To regard natural and specific regularity in language, we may like a picture that allows building on cognitive values. Let us compare all our variables for the grammatical time frame. As in the ■→MIND PRACTICE, we may only think about the time reference, if it is singular or dual, for the closed or open time frame.

Auxiliary HAVE works for the language framework. We mark it green. As a content verb, HAVE may tell about ownership. We mark it mauve then, as all content verbs.

Chantelle Règle speaks {ON} excellent American. Her friendship with Jill Smith started {ON} over a website forum to discuss philosophy and language.

They agreed {ON} that Latin had had {TO} influence over English and French thinkers, though their languages had {ON} labels of diverse linguistic groups, Germanic and Romance.

Both Jill and Chantelle happened to hear or read {ON} sometimes that American was {ON} an international language, but there were {ON} no international languages really. Esperanto did not have {ON} many features of a natural language.

They could say (see ■→CHAPTER 9) that American English is {ON} a lingua franca, that is {ON}, a tongue spoken worldwide. The phrase means {ON} free speech. In Latin, the adjective “francus” also told {ON} someone exempt from service, someone at liberty.

Ms Règle comes {ON} to Mr. Sauf’s restaurant for lunch at times. Today, she has {ON} a small book of poetry with her. Chantelle has finished {TO} a book about Descartes. At home, she has {ON} a big volume about influences between French and English thinkers. She has been reading {AT} two book series, poetry or philosophical commentary, all this week.

Latimer Sauf is not {ON} surprised at her reading habit. The special edition of Larousse Gastronomique he got {ON} from her last year has {ON} an elevated and celebrated place in his restaurant main hall.

His guests have turned {TO} many of the pages so far. He has had {TO} another copy to read at home. He has been studying {AT} it to detail. He has {ON} extra Larousse dishes on his menu.

Let us focus on the grammatical time and cognitive variable.

He HAS been reading.

He HAD been reading.

He WILL HAVE been reading.

We may now compare the beginning of our language journey and the fields of time.

Chapter 8.1. The Verb to Have in All Fields

It is the verb to have to change for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE in the Perfect Progressive. It changes the same as in the fields of time, for our cognitive variable {ON}, by the label the Simple Aspect.

He HAS a book.

He HAD a book.

He WILL HAVE a book.

As a content word, the verb to have may tell about eating. Madame Règle likes the extra Larousse dishes by Monsieur Sauf. Let us compare the cognitive variable {IN}.

Madame Règle
IS having her extra Larousse and reading a book now; {IN}.
When Jill walked into the restaurant, Madame Règle
WAS having her extra Larousse and reading a book.{IN}.
Next week at this hour, Madame Règle
WILL BE having her extra Larousse and reading a book; {IN}.

In the Progressive pattern, it is the verb to be to change for grammatical time, and it does this the same as for the variable {ON} in the fields.

She IS at the restaurant.

She WAS at the restaurant.

She WILL BE at the restaurant.

For all Aspects and tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change for grammatical time, and to do it the same as for the variable {ON}. We have the first element in big letters here.




Perfect Progressive





WRITE (head verb)

BE writing

HAVE written (3rd form)

HAVE been writing

We can view the value {ON} as the basis for other Aspects, as well as means for syntactic expansion. After all, people have evolved grammar {ON} a planet (!)

All the mapping values, {ON, IN, TO} and {AT}, can be our learned cognitive variables: qualities do not have to be inborn to be natural, and there hardly could be inborn cognitive variables.

Finding a basic value does not imply any order in which to use the variables. This is how we could picture our syntactic expansion.

Within this view, the value {AT} would be the most divergent from the regular, basic {ON}. Let us turn to American English as it really is. Could we feel like recurring to the basic variable, after an “escapade”?
{AT}. I’ve been loving it. But {ON} I want to keep doing different things. — People magazine as in ■→CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH, COCA.

A Progressive highlight is not anything unusual in natural language:
This is a dream come true. And I’m loving every minute of it. — NBC Today, COCA.


For the sake of language competence, let us consider attempts to present language as options or programs. Are grammatical Aspects or human cognitive variables the same as options?

Proponents of program approaches to language indicate that language has features, and those show regularities in distribution, as in the table here. An Aspect to be both Perfect and Progressive is the Perfect Progressive. An Aspect to be neither Perfect nor Progressive would be the Simple.

– Perfect+ Perfect– Progressive+ Progressive 
  Perfect Progressive

As we have observed so far, there could not be Perfect or Progressive features in distribution without the Simple Aspect. Progressive or Perfect Aspects are not exclusive of the Simple, for grammatical time. Word sense does not support option or program views to language, either.
To say,
I‘m loving you, does not bring senses as I love you, I don’t love you, or I hate you.

We can conclude that Aspects are not options. Our variables do not have any purpose other than Aspect management, and the variable {ON} does not correspond with an option as off.
To reflect on natural language in habitat: if we people think what there is {ON} a geographical map, we consider places {IN} areas, routes {TO} places, as well as locations {AT} places or routes.

Associating language, thinking, feeling, and earthly or generally space is natural. What would feelings, thoughts, or works be — without room? Humans are likely to learn languages {ON} a planet for an indeterminate future. Astronauts learn {ON} Earth, too.

The variables can be our earthling proper egoism: we have the grammar in own mind work for ourselves, rather than adapt own mind to rules by other people. A logical set has much more to offer than prescriptive rules, for personal study as well as real-time conversational contexts.
Feel welcome to try a grammar grapevine idea and to exercise: ■→8.2. PRACTICE FOR ALL ASPECTS

Grammar grapevine: Heebeecheeche and other capers

We have thought up a game like we traveled, only with grammar. The USA is a huge view and I don’t know about anyone to have visited everywhere in person, so I thought there could be folks into seeing the place at least. ■→More

■→This text is also available in Polish.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
■→Free access, Internet Archive
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Hard cover, 260 pages
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Internet Archive, the free text and image repository

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