Appendix 1. Verbs

Verbs tell activities, faculties, or states, for example to work, to think, or to be. They may do this in four Aspects. The Aspects are the Simple, the Progressive, the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive.


Appendix 2. Irregular verbs: high and low vowel qualities

Irregular verbs are easier to remember, when we think about vowel patterns. Here, we mind high and low vowels.









sprang / sprung



Appendix 3. Irregular verbs: back and front vowel qualities

We can think about back and front vowel qualities, learning irregular verbs. We may also regard regional American English.




chosen / chose


shone / shined

shone / shined


woke / waked

woken / woke / waked


Appendix 4. The language chemistry for all tense patterns

We can visualize language forms and use a color code, to learn more easily as well as long-term.

present-perfect-progressive-interrogativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Have I been writing?


Colors can help read and learn

Some verb forms can work as head verbs as well as auxiliaries. Our head verbs can head verb phrases. They tell the activity or faculty. Auxiliaries always require another verb. We can use a color code and virtual words, to make reading and learning easier.


Language mapping integration

ASPECTS MAPPEDWe can associate grammar and natural human mapping, as with geography and travel. We humans live on Earth. We usually view land or seas as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas in which we are. We perceive routes and ways to places. We happen to be at landmarks and places.

Such are natural human variables for space, in English.


The absolutely basics about the USA



Many researchers derive democracy from ancient Greece. How could we compare ancient Greece and modern America? Ancient Greeks actually developed a proto-democracy: they happened to have kings and queens, depended heavily on military leaders and bequeathed elitism.


The Declaration of Independence

Feel welcome to the Dunlap typescript

The Declaration printer, John Dunlap, used a Caslon font and a print layout that capitalized nominals, that is, nouns and forms to derive from them with big, capital letters.


The Constitution

Feel welcome to the Carter typescript

Nowadays, only some researchers would use the word “constitution” for an ancient decree such as the Roman Twelve Tables. Today, we can comprehend the word constitution for “a bond of solemn obligation, which the whole enters into, to support the right of every separate part”, after Thomas Paine and his Common Sense (feel welcome to my public domain translation into Polish).


The Bill of Rights

Feel welcome to the Wheeler typescript

Some researchers would derive the Bill of Rights from the feudal Magna Carta, the charter associated with John the Lackland. We may look to the capitalization ― that is, the use of big letters ― in the engrossed copy of the Bill of Rights. The Bill does not derive from the Carta; it answers the legal controversies that arose from it.


Already Thomas Paine considered a resolve necessary: “The conferring members being met, let their business be to frame a Continental Charter, or Charter of the United Colonies; (answering to what is called the Magna Charta of England)…”


The Anthem

 Feel welcome to the autograph and typescript

Some people may remember the Anthem as saying “through the midst of the deep”. The typescript here is of the manuscript from October 21, 1840, signed by Francis Scott Key.


The Gettysburg Address

Feel welcome to the Nicolay typescript

Civil rights were literally of a capital concern to American economy. The context of the Address may help realize that the Constitution and the Bill of Rights are not just works of idealism. They are works of conscious minds.


The American flag

Flag close

There is a code of conduct concerning the Flag. The Federal Flag Code is not prescriptive of all situations and does not impose penalties. Violating the guidelines may offend, however.


The US Great Seal

Charles Thomson, the secretary of the Continental Congress, designed the Seal and formed the mottos. He never provided a translation of the Latin phrases, he yet was inspired with Thomas Paine. Interestingly enough, the Seal could make a rhyme the citizens generally might identify with, and also a child might remember.

Out of many, one
With favor to the endeavor,
A new people come.


The American bald eagle


Bald eagle

Not everyone was happy with the choice of the eagle for a national symbol. “For my own part, I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen the representative of our country”, wrote Benjamin Franklin in one of his letters.


Voluntary extra practice

The practice asks questions on understanding of historic American documents. The suggested answers are not comprehensive; they could be of use in creative writing.