Exercise 13. Psychological maps can enhance our thinking for grammar. Imagination is not about unreal things only. It can be an ability to envision, to form an image. Let us draw abstract maps for our direct environment, our every day, and our lives.
Our maps do not have to be exact. We only need to move gradually from an imagination of space into an imagination of time. Maps of direct environments would be mostly about space. Maps of lives would be about time more.
Here are a few examples. Please do draw your own maps, put on them as many associations as possible, all in English.
A. My direct environment: the map does not have to be exact. It should show the physically nearest objects.
B. My everyday life: the places do not have to be physically close; it is important they belong with our routine and frequent experiences. This makes them psychologically close.
C. My life: we may feel like going into the future a little.
Exercise 14. We can say language is structure and content. The structure is not about style only. It helps put thought into comprehensible patterns.
We use the verbs to be and to have, to build the Aspects, Progressive or Perfect. When be and have help build a pattern, they do not mean existence or ownership. They are auxiliaries to help map our thinking about time and activity.
When they map, the auxiliaries do not have own, independent meaning. They belong with the language structure.
When be and have bring talk about existence (being) or ownership, they are head verbs. They can head verb phrases, and belong with the content. Appendix 1 has more about verbs.
Let us decide, where be and have belong with the structure, and where with the content. In the sample, the answer is underlined.
S: language structure
C: language content
I have brought this for you.
This is a chart for our journey.
have S or C
be S or C
have S or C (structure)
be S or C (content)
1. Mary’s lamb was white as snow.
have S or C
be S or C
2. As I was going to St. Ives, I was talking with a man of seven wives.
have S or C
be S or C
3. A little nut tree I do have, it has borne silver nutmeg and golden pears.
have S or C
be S or C
4. The north wind has blown, we will have snow.
have S or C
be S or C
5. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown.
be S or C
Exercise 15. Let us exercise our symbolics for time. We can match a language marker (ON, IN, or TO) with a picture. The simple activity may help more advanced brainwork.
We are about to progress into verbal guidance more. Language Mapping does not require that we abandon classic grammar books. We can continue practicing their definitions and rules, and use Language Mapping along. We may think about inner language as in Subchapter 1.2, and compare exercises 16-21.
Exercise 16. We do not have to feel bound to fields and land travel, to think about grammatical time. We can perceive abstractly, as in our eagle’s route. If we know the tenses well, we can have this exercise for a mild brainteaser.
The eagle’s route has one more mapping form, have been (AT). We can think about it more in Part Two. Altogether, all English languages in the world (American, British, Irish, or any other) have four Aspects: Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive.
We can use our virtual bimo. The examples involve the grammatical person (I, you, we, they, he, she, it).
Our inner language can be very economical. We can shorten the connotation from exercise 15, in the PAST Field. We can make a path as PAST reference. We also can compare Subchapter 3.4.
Example: have, PAST reference, he
Answer: He had bimoed.
1. ∞ , PRESENT reference, they
2. be, FUTURE reference, you
3. ∞ , PAST reference, we
4. have, PRESENT reference,it
5. be, PAST reference, she
6. ∞ , FUTURE reference, we
7. have, FUTURE reference, I
8. be, PRESENT reference, he
Exercise 17. Time for some work after all the leisure (!)
We need to know grammar names for language structures, to succeed at school. We can have those names for labels. Grammar books differ in labeling: we may compare Chapter 4, about prepositions. We do not need to feel stuck on labeling. We can choose. For example, some grammars will have Progressive tenses for Continuous tenses. Travelers in Grammar stay by the name Progressive.
We do not have to follow fixed verbal paths. We can be flexible. An association as in exercise 16, “FUTURE reference”, may become “in the Field of the FUTURE”.
Example: Perfect in the Field of the FUTURE, she
Answer: She will have bimoed. (Future Perfect)
We think up the answer first, as in practice 1.2. (!)
1. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, I
2. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, you
3. Progressive in the Field of the FUTURE, he
4. Progressive in the Field of the PAST, she
5. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, it
6. Perfect in the Field of the PAST, you
7. Progressive in the Field of the PRESENT, we
8. Perfect in the Field of the PRESENT, she
Exercise 18. Let us put our skills to an ultimate test. We can try to gather our verb forms from pieces. Speaking with someone in a noisy room happens to require such “gathering from pieces”.
We remember to think and imagine first, as in practice 1.2.
Example: ING, it, in the PAST Field
Answer: It was bimoing.
We may recur to previous patterns, for integration. We can be back with the path “in the PAST Field”, from exercise 15.
1. 3RD, he, in the FUTURE Field
2. ING, she, in the PAST Field
3. ING, they, in the PRESENT Field
4. 3RD, we, in the PAST Field
5. 3RD, you, in the FUTURE Field
6. ING, I, in the PAST Field
7. 3RD, it, in the PRESENT Field
8. ING, we, in the PRESENT Field
9. 3RD, I, in the FUTURE Field
10. ING, you, in the PAST Field
11. 3RD, she, in the PRESENT Field
12. ING, he, in the PAST Field
13. 3RD, they, in the FUTURE Field
14. ING, we, in the FUTURE Field
Exercise 19. We can try real verbs. All of them here refer to moving about. Please also compare exercise 7 (Subchapter 3.4).
Example 1: walk, HAVE in the PRESENT
Answer: Present Perfect, have/has walked
We include the Simple Aspect. We mark it as indeterminate or infinity: it is impossible to calculate all phrases and sentences humans can make, or even words. In truth, there is no way to count irregular verb uses, as they may vary from one geographical area to another, from person to person, or even the same people change in verb regularity.
The Simple pattern can use head verbs to map thought about language and time. Progressive and Perfect patterns use auxiliary verbs for that.
Example 2: go, ∞ , in the PAST
Answer: went, Past Simple
1. hike, BE in the PRESENT
2. trek, ∞ , in the FUTURE
3. stride, HAVE in the PAST
4. ramble, HAVE in the FUTURE
5. move, BE in the PAST
6. stroll, ∞ , in the PAST
7. tread, ∞ , in the PRESENT
8. step, BE in the FUTURE
9. roam, HAVE in the PAST
10. rove, BE in the PRESENT
Exercise 20. Now our real verbs refer to thinking. Let us use the Aspects, the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect, with the grammatical person ( I, you, he, she, it, we, they). We have the big chart for all persons and three paths in Subchapter 3.3.
Example 1: think, Progressive, in the PAST Field
Answer: was thinking (I, he, she, it), were thinking (you, we , they)
Example 2: consider, Simple, in the PAST Field
Answer: considered (I, you, we , they, he, she, it: all persons)
1. reason, Perfect, in the FUTURE Field
2. imagine, Simple, in the FUTURE Field
3. expect, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field
4. figure, Perfect, in the PAST Field
5. reckon, Progressive, in the PRESENT Field
6. surmise, Simple, in the PAST Field
7. mediate, Simple, in the PAST Field
8. cogitate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field
9. review, Progressive, in the PAST Field
10. anticipate, Perfect, in the PRESENT Field
Exercise 21. Our thinking and inner language are the fastest and most capable to manage grammar. Linguistically, abstract thinking is not about anything unreal. It extracts from experience. It integrates the essentials.
Let us try a few hat tricks. The hat, ^ , is a symbol we may use for our connected language reference. Let us see, if we can take language tasks “at the drop of the hat”, that is, fast and without effort. Below, we can see an extract or essence for our observations.
All verbs here relate to comprehension and learning. We can have our language connotation TO^PRESENT for saying TO a moment with a PRESENT reference, as in the verbal paths above. Everyone may write up own language notation.
Example: gather, TO^PRESENT, she
Answer: She has gathered.
1. understand, ON^PRESENT, I
2. learn, IN^FUTURE, we
3. notice, TO^FUTURE, he
4. think, IN^PAST, you
5. study, ON^PAST, they
6. interpret, IN^PRESENT, he
7. discern, TO^PRESENT, she
8. comprehend, ON^FUTURE, we
Prepositions ON, IN, TO and AT can make our learning much simpler and faster. At the same time, we can meet scholarly expectations.
Prepositions are not simplistic. We can have them for function word variables that manage integrated patterns of language. We do not need to be ashamed of the idea in front of school professors (!)
We can use prepositions for our mapping structures solely. With classic grammars, we do not have to say we are using the Present Simple, whenever we speak or write with the Present Simple pattern. Matters are the same with Language Mapping: we do not have to say or write the prepositions to use them for mapping. Another way round, we do not have to employ the Progressive, Simple, or Perfect tense patterns to use the words progress, simple, or perfect. Likewise, we can use prepositions for our content regardless of the mapping structure.
A little nut tree I do have, says example 3 in exercise 14. Our Simple pattern can have auxiliaries, too. Feel welcome to Chapter 5.