8.2. Practice for all Aspects and Expression

Exercise 45. We learn to use variables {IN}, {TO}, and {AT} with regard to the basic variable, {ON}. We include the grammatical Time, PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. We can warm up with virtual words. Let us remember about our mind practice from subchapter 1.2. We can do this exercise in our thoughts only.

Link to the color code and virtual words

 

Example:
PRESENT SIMPLE arrowFeature IN arrow

 

Answer:
A. Phimo bimoes.
PRESENT SIMPLE arrow{ON}, PRESENT
the Present Simple

 

B. Phimo is bimoing.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE arrow{IN}, PRESENT
the Present Progressive

 

Exercise 45__Task

 

Exercise 46. Let us merge features as above and think about Expression. We can use our phimo and bimo, still. Please think about the variables and arrow cues for the target grammatical time.

 

Example:
?
PRESENT SIMPLE arrowFeature IN arrow

 

Answer:
A. Does phimo bimo?
e46__sample-illustration-1{ON}, PRESENT
the Present Simple

 

B. Is phimo bimoing?
e46__sample-illustration-2{IN}, PRESENT
the Present Progressive

 

Exercise 46__Task

 

Exercise 47. Let us practice deciding {ON} our cognitive extents. We complete the structures and draw the arrow cues. Not everyone fancies speaking about feelings and thoughts. It may be important to try to represent them in language, however. We can think about time and change.

 

*****

 

When we are able to put words together well, we are able to represent notions in language. We can name this ability representation, as there is always more than one way to put words together and make sense.

 

*****

 

Example: I love …

Answer: I love language.
(We can answer without telling anyone, we remember the mind practice.)

 

1. I hate …

 

2. I thought that … was pretty.

 

3. I remembered … then.

 

4. I considered … important.

 

5. I want

 

6. I hated … when I was a child.

 

7. I think that … is stupid. [TABOO]

 

8. I remember

 

9. I consider … important.

 

10. I wanted … when I was a child.

 

Exercise 48. It is natural to follow what is good for us. Therefore, let us try to “trade” language features.

 

Example: I love

 

Answer: I have (always) loved language.
Again, we can give our answers in our thoughts.

 

1. I think (about)

 

2. I concluded

 

3. I like

 

4. I keep

 

5. I sensed

 

6. I thought (about)

 

7. I feel (always, that)

 

8. I was thinking (about)

 

9. I learned

 

10. …. means a lot to me.

 

Exercise 49. The Perfect Progressive Aspect makes three tenses, PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE. It has an open time frame. Let us practice our linguistic gravity: we close the time frame, when we are {ON} a have cognitive ground (compare chapter 6.1). We have part the mapping cues. We stay with the Affirmative. We may not want much to do in one go.

__Smiley joke PNG

 

Example 1: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 10:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 18:00 P.M.

 

Answer: I had breakfast.
PAST arrow CLOSED real-time frame

 

Example 2: have breakfast
FEATURES TO and INEVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 8:30 A.M.
TIME NOW: 8:15 P.M.

 

Answer: I have been having breakfast.

 

PRESENT Perfect Progressive arrow cue OPEN real-time frame

 

1. work
FEATURES TO and INMONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Monday, 10:00 P.M.

 

2. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Saturday, after 19:00 P.M.

 

3. read
FEATURES TO and INEVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 23:00 P.M.

 

4. read
Feature IN arrowEVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 00:15 P.M.

 

5. go to the gym
TUESDAYS 19:00 ― 20:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Wednesday, after 21:15 P.M.

 

*****

 

Please mind, there is no subconscious language skill. It is only conscious and intellectual exercise to help acquire flexible habits. With the habits, we do not have to give as much thought to language structures, but we are still conscious of them.

 

It is important that we exercise consciously. If we are tired, and especially before tests and exams, we always have some rest. I suggest we get back with this page after we have at least gotten ourselves some carrot juice.

 

*****

 

Exercise 50. Let us practice our learner proper egoism (compare chapter 8.1). We learn to decide {ON} our language extents. We cross out the cue that would not make sense.

 

Example: She (cherish) her friends.
Exercise 50__Example cue

 

Answer: She has cherished her friends.
Exercise 50__Answer cue

 

1. The book set (consist) of five parts.
Exercise 50__Task 1 cue

 

2. She (sound) like under a bad impression.
Exercise 50__Task 2 cue

 

3. Yesterday afternoon, he (recall) his school years with friends.
Exercise 50__Task 3 cue

 

4. She just (recognize) the handwriting now.

Exercise 50__Task 4 cue

 

5. He (agree) to the new conclusion just now.
Exercise 50__Task 5 cue

 

6. Now, she (appreciate) the ancient manuscript for an hour.
Exercise 50__Task 6 cue

 

7. He (want) to go to the Arctic before he went to the Antarctic.
Exercise 50__Task 7 cue

 

8. The house (belong) to the family for 10 years.
Exercise 50__Task 8 cue

 

9. He usually (respect) other opinions, but not that time.
Exercise 50__Task 9 cue

 

10. This time tomorrow, she (see) her brother.
Exercise 50__Task 10 cue

 

*****

 

From the key: example 7 shows we always should consider the entire utterance, to make out the time reference. The verb form “went” places the stretch of speech in the PAST.

 

We can think over the alternate language forms. In example 3, a phrase as “*yesterday afternoon, he will recall his school years with friends”, could not work with our cognitive map for YESTERDAY. In example 8, a phrase as “*the house will have been belonging to the family for 10 years”, would go against natural human possessiveness: we would place property {ON} cognitive maps. Grammar is not only about style. It is also about logic and sense.

 

*****

 

Exercise 51. Let us try features together with time frames. Perfect tenses have open time frames. We have the time span underlined. Naturally, we happen to combine the time reference: we can talk about TODAY matters that we consider PAST, for example.

 

We are working on flexible habits, not behaviorist reflexes. We can learn to stay {ON} our extents, for hearts and minds, regardless of any cues.

 

Example:
TODAY, PRESENT; he, know the answer

 

Answer: He knows the answer. {ON}
PRESENT SIMPLE arrow(We ignore the dot, our Progressive cue.)

 

1. YESTERDAY, PAST; she, believe it

 

2. TODAY, PRESENT; she, work
Exercise 51__Example time frame and feature

 

3. TODAY, PAST; they, see each other

 

4. TOMORROW, FUTURE; he, live here for ten years

 

5. YESTERDAY, PAST; she, speak with them

 

6. YESTERDAY, PAST; he, write for an hour

 

7. TOMORROW, FUTURE; you, work here for five years
Exercise 51__Example time frame and feature

 

8. TODAY, PAST; we, hike in the mountains

 

9. TODAY, PRESENT; she, exercise for an hour already
Exercise 51__Example time frame and feature

 

10. TOMORROW, FUTURE; he, watch television, at this hour

 

Exercise 52. We have only part the cues: we practice independent language skill. We put our verbs into the PAST, and then in the PRESENT. Let us mind Expression, the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.

 

We may refer to literature, for grammar and style. We can go wikipedia.org for literary and other reference. We never need to adopt a story, to use it. Naturally, we never re-write a story to show it for ours. We can take stories figuratively and learn from their styles or concepts, without copying.

 

Samson the Agonist is a story of a hero who had magic hair that gave him power. Nowadays, nobody believes in such hair and understanding as well empathy for the hero is lower. Naturally, we do not have to believe everything we read, online either.

 

“Observations as by a grain of sand”

 

Example: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, 1. (think) about a proper measure for own composition.
e52__example

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, was thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

A. Length N 2. (seem) to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum N 3. (be) the argument to the grain of sand: it 4. (bring) to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

B. The grain of sand 5. (can think) about wisdom. What wisdom 6. (be) ? It 7. (may be) a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand N 8. (consider) going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary.

 

C. The grain usually 9. (rest) close to the shoreline, not entirely by own will, but by the way of life it 10. (practice) since its earliest years. Owing to this lifestyle, it 11. (decide) to devote part its time to necessities of cognition. Thinking about own format as a potentiality by another, it 12. (deliberate) whether it 13. (be), as a grain of sand, a fruit of ability or mere industriousness.
e52__10

 

D. It 14. (can be) up to itself to conclude on own structuring. For that chance, it 15. (spend) four hours in the morning and four in the evening, to ponder on composite phenomena strictly.

 

E. It 16. (do) its daily dose of reckoning for about two hours, when a westerly 17.  (arrive) to the shore. Its habitual way, the wind 18. (make) a little eddy on the shoreside. The grain of sand 19. (think) if that 20. (be) wise.
e52__16_17

 

*****

 

Obviously, wits cannot be something we grow on our heads. Let us now put the story in our PRESENT time extent. Our grammar journey has had some dramatic narrative already, compare exercise 44, in chapter 7.1.

 

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, is thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

 

1. Length does not seem to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum is not the argument to the grain of sand: it brings to mind limitation rather than weight.

 

2. The grain of sand can think about wisdom. What is wisdom? It may be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand does not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary…

 

*****

 

Our sense for distance and time may encourage altering the word “that” in the PAST time extent to the word “this”, when we are about the PRESENT grammatical time.

 

Modal verbs can challenge our logic. Feel welcome to chapter 9.

9-modal__verbs

 

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