Appendix 4. The language chemistry for all tense patterns

THE SIMPLE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: ON

_VALUE ON

 

THE AFFIRMATIVE

___affirmative

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-simple-affirmativeFUTURE SIMPLE:

I will write.

Short form
I’ll write.

 

present-simple-affirmativePRESENT SIMPLE:
I write.

 

past-simple-affirmativePAST SIMPLE:
I wrote.

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

 

future-simple-affirmativeFUTURE SIMPLE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will write.
Short form
You’ll (we’ll, they’ll, he’ll, she’ll, it’ll) write.

 

present-simple-affirmativePRESENT SIMPLE:
You (we, they) write.

He (she, it) writes.

 

past-simple-affirmativePAST SIMPLE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) wrote.

 

THE INTERROGATIVE
___INTERROGATIVE3

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-simple-interrogativeFUTURE SIMPLE:
Will I write?

 

present-simple-interrogativePRESENT SIMPLE:
Do I write?

 

past-simple-interrogativePAST SIMPLE:
Did I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-simple-interrogativeFUTURE SIMPLE:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

 

present-simple-interrogativePRESENT SIMPLE:
Do you (we, they) write?

Does he (she, it) write?

 

past-simple-interrogativePAST SIMPLE:
Did you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

 

THE NEGATIVE
___NEGATIVE

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-simple-negativeFUTURE SIMPLE:
I will not write.
Short form
I won’t write.

 

present-simple-negativePRESENT SIMPLE:
I do not write.
Short form
I don’t write.

 

past-simple-negativePAST SIMPLE:
I did not write.
Short form
I didn’t write.

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-simple-negativeFUTURE SIMPLE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not write.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t write.

 

present-simple-negativePRESENT SIMPLE:
You (we, they) do not write.

He (she, it) does not write.
Short form
You (we, they) don’t write.

He (she, it) doesn’t write.

 

past-simple-negativePAST SIMPLE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) did not write.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) didn’t write.

 

THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
___NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-simple-negative-interrogativeFUTURE SIMPLE:
Will I not write?
Short form
Won’t I write?

 

present-simple-negative-interrogativePRESENT SIMPLE:
Do I not write?
Short form
Don’t I write?

 

past-simple-negative-interrogativePAST SIMPLE:
Did I not write?
Short form
Didn’t I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-simple-negative-interrogativeFUTURE SIMPLE:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not write?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

 

present-simple-negative-interrogativePRESENT SIMPLE:
Do you (we, they) not write?

Does he (she, it) not write?
Short form
Don’t you (we, they) write?

Doesn’t he (she, it) write?

 

past-simple-negative-interrogativePAST SIMPLE:
Did you (we, they, he, she, it) not write?
Short form
Didn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

 

THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: IN

_VALUE IN

 

THE AFFIRMATIVE
___affirmative

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-progressive-affirmative FUTURE PROGRESSIVE:

I will be writing.
Short form
I’ll be writing.

 

present-progressive-affirmativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
I am writing.
Short form
I’m writing.

 

past-progressive-affirmativePAST PROGRESSIVE:
I was writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

 

future-progressive-affirmativeFUTURE PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will be writing.
Short form
You’ll be (we’ll be, they’ll be, he’ll be, she’ll be, it’ll be) writing.

 

present-progressive-affirmativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they) are writing.

He (she, it) is writing.

 

past-progressive-affirmativePAST PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they ) were writing.
He ( she, it) was writing.

 

THE INTERROGATIVE
___INTERROGATIVE3

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-progressive-interrogativeFUTURE PROGRESSIVE:
Will I be writing?

 

present-progressive-interrogativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
Am I writing?

 

past-progressive-interrogativePAST PROGRESSIVE:
Was I writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-progressive-interrogativeFUTURE PROGRESSIVE:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) be writing?

 

present-progressive-interrogativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
Are you (we, they) writing?

Is he (she, it) writing?

 

past-progressive-interrogativePAST PROGRESSIVE:
Were you (we, they ) writing?

Was he (she, it) writing?

 

THE NEGATIVE
___NEGATIVE

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-progressive-negativeFUTURE PROGRESSIVE:
I will not be writing.
Short form
I won’t be writing.

 

present-progressive-negativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
I am not writing.
Short form
I ain’t writing.
(Please mind, the form is colloquial. There is no standard short form.)

 

past-progressive-negativePAST PROGRESSIVE:
I was not writing.
Short form
I wasn’t writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-progressive-negativeFUTURE PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not be writing.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t be writing.

 

present-progressive-negativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they) are not writing.

He (she, it) is not writing.
Short form
You (we, they) aren’t writing.

He (she, it) isn’t writing.

 

past-progressive-negativePAST PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they) were not writing.
He ( she, it) was not writing.
Short form
You (we, they) weren’t writing.
He (she, it) wasn’t writing.

 

THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
___NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-progressive-negative-interrogativeFUTURE PROGRESSIVE:
Will I not be writing?
Short form
Won’t I be writing?

 

present-progressive-negative-interrogativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
Am I not writing?
Short form
Ain’t I writing?
(There is no standard short form; as above, this use is colloquial.)

 

past-progressive-negative-interrogativePAST PROGRESSIVE:
Was I not writing?
Short form
Wasn’t I writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-progressive-negative-interrogativeFUTURE PROGRESSIVE:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not be writing?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) be writing?

 

present-progressive-negative-interrogativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
Are you (we, they) not writing?

Is he (she, it) not writing?
Short form
Aren’t you (we, they) writing?

Isn’t he (she, it) writing?

 

past-progressive-negative-interrogativePAST PROGRESSIVE:
Were you (we, they ) not writing?
Was he ( she, it) not writing?
Short form
Weren’t you (we, they) writing?
Wasn’t he (she, it) writing?

 

THE PERFECT ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: TO

_VALUE TO

 

THE AFFIRMATIVE
___affirmative

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-perfect-affirmativeFUTURE PERFECT:

I will have written.
Short form
I’ll have written.

 

present-perfect-affirmativePRESENT PERFECT:
I have written.
Short form
I’ve written.

 

past-perfect-affirmativePAST PERFECT:
I had written.
Short form
I ’d written.

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

 

future-perfect-affirmativeFUTURE PERFECT:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will have written.
Short form
You’ll have (we’ll have, they’ll have, he’ll have, she’ll have, it’ll have) written.

 

present-perfect-affirmativePRESENT PERFECT:
You (we, they) have written.

He (she, it) has written.

 

past-perfect-affirmativePAST PERFECT:
You (we, they, he, she, it) had written.

 

THE INTERROGATIVE
___INTERROGATIVE3

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-perfect-interrogativeFUTURE PERFECT:
Will I have written?

 

present-perfect-interrogativePRESENT PERFECT:
Have I written?

 

past-perfect-interrogativePAST PERFECT:
Had I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-perfect-interrogativeFUTURE PERFECT:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) have written?

 

present-perfect-interrogativePRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
Have you (we, they) written?

Has he (she, it) written?

 

past-perfect-interrogativePAST PERFECT:
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) written?

 

THE NEGATIVE
___NEGATIVE

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-perfect-negativeFUTURE PERFECT:
I will not have written.
Short form
I won’t have written.

 

present-perfect-negativePRESENT PERFECT:
I have not written.
Short form
I haven’t written.

 

past-perfect-negativePAST PERFECT:
I had not written.
Short form
I hadn’t written.

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-perfect-negativeFUTURE PERFECT:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not have written.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t have written.

 

present-perfect-negativePRESENT PERFECT:
You (we, they) have not written.

He (she, it) has not written.
Short form
You (we, they) haven’t written.

He (she, it) hasn’t written.

 

past-perfect-negativePAST PERFECT:
You (we, they, he, she, it) had not written.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) hadn’t written.

 

THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
___NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-perfect-negative-interrogativeFUTURE PERFECT:
Will I not have written?
Short form
Won’t I have written?

 

present-perfect-negative-interrogativePRESENT PERFECT:
Have I not written?
Short form
Haven’t I written?

 

past-perfect-negative-interrogativePAST PERFECT:
Had I not written?
Short form
Hadn’t I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-perfect-negative-interrogativeFUTURE PERFECT:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not have written?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) have written?

 

present-perfect-negative-interrogativePRESENT PERFECT:
Have you (we, they) not written?

Has he (she, it) not written?
Short form
Haven’t you (we, they) written?

Hasn’t he (she, it) written?

 

past-perfect-negative-interrogativePAST PERFECT:
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) not written?
Short form
Hadn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) written?

 

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: AT

_value-at

 

THE AFFIRMATIVE
___affirmative

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-perfect-progressive-affirmative FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:

I will have been writing.
Short form
I’ll have been writing.

 

present-perfect-progressive-affirmativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
I have been writing.
Short form
I’ ve been writing.

 

past-perfect-progressive-affirmativePAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
I had been writing.
Short form
I ’ d been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

 

future-perfect-progressive-affirmativeFUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will have been writing.
Short form
You’ll have been (we’ll have been, they’ll have been, he’ll have been, she’ll have been, it’ll have been) writing.

 

present-perfect-progressive-affirmativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they) have been writing.

He (she, it) has been writing.

 

past-perfect-progressive-affirmativePAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) had been writing.

 

THE INTERROGATIVE
___INTERROGATIVE3

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-perfect-progressive-negative-interrogativeFUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Will I have been writing?

 

present-perfect-progressive-interrogativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Have I been writing?

 

past-perfect-progressive-interrogativePAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Had I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-perfect-progressive-interrogativeFUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) have been writing?

 

present-perfect-progressive-interrogativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Have you (we, they) been writing?

Has he (she, it) been writing?

 

past-perfect-progressive-interrogativePAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) been writing?

 

THE NEGATIVE
___NEGATIVE

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-perfect-progressive-negativeFUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
I will not have been writing.
Short form
I won’t have been writing.

 

present-perfect-progressive-negativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
I had not been writing.
Short form
I hadn’t been writing.

 

past-perfect-progressive-negativePAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
I have not been writing.
Short form
I haven’t been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-perfect-progressive-negativeFUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not have beenwriting.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t have been writing.

 

present-perfect-progressive-negativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they) have not been writing.

He (she, it) has not been writing.
Short form
You (we, they) haven’t been writing.

He (she, it) hasn’t been writing.

 

past-perfect-progressive-negativePAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
You (we, they, he, she, it) had not been writing.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) hadn’t been writing.

 

THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
___NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

 

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR: I, me

future-perfect-progressive-negative-interrogativeFUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Will I not have been writing?
Short form
Won’t I have been writing?

 

present-perfect-progressive-negative-interrogativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Have I not been writing?
Short form
Haven’t I been writing?

 

past-perfect-progressive-negative-interrogativePAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Had I not been writing?
Short form
Hadn’t I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS: you, we, he, she, it, they

future-perfect-progressive-negative-interrogativeFUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not have been writing?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) have been writing?

 

present-perfect-progressive-negative-interrogativePRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Have you (we, they) not been writing?

Has he (she, it) not been writing?
Short form
Haven’t you (we, they) been writing?

Hasn’t he (she, it) been writing?

 

past-perfect-progressive-negative-interrogativePAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) not been writing?
Short form
Hadn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) been writing?

 

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