2.1. Word practice in the Fields

Exercise 5. Verb forms change for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE. Not all verbs are regular in this. Most dictionaries have lists of irregular verbs. The lists show the first, second, and third form of irregular verbs.


The Infinitive is the basic form of the verb. It does not have the features for time and person. We mark it with the particleto”. We can make phrases with the Infinitive, for example, “We want to learn”.


The first form of verbs can refer to the PRESENT. The second form can tell about the PAST. Appendix 1 has more about verbs (see the Extras).


Infinitive: to ring (irregular verb)


first    second    third


(1ST)    (2ND)    (3RD)


ring    rang    rung


Regular verbs take ED in their second and third forms.


Infinitive: to sound (regular verb)


first    second    third


(1ST)    (2ND)    (3RD)


sound    sounded    sounded


We are only beginning our journey. For the time being, we can stay with the first form and the second form. The book and the website offer two appendixes about irregular verbs. Appendix 2 as well as Appendix 3 show how verb speech sounds may change in our Fields of Time. We can find alphabetical lists of irregular verbs in dictionaries and over the web. Please remember that American English differs from British English in verb regularity.


Our vocoid pattern here is [I:] ― [e:] ― [e:]


Example: PAST (leave) (we can keep thinking about time first)


Answer: left


1. FUTURE (leave)


2. PRESENT (mean)


3. PRESENT (meet)


4. PAST (read)


5. FUTURE (sleep)


6. PAST (sweep)


7. PAST (sleep)


8. PRESENT (read)


9. FUTURE (meet)


10. PRESENT (sweep)


Exercise 6. We can try our natures another way round. We are staying with the first and second verb forms, along with our vocoid pattern. By standard, we show pronunciation — the way to say a word — in square brackets.


Example: left


Answer: (time first) PAST (leave)


1. meet(s); 2. read [re: d]; 3. read [rI: d]; 4. will sleep; 5. will leave; 6. met; 7. mean(s); 8. meant; 9. slept; 10. swept.


We can make patterns with verbs, the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. Feel welcome to further grammar journey.
Chapter 3. Time is like a river

Link -- Chapter 3. The Simple, Progressive, and Perfect

Link -- Read this in a Slavic language, Polish


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