Chapter 6. To choose own path with time

There are no universal principles for choosing between the Present Perfect and the Past Simple. We may learn many classic rules, and yet we are always going to need own resolves in context. An idea as a grammatical time frame can prove very helpful. ■→ More

6.1. Our linguistic gravitation

Our time extents, PRESENT and PAST, do not change for punctuation. They do not change for the Aspect, Simple or Perfect, either. To continue our work on the two Aspects, we choose on the grammatical time frame. ■→ More

6.2. Aspect cognitive variable and time frame

Madame Règle is not a systematic person at all. The only regularity about her would be a small book she always carries fastened to her bag with a scarf, or actually a variety of scarves, of many colors and textures. The book is not the same book every day, and the choice of the scarf sure depends on some totally unpredictable factor, just as the exact time for lunch, for which you might want to assume the broad time frame of about sixty minutes to commence or not to happen altogether. ■→ More

6.3. Exercises: the Aspect and the time frame

Mind practice for the Aspect and the time frame:
2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.
8. The spotted redshank bachelorette bewailed, and reset her buret for the bouncing bet. ■→ More

6.4. More practice: the grammatical frame, variable, and form

4.After some study of a number of ideas on the cosmos, she (picture) humanity as an odd kind of fish in a series of still larger fish tanks. Early in the series, there (be) N any point trying to bring one more tank to imagination. It (require) adding more fish tanks. ■→ More

6.5. The target time and frame

We use time frames and symbolic cues, to work as in the Mind Practice for the difference between the Simple and the Perfect. ■→ More

Chapter 7. Time in the mind and heart

There are many grammar books to tell about “stative” or “static verbs”; that we should never use them with the Progressive; that phrases as “I am loving” or “I am hating” are incorrect. In fact, such phrases do occur also in educated styles, and without the brain, the heart is just a muscle. ■→ More

7.1. Practice for the heart and the mind

We practice deciding between the Simple and the Progressive, variables {ON} and {IN}. We exercise thought, and our answers may vary. ■→ More

Chapter 8. A perfect and progressive regard

Matters may never be what they seem, but they are what they look: the Perfect Progressive does merge the Perfect and the Progressive. All Perfect tenses have an open time frame. ■→ More

8.1. Earthling basic cognitive variable

Planet Earth has been a natural habitat for millennia. In thousands of years, people to think what there is {ON} a map, have not denied plausibility for places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} them. Early childhood learning to talk has been getting along with learning to walk. Human postural control will favor one variable for the basis of all Aspects and tenses. ■→ More

8.2. Practice for all Aspects

We practice earthling proper egoism: we ignore cues that would not be properly “egoistic” and “gravitational”:
The butterfly (kiss) the bee in the midst of her phiz, when he (see) the golden grit. ■→ More

Chapter 9. To tell the fashion in valuable time

Modal verbs do not narrate the real time. Their manner is relative to real time, as they mediate between the grammatical Time and Aspect. The name “modal” comes from the Latin word “modus”, meaning an extent or measure too. ■→ More

9.1. Auxiliary have and modal syntax

If we say that something is a fruit, it is a possible fruit, or maybe it must be fruit, but we do not know the kind, it is first of all our thought process we manage. Auxiliary HAVE can be quite some handle. ■→ More

9.2. The Modal net

We have considered two sides of a hypothetical fruit. Let us now think if we could arrive at the theory “net weight”: when we people make theories, it is usually to get to something real. ■→ More

9.3. Detail on modal structures

Questions as mayn’t you have done or mustn’t you have done would be rare in American, and they might impress unfavorably, as superfluous or even incorrect. The preference is for patterns without syntactic HAVE, and we can try to explain this with human logic. ■→ More

9.4. Modal relativity practice

We “target” and “jump” grammatical time extents with Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn, and as about the Wester, the two Yellowlegs, or later the Tiny, we learn to keep own thinking against even unusual words: it is better for grammar to be mind-teasing, than mind-boggling. ■→ More

Chapter 10. Form relativity galore

With theory making, PAST forms refer to the PRESENT, and PRESENT forms refer to the FUTURE. It is only the anchored PAST to stay in the PAST. Theory making is similar in Polish, Russian, French, and other languages:
if I was, si j’étais, gdybym był/a, если бы я был/а, wäre ich, etc.
Our language form relativity has nothing to do with ■→Whorfianism. ■→ More

10.1. Unreal or real time

No group and no Government can properly prescribe precisely what should constitute the body of knowledge with which true education is concerned.
— President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ■→ More

10.2. The relative Progressive

For figurative talk and theory altogether, we can manage just balancing the variables {ON} and {IN}, with Modal form relativity. Imagery for Modal verbs really does deserve to be a pleasant thing. ■→ More

10.3. Form relativity practice

We learn to perceive the nodal time:
B. The grain of sand did one hour of thinking about composite things a day, and appreciated the activity as emotionally valid. ■→ More


Book format in preparation.

In the first part of the language journey, feel welcome to consider a picture for
■ the grammatical Past, Present, and Future;
■ the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect;
■ infinitive, auxiliary, and head verb forms;
■ the Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative;
■ irregular verbs and vowel patterns: high and low, back and front.
Third edition, 2022.