THE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Will Jemma smile?
Progressive: Will Bob be smiling, too?
Perfect: Will Bob and Jemma have earned their credits?

 

The negative element, not, joins the auxiliary WILL, for the Negative.

VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE

Simple: Jemma will not worry.
Progressive: Bob will not be reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma will not have failed.

 

The phrase will not becomes won’t, in everyday American.

Simple: Jemma won’t worry.
Progressive: Bob won’t be reverberating.
Perfect: Bob and Jemma won’t have failed.

 

Again, formal American English will not follow abbreviation.

VISUALS: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Simple: Will she not smile?
Progressive: Will he not be smiling, too?
Perfect: Will they not have earned their credits?

 

Feel welcome to APPENDIX 4

BUTTON: LINK TO SUB-CHAPTER 5.1

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1.1. FIELDS OF TIME: BASIC PRACTICE

Much has been written and said on what great difference it is, if we speak a language natively or as a foreign tongue, or how peculiar foreign language learning can be, in comparison with learning the first tongue in childhood.

Let us remember, there are no inborn language habits. There are no inborn grammar books either, and learning a language always requires thinking.

Would we say we use the verb to be because Mr. Y, a grammarian, says so? It might not stand for a good reason.

Repeating after people or books would not give us the flexibility we need to talk. This is why we have exercises as here: to make ourselves flexible habits for language.

Exercise 1. Let us try to use the verbs to be, to have, and to do, for the PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE, with the grammatical person (we refer to chapter 1).

With the pronouns I, you, he, she, and it, we may speak about single individuals or objects. We name this the singular, in grammar.

In simple words, let us put the verbs in the Fields of Time.

If we already know the forms well, we can take the exercise as a mild brainteaser. We consciously practice the Field (grammatical time) first. We can use the GRAMMAR VISUALS.

Example: PRESENT, (be), she

Answer: is

1. PRESENT, (do), I

2. FUTURE, (do), you

3. PAST, (have), I

4. PRESENT, (be), he

5. PAST, (be), you

6. FUTURE, (have), she

7. PAST, (have), it

8. PRESENT, (be), you

9. FUTURE, (do), he

10. PAST, (have), you

Exercise 2. In this exercise, we use the persons we, you, and they, too. This means we can speak about more than one individual or object.

In grammar, we name this the plural. We can use the pronoun youfor the singular and the plural, compare subchapter 3.2.

We may think about real people ― our acquaintances, friends as well as foes ― to do this exercise.

EMOTICON: A JOKE

1. PAST, (do), they

2. PRESENT, (do), I

3. PRESENT, (have), he

4. FUTURE, (be), it

5. FUTURE, (be), we

6. PRESENT, (have), you

7. FUTURE, (have), we

8. PRESENT, (be), she

9. PAST, (do), they

10. FUTURE, (have), you

Exercise 3. We tell the grammatical time (the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE) and the person, for the verbs below. We can note “all persons”, where the form stays the same for all of them. We continue focusing on time first: we can stay with our visuals and Fields of Time.

Example: do

Answer: PRESENT, I, you, we, they

1. are; 2. will do; 3. did; 4. will have; 5. has; 6. am; 7. does; 8. had; 9. were; 10. have; 11. will be; 12. was.

Grammar practice is not only pen and paper. It is also about a way to think. Feel welcome to the 1.2. Mind practice.

Link 1.2. Mind practice
LINK:READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

CHAPTER 1. WE CAN PLAN ON TIME AS IN FIELDS

Our earthly space is three-dimensional. Language grammar belongs with the estimable heights, widths, and depths or lengths, along with the human need for fresh water, air, good clothing, and a decent roof. Grammar is a basic human need. It is healthy to have a good business with grammar.
 
Language has much reference to time. When we talk about a thing or a person, we usually think if something or someone — is, was, or will be. This means we need grammar for the Present, Past, or Future.
 
However, we cannot touch time. We cannot see or hear time. Clocks can show values only as we set them, and grammatical time is not the same thing as the hour.
 
PICTURE: CLOCKS SHOWING DIFFERENT TIMES
 
How can we learn the grammatical time, then? To an extent, we may think about time together with place. 
 
We can reason on the human experience we know as language use. The way we people use language can show a bit of that human and intellectual skill to manage own speech faculty.
 
How can we use a word as “before?” Could we say “before that turn”, for a place, and “before ten”, for a time?
 
ILLUSTRATION: BEFORE A PLACE OR TIME
 
“Before the turn” says “before the place”.
“Before ten” says “before the time”.
 
We can use the word before to speak about time, as well as place. In all natural languages, human minds have a flexible habit to connect time and place. Humans have evolved grammars along with perception for three-dimensional space.
 
Let us elaborate on this fact for grammar.
 
We can think about three places, and name them TODAY, YESTERDAY, and TOMORROW.
 
Could there be a town named Tomorrow?
 
PICTURE: ROAD SIGN SAYING 'TOMORROW'
 
This could be our Tomorrow town.
 
PICTURE: SUBURBAN AREA, AERIAL VIEW
 
Could there be an estate named “Yesterday”?
 
PICTURE: BODIE, CALIFORNIA, USA
 
Well, this could be a good idea for our Yesterday.
(Bodie is a ghost town in a history park in California, USA.)
Such place names would be unusual, but possible.
 
Let us envision fields we name the PAST, PRESENT, and FUTURE. They can be our Fields of Time. To learn the grammatical time, we learn to manage our Fields of Time.
 
In grammar as well as in day-to-day living, our views depend on our knowledge. We could say that our knowledge is the light we have. Let us think about Fields of Time and sunlight.
 
Knowledge needs memory. PAST things happen to go into oblivion, as the learning matter we do not review or work with.
 
For our PAST field, we can envision the light as with a setting sun: there is shine enough, if we want to return to the matter.
VISUALS, THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PAST
 
We do not have memories of the FUTURE, but we can plan our learning. For our FUTURE field, the shine can be as with sunrise.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL FUTURE
 
It is our PRESENT we have the most potential to shape. In our PRESENT field, the sun is high and daylight broad.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT
 
Let us picture a word that matters a lot in grammar and life, the verb to be, in the Field we name the PRESENT.
PICTURE: THE VERB TO BE IN THE FIELD FOR THE PRESENT
 
Let us envision the verb to be in the other Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO BE IN THE FIELDS FOR THE FUTURE AND PAST
 
This is how the verb to be can look in all our Fields.
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
We can feature two other important words, to have and to do, in our Fields.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE FIELDS FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
This is how the verb to have alone could look in our Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO BE, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
This is how the verb to do could look in the Fields of Time.
 
PICTURE: THE VERB TO DO IN THE FIELDS FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
PICTURE: FORMS OF THE VERB TO DO, FOR THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE
 
*****
 
What do we do, to feature words in our Fields of Time? We put together our thought about the grammatical time and person.
 
For a start, we can think about s as the feature for the pronouns he, she, and it.
 
PICTURE: PERSONAL PRONOUNS, HE, SHE, AND IT
 
Pronouns are words that can stand for grammatical persons. The words I, you, we, they, he, she, and it, are personal pronouns.
 
The persons are “grammatical”, as they can stand for human beings, or things, events, or other objects of thought. They also can refer to fictional characters or objects, and people in stories do not have to be real, either.
 
PICTURE: BOB THE JUNIOR
 
We can say that he is someone, he has something, or he does something. Similarly, we can say that she is someone, she has something, or she does something.
 
PICTURE: JEMMA SMILES
 
The feature “s” holds only for the singular, that is, single persons, creatures, things, events, or phenomena — in short, objects of thought — in the grammatical PRESENT.
VISUALS: THE FIELD FOR THE GRAMMATICAL PRESENT
 
How important are our three words, be, have, and do? They can be our core grammar words. We can use them cognitively to map the grammatical time in language.
 
When fashioning words with features becomes our habit and nature, we get more real time to think what we want to say. We do not need very much time to think how to speak or write. Feel welcome to try 1.1. THE FIELDS OF TIME, BASIC PRACTICE.
LINK 1.1. FIELDS OF TIME, BASIC PRACTICE

*****

LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH