There are no universal principles for choosing between the Present Perfect and the Past Simple. We may learn many classic rules, yet the truth is going to be that we need own resolves in context. An idea as a time frame can help. More→
Our brains can work with verbal paths as well as visualization. It does not mean we have to stay with the words or visuals, especially forever. These are just to help. Importantly, without knowing where we are about faculties, activities, or states, we could be only repeating formulas after other people.
We can envision our grammar journey as traveling in an abstract dimension. However, we can think about the Cartesian coordinates, just as in our natural, three-dimensional realities.
The Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative, and Negative Interrogative, for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect Aspects.
Written or spoken texts do not determine our inner language. We can learn to focus on the Aspect, gather our verb forms from elements, as well as take language tasks "at the drop of the hat", when our inner language integrates the essentials.
We can visualize the Simple Aspect as the one to tell what there is on the cognitive map, the Progessive as the one to deal with matters in progress, and the Perfect as the one to express what may happen to a moment in time. The three words — on, in, and to — do not require additional rules and work excellent in real time. More→
We practice Aspect names and patterns, with personal pronouns, and for grammatical Time.
We need to make own syntax independently. It is not going to work, if we try to repeat it from memory. We can acquire grammatical patterns, if we focus on the language form strictly. We use virtual words for that.
It is naturally easy, in a standard conversation, to tell if we speak with one or more persons. The pronoun you yet has the same shape, for one person as well as quite a few people. We can try some language psychology.